Quiz 15: Data Preparation and Description
a) Coding rules Coding rules govern the establishment of category sets. The four rules are that category sets should be: (1) appropriate to the research problem or purpose, (2) exhaustive, (3) mutually exclusive, and (4) derived from only one classificatory principle. b) Spreadsheet data entry Spreadsheet data entry uses personal computer software for spreadsheet computation as a data entry device. Preliminary analysis, data manipulation, summary statistics, and graphics are frequently available in this medium. c) Bar codes Bar codes are digital/graphical labels used for tracking inventory movement and movement of a product or service through a service process stage. It is a multi-part identifier comprised of alpha and numeric characters that provides key elements of information, including producer, category, and product/service specifics. As a result it is one device that has made data mining more effective. Bar codes are most frequently used to track the responses to administrative questions in research (who did the interview, where and when the interview was collected, etc.). d) Precoded instruments Precoded instruments anticipate responses to questions and assign numerals or other symbols for those responses in advance. e) Content Analysis Content Analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of a communication. Its application in research can be as a primary methodology or in the coding of open questions. f) Missing data Missing data are information from a participant or case that is not available for one or more variables of interest. g) Optical mark recognition This is a means of data entry in which a spreadsheet style interface is used to read and process user-created forms. It generates lower cost, faster and more accurate data by handling data entry and preliminary data analysis. i) Measures of spread Measures of spread is the description of a data's dispersion or variability. Measures of spread include the variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range, and quartile deviation. They describe how scores cluster or scatter in a distribution.
In the survey questionnaires, there are often two ways of collecting the data using either open ended questions or closed ended questions or using both. Researchers include the option "don't know" for the survey questions to better understand the respondent knowledge to the question. If this option is not provided, then a guess answer of respondent might give inaccurate interpretations to the subject. On the other side, the responses "don't know" can also causes problem for the data presentation if it is received most often. For instance: if 90% of the responses for the question are "don't know", then it may meet the research objectives or may the question is useless. The similar concerns can be raised in the interview technique. The best way to deal with "don't responses" in survey technique is to design the questionnaire with better measurement. Researcher should provide this option to choose only for those questions which can meet the research objectives. In the interview technique, when the respondent provide "don't know" response, researcher should repeat the questions twice or thrice to get definite answer. Researchers can also record if any explanation or elaboration provided by the respondent to that question. In the tabulations, "don't know" responses are handles in many ways. • If "don't know" response are few then it doesn't affect however it is handled. • If "don't know" response can be justified, then it should be considered as separate reply category • If it is not sure how to address the "don't know" response, then it should be considered as separate report category for decision making.
The current market fluctuations have compelled shoe stores to sell their products at markdown prices. It is not possible to sell the products at retail prices given the supply demand situation. This has led market researchers to undertake survey's in order to derive the strategies that are adopted by the shoe store managers to survive and earn profit in their business. Given are the conditions, necessary to include while constructing the survey questions. Some of the results that are derived are as follows: • Using bonus to sell the slow merchandise • Tracking the time taken for the inventory to turn into sales • Checking and auditing the outcomes of strategies to be adopted. • In case of large inventory, adopt styles like overstock cancellations, factory discounts and buying closeouts. • Avoid overburdening on sizes with latest fashion to see the trend. Thus, in order to encompass these results, all the parameters are taken into consideration to draw the survey for shoe store managers. Create a sample survey as shown below : Thus, the survey includes the necessary questions that will help to arrive at the decisions taken by the shoe store managers including the given responses.