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Sociology in Our Times Study Set 3

Sociology

Quiz 19 :

Population and Urbanization

Quiz 19 :

Population and Urbanization

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Advocates of the demographic transition theory highlight the relationship between technological development and population growth.
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True

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Between 1870 and 1910,the population of New York City grew by 500 percent,making it the first U.S.metropolis.
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True False
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True

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Sociologists Joe Feagin and Robert Parker asserted that urban space has an "exchange value," which refers to the profits that industrialists make from buying,selling,and developing land and buildings;and a "use value," which is the utility of space,land,and buildings for everyday life,family life,and neighborhood life.
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True

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Succession is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity.
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Symbolic interactionists argue that "uneven development"-the tendency of some neighborhoods,cities,or regions to grow and prosper whereas others stagnate and decline-reflects inequalities of wealth and power in society.
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Cities are a relatively recent innovation when compared to the length of human existence.
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Sociologist Emile Durkheim applied natural ecology to his analysis of organic solidarity,characterized by a simple division of labor and shared religious beliefs such as those found in small,agrarian societies;and mechanical solidarity,characterized by interdependence based on the elaborate division of labor found in large,urban societies.
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According to the multiple nuclei model,cities do not have one center from which all growth radiates,but rather have numerous centers of development based on specific urban needs or activities.As cities began to grow rapidly,they annexed formerly outlying and independent townships that had been communities in their own right.
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International migration has occurred throughout U.S.history and has significantly changed the distribution of the population over time.For example,in the late 19th century and early 20th century,thousands of people moved from rural to urban areas.
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Economist Thomas Malthus stated that the elimination of the existing population might be averted by either positive or preventive checks on population.Preventive checks are mortality risks such as famine,disease,and war,compared with positive checks,which include limits on fertility.For Malthus,the only acceptable positive check was moral restraint.
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Based on urban ecologist Homer Hoyt's sector model,residences of a particular type and value tend to grow inward from the outskirts of the city in a circular pattern with the less-expensive residential neighborhoods located along the higher ground near lakes and rivers.
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Every year,the global population grows by only a few hundred thousand people.
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Functionalists argue that cities do not grow or decline by chance.Rather,they are the product of specific decisions made by members of the capitalist class and political elites.These far-reaching decisions regarding land use and urban development benefit the members of some groups at the expense of others.
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One measure of population composition is the sex ratio.In the United States,the estimated sex ratio for 2003 was 96.3,which means there were about 96 females per 100 males.
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The first decade of the twenty-first century has resonated with pleas from undocumented workers and leaders of various immigration reform organizations asking for change in U.S.immigration and citizenship laws for millions of people who dream of U.S.citizenship.
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An important ecological process in the concentric zone model;succession is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or type of land use.
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Emigration is the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere,whereas immigration is the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency.
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In low-income,less-developed nations,infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death;in some areas,mortality rates are increasing rapidly as a result of HIV/AIDS.Children under age 15 constitute a growing number of those who are infected with HIV/AIDS.
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The age distribution of a population has a direct bearing on the demand for schooling,health,employment,housing,and pensions.The current distribution of a population can be depicted in a population pyramid.
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According to sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies,Gesellschaft is a society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability,such that people have a commitment to the entire group and feel a sense of togetherness.
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