Quiz 8: Observation Studies
The techniques used for the primary data collection in the research study are through observation and survey. Observational research is used to study the behavior of the individual, group or particular environment, in which specific characteristics are observed and recorded by the researcher. In survey research technique, data is collected by asking questions to the respondents through questionnaires, interviews etc. The comparison of advantages of survey to observational method are as follows: • In the survey method, researcher's presence and observation are not required. Researcher only collects the data and analyzes them, which is mostly factual information. In the observational method, researcher or observer must be at the event while it is happening, which can be for prolonged hours. • Surveys are low cost method that requires either distribution of the questionnaire or conducting interviews. On the other hand, observational method is expensive and slow process which requires either an observer or expensive surveillance equipment to capture the event. • Researcher's own biases can be eliminated in survey method as all participants are provided with a standard stimulus. In observational method, researcher active intervention may threaten the validity of what is being assessed. • Observation method is difficult to gather information about people's opinion, preferences and attitudes, which can be possible using survey method. The comparison of disadvantages of survey to observational method are as follows: • Information of the respondents is not secure in survey method as these days most of the survey method is through online portal. Whereas, in the observational method, information of the respondent is safe as researcher alone access their details and makes the report. • In survey method, restriction is imposed on the length of the questionnaire as more number of questions can impact the accuracy of the response. In the observational method, the whole event is captured as it happens in the natural environment, which may extend to over time. The observational methods are more useful in the circumstances where variations in the outcomes need to be studied based on the change in the environment. For instance: if a new medicine to be tested, then patient is put on observation at different conditions to check the medicine effectiveness and sensitiveness.
Observation method is the technique used for the primary data collection in the research study. It is used to study the behavior of the individual, group or particular environment, in which specific characteristics are observed and recorded by the researcher. There are three types of observational method i.e. naturalistic observation, participant observation and controlled observation. Unobtrusive measures are used to reduce the reactivity from participants in observation research by using indirect observation. It considers particular interest of measures based on the physical traces. The ethical risks involved in the observational method are participants consent to the research study. Participants would not have knowledge or access to the research findings. If the participants are not given consent, then they feel deceived when the results become public having their privacy invaded. Even, unobtrusive measures used in indirect observation violates the participants privacy as measures drawn from the observation of physical traces are done without any consent from participant or observee.
Observation method is the technique used for the primary data collection in the research study. It is used to study the behavior of the individual, group or particular environment, in which specific characteristics are observed and recorded by the researcher. There are three types of observational method: • Naturalistic observation: In naturalistic observation, observer does not participate in the activities. Observer observes the event either from distance or sitting at nearby place. • Participant observation: In participant observation, observer takes a full-fledged participation in all activities and observes the group behavior • Controlled observation: In controlled observation, participant's behaviors are observed in a laboratory setting. It is a structured observation, where observer focuses on specific behaviors of interest. For instance: Consider a problem that is described in the organizational context. It is noticed that the productivity of the employees post the lunch break is low. Management would like to identify the causes for this problem. Managers or line managers are trained to observe the employee activities post lunch. Following the naturalistic observation, the observed activities by the managers are: frequent visit to cafeteria for tea or coffee, talking to other colleagues and less active in completing in the tasks. After these activities reported by the manager, management suggested managers to play a role of participant observation, in which managers are supposed to join in the casual conversations at cafeteria, sometimes at desk to identify the behavioral patterns, mood etc. Managers can come up with conversation saying that they don't feel like working post lunch, where team members would join that conversation with some comments. In this way, most common points spoken by team members are noted by managers to discuss in the management meeting. It is identified that employees seek diversion from sleep mood post lunch hours. Further, management decides to test the results by providing nap time for employees randomly chosen by managers and then observe the performance improvement in terms of productivity. If the result shows that nap time provided to employees can impact positively on productivity, then management would like to implement nap time during working hours.