Quiz 15: D Psychological Disorders


A good answer will include the following key points. Anxiety disorders tend to be self-perpetuating with anxiety leading to circumstances that provoke further anxiety.For example,people who are anxious about interacting with others may avoid many social situations because they feel awkward and insecure and don't want to embarrass themselves.As a result,they become even less confident about their ability to interact with people,making them even more likely to avoid social contact in the future.If a social event is unavoidable,they may be so anxious and incapable of functioning effectively that the social opportunity turns into a negative experience,further reinforcing the anxiety. Avoiding or interrupting this vicious cycle is central to the treatment of anxiety disorders.Instead of trying to minimize contact with feared situations,which only serves to reinforce the fear,the person must begin to practise confronting the fear.Only through exposing themselves to fear can people learn how to manage their responses or learn how to effectively manage the feared situation.The most important part of psychological therapy for anxiety disorders is exposure,in which the person is repeatedly (in stages)exposed to the object of his fear so that he can work past his emotional reactions.

A good answer will include the following key points. - Research has shown that individuals who inherit two short copies of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT)are more likely to develop depression than those who inherit two long copies. - The relationship between inheriting two short copies of the gene and developing depression is dependent on the environment (i.e. ,the amount of stress experienced by the individual). - Inheritance of short or long copies of 5-HTT does not impact the development of depression if only 1-2 stressful life events occur,but research does show that after chronic or multiple successive stressful events,those with two copies of the short gene are much more likely to develop depression than those with two long copies of the gene.

A good answer will include the following key points. - The disease is associated with many abnormalities in the brain,including: * Enlarged ventricles (20-30%)and reduced overall brain volume (-2%) * Lower level of activity in frontal lobes * Abnormalities in the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate * Smaller amygdala and hippocampal regions

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