Business Research Methods Study Set 5

Business

Quiz 10 :

Surveys

Quiz 10 :

Surveys

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Distinguish among response error, interviewer error, and nonresponse error.
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Response error occurs when the recorded data differ from the true data; such errors can come from the participant in the editing, coding, or data entry stages.
Interviewer error occurs when the interviewer in some fashion corrupts the data. This can occur as a result of inconsistent treatment of participants or questionnaires, ineffective participant motivation and cooperation created by the interviewer, social differences between participant and interviewer, and cheating.
Nonresponse error occurs when the researcher had difficulty in securing interviews from participants who have been selected into the sample, and the non-participants differ from the participants in a systematic way.

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As competition for a scarcer dollar increases, an increasing number of companies are taking action by fostering customer-centric cultures that enhance satisfaction and drive bottom-line profitability. Research reveals that 96 percent of companies are leveraging voice-of-consumer data (VoC) in some way to improve business performance. Companies now expect to achieve substantial improvements in customer retention and top-line growth from these targeted customer programs. If you wanted to know what kind of VoC programs were being used and which were effective or ineffective, what type of survey would you design and why
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Voice of the Customer (VOC) is the in-depth process of capturing customers' expectations, preferences and aversions. It is a market research technique. It produces a detailed set of customer wants and needs. It is organized into a hierarchical structure and then prioritized in terms of relative importance and satisfaction with the existing products and services.
VOC studies include both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods include interviews. Survey is the technique used for quantitative research.
Survey is a measurement process. It is used to investigate and collect the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions. It can be conducted with or without an interviewer. Surveys are highly structured. They are generally concerned only with the type and amount of information a researcher wants to collect.
Survey techniques mentioned below are used to find out and evaluate the kind and effectiveness of the VOC programs being used.
• Self- Administered survey : It is a questionnaire that a respondent completes on his/her own. In this survey method, questionnaires are e-mailed, faxed or posted to the respondents. It is done either on paper or via computer without the assistance of an interviewer.
This survey technique is used by the marketers or researchers because:
• It is a low cost method.
• It requires minimal staff to administer the survey process.
• It has a wide geographic coverage.
• It allows collecting responses anonymously.
• It can increase the speed of data collection.
• It allows contact with inaccessible participants also.
• Telephone survey : In this technique, a set of people are interviewed on telephone. It can be conducted either by a trained human interviewer or can be computer-administered.
This method is in use because of the following reasons:
• It is less costly than personal interview method.
• It also has expanded geographic coverage.
• It uses fewer interviewers.
• It has a faster completion rate than personal interview and self- administered survey technique.
• It allows better access to hard-to-reach participants through repeated callbacks.
• It can use the technique of computerized random dialing.
• In this technique, responses can be directly recorded into a computer file. It helps in reducing errors.
• Personal interview : It is a two-way conversation between a trained interviewer and a participant. A few selected people are interviewed in this process.
This survey technique is useful in the following ways:
• It allows an interviewer to answer the queries of the participants.
• Interviewer can probe the participants for answers.
• It allows the interviewer to use follow-up questions.
• It enables to gather information by observation.
• It can be used to record the responses of illiterate and functionally illiterate participants also.
• It allows the interviewer to prescreen the participant. This ensures that the participant fits the population profile.
The best survey technique that suits the researcher's needs can be selected by comparing the research objectives with the strengths and weaknesses of the survey techniques. It is also possible to combine the characteristics of two or more survey methods.

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Assume you are planning to interview shoppers in a shopping mall about their views on increased food prices and what the federal government should do about them. In what different ways might you try to motivate shoppers to cooperate in your survey
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There are many ways to motivate participants in such a case. Some methods are economic, such as cash, merchandise, or discount coupons for products sold in the mall. Other methods are psychological, such as developing good rapport with the participant, showing interest in the participant's thoughts and feelings, and convincing the participant that the research project and his participation is important and appreciated. Here it is often useful to indicate the utility of the research. In most cases a single method is not sufficient for adequately motivating participants; a combination of motivational approaches is necessary.

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You plan to conduct a mail survey of the traffic managers of 1,000 major manufacturing companies across the country. The study concerns their company policies regarding the payment of moving expenses for employees who are transferred. What might you do to improve the response rate of such a survey
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In recent years, in-home personal interviews have grown more costly and more difficult to compete. Suppose, however, you have a project in which you need to talk with people in their homes. What might you do to hold down costs and increase response rate
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In the following situations, decide whether you would use a personal interview, telephone survey, or self-administered questionnaire. Give your reasons. (a) A survey of the residents of a new subdivision on why they happened to select that area in which to live. You also wish to secure some information about what they like and do not like about life in the subdivision. (b) A poll of students at Metro University on their preferences among three candidates who are running for president of the student government. (c) A survey of 58 wholesale grocery companies scattered over the eastern United States, on their personnel management policies for warehouse personnel. (d) A study of financial officers of the Fortune 500 corporations to learn their predictions for the economic outlook in their industries in the next year. (e) A study of applicant requirements, job tasks, and performance expectations as part of a job analysis of student work-study jobs on a college campus of 2,000 students, where 1,500 are involved in the work-study program.
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Define the appropriate communication study for the Albany Outpatient Laser Clinic.
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Using Exhibit 10-1 as your guide, graph the communication study you designed in question 9.
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You decide to take a telephone survey of 40 families in the 721-exchange area. You want an excellent representation of all subscribers in the exchange area. Explain how you will carry out this study.
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A major corporation agrees to sponsor an internal study on sexual harassment in the workplace. This is in response to concerns expressed by its female employees. How would you handle the following issues: a. The communication approach (self-administered, telephone, personal interview, and/or mixed) b. The purpose: Fact finding, awareness, relationship building, and or change c. Participant motivation. d. Minimization of response and nonresponse error.
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How do environmental factors affect response rates in personal interviews How can we overcome these environmental problems
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