# Business Research Methods Study Set 5

## Quiz 11 :Measurement

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You have data from a corporation on the annual salary of each of its zoo employees. a) Illustrate how the data can be presented as ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal data. b) Describe the successive loss of formation as the presentation changes from ratio to nominal.
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Measurement scale is used to categorize the values assigned to the variables. The four scales of measurements are as follows:
• The nominal scale information can be grouped into two or more categories, which is mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.
• The ordinal scale includes the characteristics of nominal scale along with indication of the order. It provides the ranking of the data.
• The interval scale includes the characteristics of nominal and ordinal along with concept of equality of interval (i.e. distance).
• The ratio scale includes the characteristics of all nominal, ordinal and interval scale along with absolute zero or origin. This scale represents the actual amounts of variable.
In this case, there is a data available from a corporation on their annual salary for 200 employees. The measurement of these data using different scales is as follows:
• The nominal scale measures data into categorizes. Therefore, all 200 employees' annual salaries can be categorized based on permanent employees and third party employees, divisions or departments wise and also designation wise. This provides the information
• The ordinal scale provides ranking to the data. Therefore, the information on highest salaried employees to lowest salaried employee can be obtained. Similarly, highest paid division to lowest paid division information can also be obtained for all 200 employees.
• The interval scale can measure the salary range based on designation wise. For instance: the salary range for junior software employee is $5,000 -$6,500. For all the 200 employees, salary range can be categorized based on designation
• Ratio scale is useful to make a comparison of number of times the salaries of senior engineers is greater to the junior engineers. For instance: salaries of senior engineers are 2 times greater than junior engineers.
b)
When the scale changes from ratio to nominal, the data presentation is restricted to categorical information only. The interpretation that can be made using nominal scale is limited and does not provide any key support to make key decisions. For instance: The ratio scale above provides information that senior engineer salaries are 2 times greater than junior engineers. This helps management to take a decision that this year it should be 3 times to the junior engineers to retain the experienced employees. Data presentation using nominal scale cannot provide effective for easy decision making.

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Given that Glacier Symphony has previously measured its customer satisfaction by survey, how might Jason assess the internal validity of the Glacier questionnaire
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Shopper reliability is an assessment that chooses how happy customers are with an association's things, organizations, and capacities. Buyer reliability information, including audits and evaluations, can empower an association to choose how to change its things and organizations.
An affiliation's essential place must be to satisfy its customers applies to mechanical firms, retail and rebate associations, government bodies, organization associations, charitable affiliating, and every subgroup inside an affiliation. An examination is an investigation methodology used for social affair data from a predefined assembling of respondents to get information and pieces of information into various subjects of interest. They can have different purposes, and experts can lead it from perspectives depending upon the way of thinking picked and the examination's goal. In the year 2020, research is of incredible noteworthiness, and thus, it's for us to fathom the benefits of social investigation for a target people using the right audit instrument.
The most effective method to gauge consumer loyalty by the overview:
Different techniques exist, yet excusing the essentials of how to gauge buyer reliability can be impeded to your business.
1) Overall fulfillment measure (Attitudinal)
3) A Series of characteristic satisfaction assessments (Affective and Cognitive)
4) Plans to repurchase assessments (Behavioral Measures)
It discharges an impression of being clear that affiliations should endeavor to satisfy their customer customarily returns and buy more, they edify others concerning their experiences, and they may well remuneration a premium to assist with working with a supplier they trust around that suggest that the cost of keeping a customer is alone the tenth of winning another. As prerequisites appear to be, the place where we win a customer, we ought to hold fast to them. Arranging a customer's commitment survey is a framework to start assessing where you remain concerning customer faithfulness.
Inward legitimacy implies how definitively the measures got from the examination was assessing what it to check outside suggests how unequivocally from the evaluation test portrayed the reference people from the appraisal.
There is about the validity of results or inward evaluation. It usually concerns causality case, giving out establishments for research focus evaluations with consistently controlled conditions it is generally easy to achieve high inside realness.
For moves in to control case, flourishing associations research, it will, as a rule, be to guarantee high inner credibility when you high internal you are communicating that in your assessment, you can dispatch causes to impacts unambiguously. Randomization is a significant asset for expanding inner see befuddling. Concerning overviews, the term rule genuineness means how many things on a survey are evaluating these current reality states or occasions that they to check.
The study is a predestined plan of requests used to make sure about real factors. There are novel game plans of reviews close by clinical social notoriety and word related assembling. It is a record combination instrument for gathering and recording approximately a specific difficulty of interest.

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You have been asked by the head of marketing to design an instrument by which your private, for-profit school can evaluate the quality and value of its various curricula and courses. How might you try to ensure that your instrument has: a. Stability b. Equivalence c. Internal consistency d. Content validity e. Predictive validity f. Construct validity
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Showcasing instrument is the publicizing and promoting gadgets are the arrangement of strategic advertising hardware that the organization utilizes reveals to us how the organization needs to make client value, build productive client individuals from the family, and catch expense back in return.
a) Stability is a measure that to guarantee balance in the case could secure predictable outcomes with the reiterated assessment of the identical character with a comparable instrument. A declaration technique is consistent if it offers the separate on a decision while repeated at least one event. It is as often as possible to recognitions concerning an issue and to investigate it for consistency. When there's a ton of time between assessments, there is a danger for situational parts to change, in this way affecting the observations. They would show up erroneously as a drop inside the constancy of the size cycle. Adequacy assessment in investigation conditions is more diff group and extensively less without inconvenience executed than in the observational assessing time put off among prompts situational thing changes similarly a difficulty is an Insufficient time among assessments licenses the respondent to consider past answers go over them, achieving uneven steady remarkable markers.
b) Equivalence is a 2d attitude on the immovable quality that considers the number of goofs that can be passed on by a strategy for specific analysts (in explanation) or instances of contraptions being mulled over (in contemplating or scales). Along these lines, even as a balance is worried about private and situational vacillations beginning with one time then onto the following, indistinguishable quality is related with variations at one factor in time among observers and trial of A sensible method to test for the correspondence of assessments by techniques for different onlookers is to take a gander at the occasion.
c) Internal consistency is a third method to manage constancy that uses simply a solitary organization of an instrument or check to survey the internal consistency or homogeneity of a part of the things. The cut-up-1/2 procedure can when the assessing contraption has various near requests or decrees to which the player can reply. When the two sections are associated, if the effects of the relationship are high, the contraption is communicated to have over the top trustworthiness in an interior consistency sense. The over the association tells us there's similarity (or homogeneity) among the gadgets. The capacity for wrong allowances about absurd inward consistency exists while the examination passes on various things-which blows up the association list.
d) Content legitimacy is a measure of information on the substance zone of which intended to quantify understanding. Another method of articulating this is that content legitimacy issues, regularly, the ampleness with which the check things precisely and representatively design the substance material district to be estimated.
e) Predictive legitimacy a long haul to finish and requires genuinely huge example sizes to amass critical blend insights. For this reason, numerous businesses rely on legitimacy speculation to build up prescient legitimacy, via which the of a specific investigation possibly summed up to other related positions a lot based at the looking at pre-introduced information units. Then again, managers likewise can perform simultaneous legitimacy examination to quantify rule those executed through overseeing tests to existing faculty and contrasting results with task execution.
f) Construct legitimacy is the volume to which the estimations utilized, frequently polls, obviously check the speculation or hypothesis estimating. Build legitimacy needs to uncover that rankings on a particular check do foresee the hypothetical characteristic it says it does.

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Below are listed some objects of varying degrees of abstraction. Suggest properties of each of these objects that can be measured by each of the four basic types of scales. a. Store customers b. Voter attitudes c. Hardness of steel alloys d. Preforence for a particular common stock e. Profitability of various divisions in a company
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You have been asked to develop an index of student morale in your department. a) What constructs or concepts might you employ b) Choose several of the major concepts, and specify their dimensions. c) Select observable indicators that you might use to measure these dimensions. d) How would you compile these various dimensions into a single index e) How would you judge the reliability and/or validity of these measurements
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Using Exhibit 11-3 and one of the case questionnaires on the text website (www.mhhe.com/cooper10e), match each question to its appropriate scale type. For each scale type not represented, develop a measurement question that would be of that scale type.
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What are the essential differences among nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales How do these differences affect the statistical analysis techniques we use
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What are the four major sources of measurement error Illustrate by example how each of these might affect measurement results in a face-to-face interview situation.
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After more than 75 years in the business, Walsworth Publishing's leadership was well aware of the efforts that go into juggling school work and the production of a high-quality school yearbook. They examined their communication and production processes and decided to implement the Information Builders' WebFOCUS-based reporting portal, an online dashboard. Each of the more than 4,000 schools had its own dashboard, and the volunteer student staff and faculty advisor could access the dashboard in real-time. The online dashboard contained notices, progress toward deadlines, alerts about missing or corrupt content, and more. What should be the research measure(s) to determine the effectiveness of the new online dashboard process for improving efficiency and quality of each school's yearbook
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As part of its bankruptcy restructuring, on June 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) debuted an ad campaign that revealed glimmers of a streamlined GM: fewer brands (Cadillac, Buick, Chevrolet, GMC) and fewer models within each brand. a. What research would you have done to determine which vehicle models GM should retain and which it should drop b. What would you have measured and with what type of measurement scale
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