# Quiz 13: One-Way Within-Groups Anova

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

A one-way within-groups ANOVA is also known as a _____ ANOVA.
A) between-groups
B) single samples
C) repeated-measures
D) multiple groups

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

A researcher wants to examine people's preference for pets by having 10 people act as "foster owners" for four different types of family pets: dogs, cats, birds, and fish.The participants will foster each type of pet for one week, and a scale measure will be used to assess preference.Which research design should be used?
A) one-way between-groups ANOVA
B) correlation
C) one-way within-groups ANOVA
D) paired-samples t tests

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 3Q 3

The one-way within-groups design can be viewed as an extension of which other research design because of its ability to analyze data from more groups?
A) independent-samples t test
B) paired-samples t test
C) Tukey HSD test
D) between-groups ANOVA

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

Buying jeans can be a challenge for women.A local shop owner wants to be selective in what brands of jeans she carries in her store.She gets six of her closest friends to try five different pairs of jeans, with the requirement that they wear each pair for two whole days, without washing, and they rate the jeans at the end of the second day.What research design should she use to analyze her data?
A) one-way between-groups ANOVA
B) independent-samples t tests
C) one-way within-groups ANOVA
D) paired-samples t tests

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Dr.Sanders was interested in investigating the effects of stress on memory.He exposed participants to public speaking stress and room temperature stress and gave them a memory measure immediately after exposure to the two stressors.Dr.Sanders also gave participants the memory measure at baseline, when they first entered the research laboratory.Dr.Sanders hypothesized that participants' memories would be most affected by the two stressors compared to the baseline condition.What statistical test should Dr.Sanders use to test her hypothesis?
A) between-groups ANOVA
B) independent samples t test
C) within-groups ANOVA
D) dependent samples t test

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

A paired-samples t test is used when there are _____ groups, and a within-groups ANOVA is used when there are at least _____ groups.
A) 3; 2
B) 2; 3
C) 1; 3
D) 1; 2

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

A one-way within-groups ANOVA is used when there is(are) _____ independent variable(s) with at least _____ levels.
A) 1; 2
B) 2; 2
C) 1; 3
D) 2; 3

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

What types of designs are normally preferred to reduce variability by reducing individual differences?
A) between-groups designs
B) post hoc designs
C) within-groups designs
D) correlational designs

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Which statement accurately captures why within-groups designs are preferred over between-groups designs?
A) Variability due to participants' differences is held constant across levels of the independent variable in the within-groups design, resulting in less within-groups variability.
B) Loss of participants has a more significant negative impact on between-groups designs as compared to within-groups designs.
C) Control of extraneous variables is easier when using between-groups designs than within-groups designs.
D) Within-groups designs take less time than between-groups designs.

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Within-groups designs reduce error due to differences between the groups by using the same participants in each group.If differences are then observed between the groups, those differences are attributed to:
A) extraneous variables.
B) differences between participants.
C) failure to control other important variables.
D) the manipulation of the independent variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

The benefits of the within-groups design are seen in the calculation of the F statistic, in that the:
A) numerator is larger, resulting in a larger F statistic.
B) numerator is smaller, resulting in a smaller F statistic.
C) denominator is smaller, resulting in a larger F statistic.
D) denominator is larger, resulting in a smaller F statistic.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

If using a within-groups design results in a larger F statistic, this also means:
A) there is less variability between groups.
B) it is easier to reject the null hypothesis with this design.
C) Type I errors are more likely.
D) power is decreased.

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

_____ is(are) an additional assumption that must be evaluated in a within-groups ANOVA compared to a between-groups ANOVA.
A) Random sampling
B) Order effects
C) Sample size
D) Mean differences

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Order effects in a within-groups ANOVA can be resolved by using:
A) random sampling.
B) counterbalancing.
C) a larger sample size.
D) mean differences.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

_____ degrees of freedom must be calculated in a within-groups ANOVA.
A) Five
B) Two
C) Three
D) Four

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

What is the correct formula for between-groups degrees of freedom?
A) N

_{groups}- 1 B) n - 1 C) N_{total}- 1 D) n - 2Free

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Which degrees of freedom value is unique to the one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) between-groups
B) subjects
C) within-groups
D) total

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

What is the correct formula for subjects degrees of freedom in a one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) N

_{groups}- 1 B) n - 1 C) N_{total}- 1 D) n - 2Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Determine the critical cutoff for F at a p level of 0.05 if the following degrees of freedom were calculated for a one-way within-groups ANOVA: df

_{between}= 2, df_{subjects}= 9, df_{total}= 29, df_{within}= 18. A) 6.01 B) 4.26 C) 3.74 D) 3.56Free

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Determine the critical cutoff for F at a p level of 0.05 if the following degrees of freedom were calculated for a one-way within-groups ANOVA: df

_{between}= 4, df_{subjects}= 5, df_{total}= 29, df_{within}= 20. A) 2.25 B) 2.87 C) 3.01 D) 5.19Free

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

_____ sums of squares must be calculated in a within-groups ANOVA.
A) Five
B) Two
C) Three
D) Four

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

To calculate the total sum of square for the one-way within-groups ANOVA, each score's deviation from the _____ is squared and summed.
A) mean
B) grand mean
C) cell mean
D) group mean

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

The _____ sum of squares is unique to the within-subjects design.
A) between-groups
B) within-groups
C) total
D) subjects

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Why is the subjects sum of squares calculated separately from the within-groups sum of squares?
A) to remove Type I error
B) to remove the variability between groups
C) to remove the variability within groups
D) to remove the variability due to participant differences

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Which formula for calculating the subjects sum of squares for a within-groups ANOVA is correct?
A) (M

_{participant}- GM)^{2}B) (M_{participant}- X)^{2}C) (M)(n - 1) D) (M_{participant}- GM)Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Which F statistic represents a new calculation as part of the within-groups ANOVA?
A) F

_{between}B) F_{within}C) F_{subjects}D) F_{total}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

For the data in the source table, calculate the F statistic of interest to researchers.
A) 4.75
B) 2.73
C) 1.74
D) 0.21

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

For the data in the source table, calculate the F statistic of interest to researchers.
A) 0.34
B) 1.00
C) 2.98
D) 2.99

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

For the data in the source table, what is the F statistic of interest to researchers?
A) 0.10
B) 0.65
C) 9.91
D) 15.32

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A one-way within-groups ANOVA on 2 and 22 degrees of freedom results in an F statistic of 3.64.What decision should be made about the hypothesis based on this statistic?
A) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because the F statistic does not exceed the critical cutoff.
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no effect of the independent variable.
C) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among the levels of the independent variable.
D) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude the independent variable has no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

A one-way within-groups ANOVA on 3 and 18 degrees of freedom results in an F statistic of 3.12.What decision should be made about the hypothesis based on this statistic?
A) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because the F statistic does not exceed the critical cutoff.
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no effect of the independent variable.
C) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among the levels of the independent variable.
D) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude the independent variable has no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

For the data in the source table, what decision can be made about the hypotheses being tested?
A) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because the F statistic does not exceed the critical cutoff.
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no effect of the independent variable.
C) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among the levels of the independent variable.
D) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude the independent variable has no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

For the data in the source table, what decision can be made about the hypotheses being tested?
A) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because the F statistic does not exceed the critical cutoff.
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no effect of the independent variable.
C) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among the levels of the independent variable.
D) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude the independent variable has no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

For the data in the source table, what decision can be made about the hypotheses being tested?
A) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because the F statistic does not exceed the critical cutoff.
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is no effect of the independent variable.
C) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among the levels of the independent variable.
D) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude the independent variable has no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

In addition to hypothesis testing, effect size calculations are recommended as a way to assess:
A) the power of the statistical analysis.
B) the number of subjects needed to correctly reject the null hypothesis.
C) where the significant differences exist among groups.
D) whether the significant differences found are large enough to matter.

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

In addition to hypothesis testing, post hoc tests are required as a way to assess:
A) the power of the statistical analysis.
B) the number of subjects needed to correctly reject the null hypothesis.
C) where the significant differences exist among groups.
D) whether the significant differences found are large enough to matter.

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Compared to a one-way between-groups ANOVA, the effect size calculation for the one-way ANOVA differs in:
A) Cohen's guidelines for interpreting the effect size values.
B) that variability due to subjects is removed from total variability in the denominator.
C) its ease of computation.
D) the content of the numerator.

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) 0.47
B) 0.54
C) 0.58
D) 1.84

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) 0.249
B) 0.373
C) 0.664
D) 2.678

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) 0.837
B) 0.849
C) 1.178
D) 1.195

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

According to Cohen's conventions, an effect size of 0.012 for a one-way within-groups ANOVA is considered to be:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) medium to large.
D) large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

According to Cohen's conventions, an effect size of 0.062 for a one-way within-groups ANOVA is considered to be:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) medium to large.
D) large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

According to Cohen's conventions, an effect size of 0.16 for a one-way within-groups ANOVA is considered to be:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) medium to large.
D) large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.What are the critical cutoffs for the two-tailed Tukey HSD tests for these data, assuming a p level of 0.05, given the following groups' means: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) -4.0 and 4.0
B) -3.90 and 3.90
C) 3.90
D) 4.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.What is the Tukey HSD value when comparing data for dogs and cats given the following means for preference: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) 0.198
B) 0.760
C) 1.190
D) 1.316

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.What is the Tukey HSD value when comparing data for dogs and birds given the following means for preference: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) 8.95
B) 8.10
C) 0.19
D) 0.11

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.What is the Tukey HSD value when comparing data for birds and fish given the following means for preference: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) 0.14
B) 6.38
C) -6.38
D) -7.05

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.What is the Tukey HSD value when comparing data for cats and birds, given the following means for preference: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) 7.63
B) 6.90
C) 0.13
D) -7.63

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.A significant F test indicates that there are differences between the groups.What post hoc tests are you most interested in performing given these group means: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) comparisons of preference for dogs with the other animals because of their popularity
B) computing all between-group comparisons
C) comparisons of preference for birds with the other groups, because the mean is noticeably lower
D) any comparison of preference for birds and fish because of their low popularity

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

Pet preference was compared for four different types of animals (dogs, cats, birds, and fish), using a one-way within-groups ANOVA with nine participants.The standard error was calculated as 0.19.Where are the significant effects for preference among these groups, given the following means for preference: Dogs M = 4.43, Cats M = 4.18, Birds M = 2.73, Fish M = 4.07?
A) Preference for birds is significantly lower than for the other three groups, and there are no other differences among the mean preferences.
B) Dogs and cats are preferred over birds and fish, but there are no differences between the other groups.
C) Birds and fish are less preferred than dogs and cats, but there are no other differences present.
D) All post hoc tests were significant at the 0.05 level.

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

For the data in the source table, what is the effect size for this one-way within-groups ANOVA?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

A researcher wants to take advantage of the strengths of a within-groups design but does not want to have each participant experience all levels of the independent variable.She can accomplish this through what other design option?
A) a series of independent-samples t tests
B) counterbalancing
C) matched groups
D) a series of Tukey HSD post hoc tests

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

When using matched groups for a one-way within-groups ANOVA, a researcher should "match" participants on:
A) how many levels of the independent variable they experience.
B) all of the variables that the researcher wants to control.
C) their previous research experience.
D) the timing of their participation so that they meet the same people each time.

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Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

A researcher studying weight loss among overweight teenage girls wants to use a matched groups design to assess the effectiveness of three different diets.On which variable is it MOST important to match the participants?
A) month of birth
B) favorite junk food
C) level of commitment to the study
D) percent of body fat

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Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

There are some problems with a matched groups design, including that:
A) we might over-control variables that threaten the research.
B) participant drop-out means data are discarded.
C) power is reduced due to within-group variability.
D) participants can benefit from exposure to other treatment conditions.

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Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

The one-way within-groups ANOVA is the multiple-group equivalent of a paired-samples t test.

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True False

Q 59Q 59

The one-way within-groups ANOVA is the multiple-group equivalent of an independent-samples t test.

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True False

Q 60Q 60

Each participant experiences all levels of the dependent variable in a within-groups design.

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True False

Q 61Q 61

Each participant experiences all levels of the independent variable in a within-groups design.

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True False

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True False

Q 63Q 63

The primary benefit of the within-groups design is that within-groups variability is reduced.

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True False

Q 64Q 64

The primary benefit of the within-groups design is that between-groups variability is reduced.

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True False

Q 65Q 65

All of the assumptions for the one-way within-groups ANOVA are the same as those for the one-way between-groups ANOVA.

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True False

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True False

Q 67Q 67

When conducting the one-way within-groups ANOVA, two F statistics are calculated, but only one is of primary interest.

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True False

Q 68Q 68

When conducting the one-way within-groups ANOVA, two F statistics are calculated, but only the subjects F statistic is of interest.

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True False

Q 69Q 69

When conducting the one-way within-groups ANOVA, two F statistics are calculated, but only the between-groups F statistic is of interest.

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True False

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True False

Q 71Q 71

Effect sizes help us determine which means are statistically significantly different from each other in a within-groups ANOVA.

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True False

Q 72Q 72

The Tukey HSD test helps us determine which means are statistically significantly different from each other in a within-groups ANOVA.

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True False

Q 73Q 73

Effect sizes help us determine whether the differences observed are large enough to matter in a within-groups ANOVA.

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True False

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True False

Q 75Q 75

When calculating effect size for one-way within-groups ANOVA, variability between means is considered relative to total variability after removing the variability that can be accounted for by the participants.

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True False

Q 76Q 76

Because the same participants are used in each condition, post hoc tests are not necessary when conducting a within-groups ANOVA.

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True False

Q 77Q 77

All within-groups designs require that the same people experience each level of the independent variable.

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True False

Q 78Q 78

Matched groups require participants who are similar on all the variables that the researcher wants to control.

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True False

Q 79Q 79

The multiple-group equivalent of a paired-samples t test is the:
A) one-way between-groups ANOVA.
B) one-way within-groups ANOVA.
C) mixed design ANOVA.
D) matched groups design.

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

A researcher interested in the impact of "dress-down Fridays" on work performance decides to study the impact of attire at work.She randomly selects 35 people at a large company to participate.Over the course of three weeks, she has all 35 participants experience working under three different levels of work attire: casual, dress-casual, and formal attire.What statistical analysis would be appropriate for her design?
A) one-way within-groups ANOVA
B) one-way between-groups ANOVA
C) independent-samples t tests
D) paired-samples t tests

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

The one-way within-groups ANOVA is used when there are:
A) two independent variables that all participants experience and at least two dependent measures.
B) a scale independent variable with multiple levels that all participants experience.
C) two or more ordinal variables with multiple levels and a scale dependent variable.
D) one nominal or ordinal independent variable with more than two levels, a scale-dependent variable, and every participant is in every group.

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Multiple Choice

Q 82Q 82

Within-groups variability is reduced in the one-way within-groups ANOVA because:
A) measurement precision can be maximized when you use the dependent measure on the same participants.
B) by using the same participants across all levels of the independent variable, we have removed differences between groups due to individual variability.
C) focusing on only one variable in the study allows for reduced variability.
D) within-groups studies have lower participant drop-out rates than between-groups studies.

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Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

The one-way within-groups ANOVA has an additional assumption compared to the between-groups ANOVA.Which assumption is unique to the within-groups ANOVA?
A) random selection of participants
B) the underlying population distributions are normal
C) order effects are considered and controlled
D) the assumption of homoscedasticity

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Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

The subjects sum of squares calculated in the one-way within-groups ANOVA assesses:
A) how much participant data vary as a function of the independent variable.
B) the variability due to participant differences.
C) the inconsistency of subjects' responses.
D) variability for the entire study, across all conditions.

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Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

For the data in the ANOVA source table, calculate the value of the statistic of interest to researchers.
A) 14.426
B) 24.49
C) 3.792
D) 23

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Multiple Choice

Q 86Q 86

Although the hypothesis test can provide the probability that the levels of the independent variable lead to differences in the dependent variable, it is important to calculate effect size to:
A) determine how many participants are needed to detect an effect.
B) assess where the differences exist between conditions in the study.
C) determine if the differences are large enough to matter.
D) assess the probability of a Type II error.

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Multiple Choice

Q 87Q 87

Following a one-way within-groups analysis of variance that results in a significant F statistic, the researcher should:
A) replicate the research with matched groups.
B) conduct post hoc tests to determine where the significant differences between levels of the independent variable exist.
C) conduct planned comparisons to explore where differences may exist when you are unsure.
D) conduct a power analysis.

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Multiple Choice

Q 88Q 88

For the data in the ANOVA source table, what is the effect size?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 89Q 89

When it is not possible to have participants experience all levels of the independent variable, an alternative approach to a within-groups design can be used.This approach offers the same advantage in statistical power as the within-groups design by:
A) creating larger between-groups differences by using more extreme levels of the independent variable.
B) using a larger number of participants across conditions.
C) assessing differences with planned comparisons rather than post hoc tests.
D) using participants in each group that are matched on variables of interest that we want to control across conditions.

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Multiple Choice

Q 90Q 90

Which statistical analysis can handle multiple measures or repeated measures based on the same individuals?
A) one-way within-groups ANOVA
B) one-way between-groups ANOVA
C) paired-samples t test
D) independent-samples t test

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Multiple Choice

Q 91Q 91

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) cares about success for athletes both in their sports and in their education.A researcher hired by the NCAA wants to know how athletes' academic performance is affected by the stage of their competitive season.She examines performance in the preseason, throughout the active competitive season, and postseason, having 150 athletes, from across several different sports, assessed during each period.What statistical analysis would be appropriate for this research?
A) one-way between-groups ANOVA
B) paired-samples t tests
C) one-way within-groups ANOVA
D) independent-samples t tests

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Multiple Choice

Q 92Q 92

An advantage of the one-way within-groups ANOVA is that researchers can:
A) use a nominal or ordinal dependent variable.
B) reduce within-groups variability by having the same participants in each group.
C) use a scale independent variable.
D) perform hypothesis testing but cannot measure effect size.

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Multiple Choice

Q 93Q 93

When using a one-way within-groups ANOVA, the variability due to individual differences is reduced resulting in a _____ F statistic, making it _____ to reject the null hypothesis.
A) larger; harder
B) smaller; easier
C) smaller; harder
D) larger; easier

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Multiple Choice

Q 94Q 94

A researcher examines the effectiveness of different body lotions by having 12 participants apply four different lotions to the same, unique body locations daily for two weeks.For example, lotion #1 is always applied to the right thigh, while lotion #2 is applied to the right upper arm.The participants were randomly selected at a drugstore in a busy area.Which assumption for the ANOVA is met?
A) random selection
B) normal population distributions
C) homoscedasticity
D) order effects

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Multiple Choice

Q 95Q 95

When using a one-way within-groups ANOVA, the variability due to individual differences is _____, resulting in a _____ F statistic.
A) reduced; smaller
B) increased; smaller
C) reduced; larger
D) increased; larger

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Multiple Choice

Q 96Q 96

A researcher examines the effectiveness of different body lotions by having 12 participants apply four different lotions to the same, unique body locations daily for two weeks.For example, lotion #1 is always applied to the right thigh, while lotion #2 is applied to the upper right arm.The participants were randomly selected at a drugstore in a busy area.What is the research hypothesis for this study?
A) Differences exist between the average effectiveness assessments of each lotion.
B) Lotions cause differences in skin quality across locations.
C) The effectiveness of the four different lotions is the same, on average.
D) The lotions are the same in terms of effectiveness.

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Multiple Choice

Q 97Q 97

A researcher examines the effectiveness of different body lotions by having 12 participants apply four different lotions to the same, unique body locations daily for two weeks.For example, lotion #1 is always applied to the right thigh, while lotion #2 is applied to the upper right arm.The participants were randomly selected at a drugstore in a busy area.What is the null hypothesis for this study?
A) Differences exist between the average effectiveness assessments of each lotion.
B) Lotions cause differences in skin quality across locations.
C) The effectiveness of the four different lotions is the same, on average.
D) The lotions are the same in terms of effectiveness.

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Multiple Choice

Q 98Q 98

The one-way within-groups ANOVA has a new source of variability, known as the subjects sum of squares.To calculate this sum of squares, subtract:
A) each participant's scores from the mean and sum the differences.
B) the grand mean from the mean of each cell.
C) the sum of squares within from the sum of squares total.
D) the grand mean from each participant's mean for all of his or her scores.

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Multiple Choice

Q 99Q 99

A researcher conducts a within-groups ANOVA, fails to find a significant F statistic for the independent variable, and finds an R

^{2}value of 0.02.What does the effect size statistic tell the researcher about the research? A) The conventions for R^{2}indicate that this is a small effect, which would help to explain the nonsignificant F statistic. B) This is a small effect and a significant F statistic will only be calculated if sample size is small. C) The conventions for R^{2}indicate that this is a medium effect, which would encourage the researcher to collect more data in order to detect a genuine significant finding. D) The conventions for R^{2}indicate that this is a large effect, and the researcher should recheck his or her math for the F statistic.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 100Q 100

A researcher interested in the impact of "dress-down Fridays" on work performance decides to study the impact of attire at work.She randomly selects 35 people at a large company to participate.Across the course of three weeks, she has all 35 participants experience working under three different levels of work attire: casual, dress-casual, and formal attire.How many post hoc tests will be needed to determine where significant differences occurred?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

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Multiple Choice

Q 101Q 101

A researcher examines the effectiveness of different body lotions by having 12 participants apply four different lotions to the same, unique body locations daily for two weeks.For example, lotion #1 is always applied to the right thigh, while lotion #2 is applied to the upper right arm.How many post hoc tests will be needed to determine where significant differences occurred?
A) 3
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8

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Multiple Choice

Q 102Q 102

Which of these is a potential problem with a matched-groups design for ANOVA?
A) Participant loss in one group can cause increase in participants overall.
B) We may not be aware of all of the important variables of interest.
C) Time commitment for participants is low.
D) Statistical power is reduced.

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Multiple Choice