Business Research Methods Study Set 5

Business

Quiz 3 :

Thinking Like a Researcher

Quiz 3 :

Thinking Like a Researcher

Question Type
search
arrow
What was Myra's hypothesis for the Army's dud shell research What was the Army's hypothesis
Free
Essay
Answer:

Answer:

Hypothesis refers to proposed ideas that serve as reasoning to unknown questions. These are derived through a combination of experience, knowledge and limited available facts.
Researcher M hypothesized that the operational definition of the dud shell as, shells which do not explode when fired by a canon, nor when manipulated by humans through physical interference. According to her hypothesis, not all the shells which do not explode are dud shells. Some of the shells that did not explode might explode when manually tampered by locals in their attempt to salvage copper wires. Her hypothesis was based on her experience when once she encountered a shell blast off in the middle of the night. Also, another day she noticed that there were people with flashlights roaming around the vast firing range at night who could not be identified as army personnel. She connected both her observations to reach this hypothesis.
According to the army's hypothesis, dud shells were shells that did not explode when fired by a canon and are completely inert. The army had researched a shell that did not blow off when fired. They manipulated that shell in several ways but found that it was completely inert and would blow only when a live bomb blasted on top of it. Through this research, their operational definition for dud shells was all bombs that did not explode when fired by a canon. Their hypothesis was inconsistent, as later it was found out that not all shells fired were inert.

Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Identify and classify all the variables in the Army's dud shell research.
Free
Essay
Answer:

Answer:

Important factors that affect the basis of a research are known as variables. Variables are of several types. Each variable needs to be identified by a researcher to create a research equation. Empirical verification of the research equation helps in confirming or discarding a hypothesis.
The variables in the case are:
1. Dud Shell: Dependent Variable, these are 5% of the total shells fired everyday in the range. This variable is dependent upon the total shells fired on any particular day.
2. Shells exploding: Independent Variable, these are shells that explode due to forced intervention by locals in search of salvageable parts. Some shells explode while some shells don't, hence they are independent.
3. People coming in contact with explosive shells: Extraneous Variable, can be assumed but cannot be stated accurately because the there are no evidence about the number of people coming in contact with exploding shells.
4. Death Rate of the locality: Independent Variable, as the death rate of the locality can be due various other reasons as well not not limited to exploding shells.
5. Airforce destroying the duds every night: Control Variable, to be monitored to check if the death rate of the locality is being influenced by them.

Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Distinguish among the following sets of items, and suggest the significance of each in a research context. a. Concept and construct. b. Deduction and induction. c. Operational definition and dictionary definition. d. Concept and variable. e. Hypothesis and proposition. f. Theory and model. g. Scientific method and scientific attitude.
Free
Essay
Answer:

Answer:

While performing research, it is required to investigate, collaborate, and define phenomena. Such procedures require the establishment of certain common ideas and notions between researchers.
a
Concepts are particular ideas that give meaning to an abstract notion, situation, common understanding, or accepted beliefs. They are tools that help us to communicate a particular experience without the need to define them specifically. e.g. morality, good and evil are concepts of ethics.
Abstract ideas that cant be simply visualized are grouped as constructs. Constructs consist of various concepts that can be termed together to communicate a specific idea. e.g. a construct employee happiness contains various concepts such as the amount of workload, work timings, and compensation to envision accurately.
Concepts are measurable factors that can aid as building blocks to define a larger construct. They can be measured separately using techniques such as surveys, quantitative and qualitative studies to define a construct. Several constructs together can be analyzed to provide reasoning to a research objective. eg. employee happiness and employee productiveness together can identify the effectiveness of organization human resource policies.
b
A deduction is an inference derived from other premises that serve as reasons for the conclusion. These reasons are general and believed to be accurately known, but the deduction formed is specific to the case. Hence it is a specific conclusion. e.g. finding a general pattern and testing it for a specific case.
Induction arguments don't have any associations between reasons and conclusions. These arguments are developed from a specific case and can be used to form a generalized conclusion. e.g. observing a pattern and extending it to other cases as a conjecture.
Deductive arguments are always true if the reasons or premise is true. They are false even if any premise is false. Inductive arguments might or might not be true even if the premises are true. Even if all the premises are true, the inductive argument derived might not be correct.
c
Operational definitions are defined by researchers that include specific measurable procedures to quantitatively define a particular variable. This definition clearly explains the variable without any ambiguity. e.g. low-income group: group earning less than 3 lakhs annually.
Dictionary definitions are often vague explanations to a variable that cannot be used in a research study. They are to provide a general understanding. e.g. low-income group: a group of people earning less than normal income.
Operation definitions contain clearly defined criteria that can be modified by the researcher based on his requirements but its interpretation cannot be changed by the reader. Dictionary definitions contain general concepts and can be interpreted differently as required by the reader.
d
Concepts are a way of symbolic attachment to common ideas, abstract notions, and occurrences that help us define ideas without the need to explain them. They help in the mental imaging of perceptions and ideas.
A researcher needs to operationalise certain concepts as measurable quantities to use them as indicators. The values of such quantities can change throughout the research based on certain observations. Such varying quantities are known as variables.
Concepts are individual objects that help researchers to communicate a particular happening. Several concepts are used together by researchers to create a logical construct. Variables are placeholder constructs to which we can assign specific values and whose values can vary throughout the research based on logical conditions.
e
A proposition is a declaration regarding certain concepts that can be either correct or incorrect. It states the theoretical relationship between certain concepts together as a statement.
A proposition that can be modified into a scientific test case using measurable variables to check its validity is known as a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be verified via empirical testing and proved either true or false.
Propositions are ideas that cannot be tested scientifically. They have abstract relationships that cannot be tested empirically. A hypothesis is logical relationships between constructs and variables that can be measured using quantitative techniques to prove true or false.
f
For a researcher, a theory is often a representation of facts that define relationships between several variables with each other. Theory helps researchers to connect several variables to define a scientific construct as a fact.
Models are used to represent a system or a specific part of the system that has been build to understand a logical structure. They help in depicting the theory by applying it to certain operational example.
Theory is basic ideas that are used by researchers to build upon there studies together with facts to create a logical basis. Models are used to illustrate the flow of ideas in a system through visual representations. Models are useful in connecting different theories as an analogy in real-world scenarios.
g
Scientific method relates to the logical flow of research, to begin with, observation, stating facts, defining variables, laying valid hypotheses, and examining it to prove it true or false.
Scientific attitude refers to a curious frame of mind that questions every observation to find out various possibilities of reasonings. A successful researcher needs to have a scientific attitude to analyze every small detail of the problem.
Scientific method consists of a series of steps to guide a researcher from developing to empirical verification of the developed hypothesis and reaching a conclusion. Scientific attitude is a prerequisite spirit in a researcher that motivates and leads the way to his scientific discoveries.

Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Below are some terms commonly found in a management setting. Are they concepts or constructs Give two different operational definitions for each.a) First-line supervisor b) Employee morale c) Assembly line d) Overdue account e) Line management f) Leadership g) Union democracy h) Ethical standards
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Describe the characteristics of the scientific method.
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
You observe the following condition: "Our female sales representatives have lower customer defections than do our male sales representatives." a) Propose the concepts and constructs you might use to study this phenomenon. b) How might any of these concepts and/or constructs be related to explanatory hypotheses
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
In your company's management development program, there was a heated discussion between some people who claimed, "Theory is impractical and thus no good," and others who claimed, "Good theory is the most practical approach to problems." What position would you take and why
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
An automobile manufacturer observes the demand for its brand increasing as per capita income increases. Sales increases also follow low interest rates, which ease credit conditions. Buyer purchase behavior is seen to be dependent on age and gender. Other factors influencing sales appear to fluctuate almost randomly (competitor advertising, competitor dealer discounts, introductions of new competitive models). a) If sales and per capita income are positively related, classify all variables as dependent, independent, moderating, extraneous, or intervening. b) Comment on the utility of a model based on the hypothesis.
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
You are the office manager of a large firm. Your company prides itself on its high-quality customer service. Lately, complaints have surfaced that an increased number of incoming calls are being misrouted or dropped. Yesterday, when passing by the main reception area, you noticed the receptionist fiddling with his hearing aid. In the process, a call came in and would have gone unanswered if not for your intervention. This particular receptionist had earned an unsatisfactory review three months earlier for tardiness. Your inclination isto urge this 20-year employee to retire or to fire him, if retirement is rejected, but you know the individual is well liked and seen as a fixture in the company. a) Pose several hypotheses that might account for dropped or misrouted incoming calls. b) Using the double movement of reflective thought, show how you would test these hypotheses.
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Everywhere you look, there s compelling evidence that the single-minded pursuit of wealth runs contrary to the scientific attitude. A big story touching the investment banking community was the conviction of Raj Rajaratnam on 14 counts of insider trading. Rajaratnam s greed-driven scheme, according to the Harvard Business Review , will lead to destroyed reputations and significant prison terms for senior officials at IBM, McKinsey, and other companies. Before that, the big story was the resignation and disgrace of Berkshire Hathaway s David Sokol, who was once thought to be the likely successor to CEO Warren Buffet. Sokol s zeal to cash in suspiciously timed investments of the stock of a company Berkshire later bought, led to his humiliation. How does one reconcile the scientific attitude and role of manager as scientist with a willingness to risk everything to achieve more money than they ll ever need
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu
arrow
Using Exhibits 3-1 and 3-9 as your guides, graph the inductions and deductions in the following statements. If there are gaps, supply what is needed to make them complete arguments. a) Repeated studies indicate that economic conditions vary with - and lag 6 to 12 months behind-the changes in the national money supply. Therefore, we may conclude the money supply is the basic economic variable. b) Research studies show that heavy smokers have a higher rate of lung cancer than do nonsmokers; therefore, heavy smoking causes lung cancer. c) Show me a person who goes to church regularly, and I will show you a reliable worker.
Essay
Answer:
Tags
Choose question tag
close menu