Quiz 14: D Health, Stress, and Coping

Psychology

A good answer should include the information about genetics,along with one other topic listed below: Genes: Twin studies indicate that genes are responsible for 50% to 90% of variation in body weight.A person is thought to inherit a "set point" which is the default weight their body will go to without lifestyle extremes such as excessive eating (which will put them over this weight)or regular exercise (which may bring them below this weight).Variation around the set point is thought to be about 10% to 20%,so a person whose genetic set point is 100 kg could weigh between 80 kg and 120 kg depending on lifestyle.Thus,lifestyle factors clearly interact with genetic factors. Sociocultural factors: Cultural influences include advertising for foods that may cause weight gain. Lifestyle: A sedentary lifestyle can cause weight gain both by a person eating more and by a person exercising less (e.g. ,playing video games and watching television). Poverty and discrimination: Lower socioeconomic status often means that individuals are eating more fast food (more fast food restaurants in lower SES areas with food that is cheaper and higher in fat and calories).People who are in a lower SES or who are discriminated against also tend to experience higher levels of stress-higher levels of stress are related to higher rates of obesity. Marriage: Marriage tends to have a protective effect,with men and women in heterosexual marriages typically being heathier than their single counterparts.

Most ulcers are caused by a bacterium,Helicobacter pylori,which can cause inflammation of the lining of various regions of the digestive tract.This bacterium is surprisingly common,and approximately 10% to 15% of people who are exposed to it will develop an ulcer resulting from inflammation.Thus,stress does not cause ulcers,although it can worsen their symptoms.Also,smoking,alcohol,pain relievers,and a poor diet-anything that can irritate the digestive system-increases problems associated with ulcers.

A good answer will include the following key points. - Researchers have demonstrated that intense exercise can boost cognitive performance immediately. - This effect may be due to an increase in dopamine,epinephrine,and BDNF. - Exercise has also been shown to increase processing speed immediately. - When sedentary adults between 60 and 85 years of age take up weekly exercise,they show improved brain functioning and cognitive performance. - Regular exercise can also preserve cognitive functioning in older adults. - Researchers have found that older people who are at genetic risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and who show cognitive impairments can slow the rate of memory decline by exercising.

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