Quiz 16: D Therapies


A good answer should contain TWO of the following points: - Ethics-One common problem is that it is ethically problematic to place people into a control group that receives no treatment of any kind,because it effectively denies them treatment that they need. - Double-blind experiments are impossible-given that a therapist must know which type of treatment she is administering,and many clients likely know what kind of therapy they are receiving as well. - Variation amongst therapists-it can be very difficult to assess the general effectiveness of a therapeutic approach if therapists themselves differ widely in their own level of relevant skills. - Relationship between client and therapist can influence outcome-the specific type of therapy used is actually less important than the "common factors" of empathy,trust,and the like,which allow the therapist and client to build an appropriately supportive relationship.Establishing a positive relationship therefore depends on various qualities of the therapist and client,as well as the "fit" between the two.

A good answer should include much of the following: - Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)involves passing an electrical current through the brain in order to induce a temporary seizure.This procedure was introduced in the 1930s and has been viewed negatively for much of its history,in part because in its early days it was generally unsafe and easily abused. - Many people believe that ECT causes lasting cognitive impairments,but the majority of research on people who have been treated with it suggests that this is not true. - ECT techniques have improved dramatically in recent years.Patients' experiences are much less negative;they are now given sedatives and muscle relaxants to reduce the discomfort they may experience and to prevent injury related to the convulsions. - ECT is now considered a relatively safe procedure,although it is still reserved for the most severe cases of disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.Side effects typically consist of some amnesia for events occurring around the time of the treatment. - Neuroimaging research suggests that ECT might alter how different brain areas work together as networks.These changes are most pronounced in the frontal lobes.ECT may alter the patient's tendency to habitually engage in negative thoughts,thereby disrupting the dysfunctional thinking patterns that are characteristic of depression.

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