Quiz 1: D Introducing Psychological Science


A hypothesis is a testable prediction whereas a theory is an explanation of some aspect of the world.Theories gain support when the hypotheses that they generate are proved to be true.For example,if someone poses the theory "Males are more outgoing than females," this theory would gain support if the hypothesis "Males score higher on scales of extraversion than females" is proven to be true.The theory would lose support if the hypothesis it generates is proven to be false.In order to be a theory,an argument must be testable using hypotheses.Hypotheses and theories are both essential parts of the scientific method.

Discussion could include applied psychology,behaviourism,cognitive psychology,cognitive neuroscience,cross-cultural psychology,humanistic psychology,industrial/organizational psychology,personality psychology,positive psychology,the psychodynamic approach,psychology of women,social psychology,or social neuroscience. - Applied psychology can take place in schools,in the workplace,in the military,or in a number of other settings. - Behaviourism is an approach that dominated the first half of the 20th century in North American psychology and had a singular focus on studying only observable behaviour,with little to no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influences on behaviour. - Cognitive psychology is a modern psychological perspective that focuses on processes such as memory,thinking,and language - Cognitive neuroscience combines elements of cognitive psychology and biopsychology and is focused on understanding the neural mechanisms for cognitive behaviours such as memory,emotion,and decision-making - Cross-cultural psychology compares individual and group behaviour among cultures;it helps us understand the role of society in shaping behaviour,beliefs,and values. - Humanistic psychology focuses on the unique aspects of each individual human,each person's freedom to act,his or her rational thought,and the belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals. - Industrial/organizational psychology applies psychological research to the workplace,helping to ensure that the work environment is fair for all employees. - Personality psychology is the study of how different personality characteristics can influence how we think and act. - Positive psychology focuses on helping people see the good in their lives by promoting self-acceptance and improving social relationships with others. - The psychodynamic approach is a psychological approach that attempts to explain how behaviour and personality are influenced by unconscious processes. - Psychology of women examines important issues such as women's health,violence toward women,and experiences that are unique to females (e.g. ,pregnancy). - Social psychology is the study of the influence of other people on our behaviour. - Social neuroscience is the use of neuroimaging techniques (e.g. ,fMRI)to study social interactions and appraisals.

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