# Quiz 2: Frequency Distributions

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

A _____ is a data point that has not yet been transformed or analyzed.
A) frequency table
B) raw score
C) frequency distribution
D) grouped frequency distribution

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

Raw data are observations or data points that:
A) are in their original form.
B) have been manipulated in some way.
C) have been plotted on a graph.
D) are discarded because they appear in error.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

A _____ is a visual depiction of data that shows how often each value occurred.
A) frequency distribution
B) frequency table
C) grouped frequency table
D) frequency polygon

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

Which of these is NOT displayed in a frequency table?
A) the frequency of observations at each variable value
B) values outside of the variable's range of observed values
C) all observed variable values
D) outlier data that is unexpected

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

When constructing a frequency table, the first step is to:
A) Divide the total number of participants by the total number of participants in a group and then multiply by 100.
B) Divide the total number of participants in a group by the total number of participants and then multiply by 100.
C) Subtract the total number of participants in a group from the total number of participants and then multiply by 100.
D) Add the total number of participants in all groups and divide by 100.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

When constructing a frequency table, the final step is to:
A) count the number of scores at each value and write those numbers in the frequency column.
B) create two columns.
C) label one column Name and another column Frequency.
D) determine the highest and the lowest score.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

A teacher calculated her students' test scores and found that overall they did very well.She found that out of the 23 students in the class, 19 of them got a 95 on her test.What percentage of students got a 95?
A) 82.61
B) 88.00
C) 90.61
D) 95.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Imagine that 18 out of every 33 homes have a dog in the household.What percentage of homes has a dog?
A) 1.83
B) 18.00
C) 54.55
D) 63.67

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Imagine that 180 people out of a total of 705 people surveyed reported owning a smartphone.What percentage of people surveyed own a smartphone?
A) 12.50
B) 18.94
C) 25.53
D) 31.68

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

If 2 out of 3 dentists recommend a certain kind of gum, what percentage of dentists recommend that gum, rounded to the nearest whole number?
A) 23
B) 33
C) 67
D) 80

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

A _____ visually depicts data based on intervals rather than frequencies for specific values.
A) grouped frequency table
B) frequency table
C) frequency polygon
D) normal distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

For which situation is a grouped frequency table appropriate?
A) data set on the weights of 50 adolescents, age 12 to 18
B) data set on the political affiliation of the students in your statistics class
C) data set on the number of siblings of 50 adolescents, age 12 to 18
D) data set on the letter grades of the students in your statistics class

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

A grouped frequency table is most useful when the:
A) scores in the data set vary over a small range of discrete values.
B) data are ordinal.
C) data are measured on an interval scale and vary over a large range of continuous values.
D) data are nominal.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Histograms are typically used to depict _____, whereas bar graphs are typically used to depict _____.
A) scale data; nominal data
B) nominal data; interval data
C) means; frequencies
D) interval data; scale data

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Histograms typically provide frequencies for _____ data.
A) nominal
B) ordinal
C) scale
D) discrete

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Bar graphs typically provide scores for _____ data.
A) nominal
B) ordinal
C) interval
D) ratio

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Use the following to answer questions
This histogram represents the distribution of the number of years of education completed by twins who attended the 16th Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, in August of 1991.
Figure: Years of Education
-(Figure: Years of Education) Based on the distribution, what is the number of years of education that was completed by most twins?
A) 12.0
B) 13.0
C) 14.0
D) 16.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Use the following to answer questions
This histogram represents the distribution of the number of years of education completed by twins who attended the 16th Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, in August of 1991.
Figure: Years of Education
-(Figure: Years of Education) Based on the distribution, how many twins completed 13 years of education?
A) 11
B) 12
C) 20
D) 65

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Use the following to answer questions
This histogram represents the distribution of the number of years of education completed by twins who attended the 16th Annual Twins Day Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, in August of 1991.
Figure: Years of Education
-(Figure: Years of Education) What seems to be the shape of this distribution?
A) negatively skewed
B) positively skewed
C) rectangle
D) symmetrical

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Use the following to answer questions
This table and figure depict the average SAT scores for entering freshmen in the year 1995 at 36 North Carolina colleges.
Table: North Carolina SAT
825
922
870
1121
990
1230
1302
926
1054
845
826
956
840
923
818
867
600
1030
831
935
890
879
1005
842
780
757
1002
774
915
921
1071
921
915
848
915
813
Figure: Histogram of SAT
-(Figure: Histogram of SAT) Based on the frequency distribution, approximately how many participants scored 1000 or above?
A) 3
B) 5
C) 8
D) 11

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

Use the following to answer questions
This table and figure depict the average SAT scores for entering freshmen in the year 1995 at 36 North Carolina colleges.
Table: North Carolina SAT
825
922
870
1121
990
1230
1302
926
1054
845
826
956
840
923
818
867
600
1030
831
935
890
879
1005
842
780
757
1002
774
915
921
1071
921
915
848
915
813
Figure: Histogram of SAT
-(Figure: Histogram of SAT) Based on the frequency distribution, what was the interval with the most common score?
A) 700-799
B) 800-899
C) 900-999
D) 1000-1099

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Use the following to answer questions
This table and figure depict the average SAT scores for entering freshmen in the year 1995 at 36 North Carolina colleges.
Table: North Carolina SAT
825
922
870
1121
990
1230
1302
926
1054
845
826
956
840
923
818
867
600
1030
831
935
890
879
1005
842
780
757
1002
774
915
921
1071
921
915
848
915
813
Figure: Histogram of SAT
-(Figure: Histogram of SAT) What seems to be the shape of the distribution represented in this histogram?
A) symmetrical
B) positively skewed
C) rectangle
D) negatively skewed

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

In a frequency polygon, the x-axis represents the:
A) midpoint for every interval.
B) frequencies.
C) raw scores.
D) total number of participants.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

In a frequency polygon, the y-axis represents the:
A) midpoint for every interval.
B) frequencies.
C) raw scores.
D) total number of participants.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

A frequency polygon is similar to a histogram EXCEPT that:
A) a frequency polygon can be drawn for a greater range of data values.
B) the polygon is typically used for ordinal rather than interval data.
C) lines are used to connect the midpoint of each interval.
D) in the polygon, frequencies appear on the x-axis.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Use the following to answer questions
This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.
Figure: Frequency Polygon
-(Figure: Frequency Polygon) Based on the distribution, how many participants scored 3?
A) 5
B) 11.5
C) 12
D) 18

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Use the following to answer questions
This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.
Figure: Frequency Polygon
-(Figure: Frequency Polygon) Based on the frequency distribution, how many participants scored between 1 and 3?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 3.5
D) 18

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Use the following to answer questions
This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.
Figure: Frequency Polygon
-(Figure: Frequency Polygon) Based on the frequency distribution, how many participants scored a 6?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 6
D) 18

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Use the following to answer questions
This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.
Figure: Frequency Polygon
-(Figure: Frequency Polygon) Based on the frequency distribution, how many participants scored a 4 or above?
A) 4
B) 5
C) 8
D) 10

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Use the following to answer questions
This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.
Figure: Frequency Polygon
-(Figure: Frequency Polygon) What seems to be the shape of the distribution represented in this frequency polygon?
A) symmetrical
B) positively skewed
C) rectangle
D) negatively skewed

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

Use the following to answer question
This histogram represents the frequency of graduation rates for all U.S.colleges (data collected by U.S.News & World Report, 1995).
Figure: Graduation Rates
-(Figure: Graduation Rates) The shape of the distribution of graduation rates appears to be:
A) normal.
B) rectangular.
C) positively skewed.
D) negatively skewed.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

A normal distribution is also known as a _____ distribution.
A) nonsymmetrical
B) symmetrical
C) skewed
D) negative

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

A bell-shaped curve is similar to all EXCEPT which type of distribution?
A) symmetric
B) normal
C) unimodal
D) positively skewed

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

_____ distributions are those in which one tail of the distribution is pulled away from the center.
A) Normal
B) Nominal
C) Skewed
D) Interval

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

Katrina observes and records the number of people who purchase breakfast at a hospital cafeteria.The cafeteria is open from 7:00 a.m.to 11:00 a.m.and employees typically eat breakfast at 9:00 a.m.What type of distribution should Katrina expect to see in her data?
A) normal
B) positively skewed
C) negatively skewed
D) nonsymmetric

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

In a _____, the tail of the distribution extends to the right.
A) negatively skewed distribution
B) positively skewed distribution
C) ceiling effect
D) normal distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Professor Kellogg calculates the grades on the first exam for her statistics class.She finds that students did really well, with most students scoring 98 or higher.What type of distribution is Professor Kellogg MOST likely to have?
A) normal
B) positively skewed
C) nominal
D) negatively skewed

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

In a _____, the tail of the distribution extends to the left.
A) negatively skewed distribution
B) positively skewed distribution
C) normal distribution
D) floor effect

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

A positive skew may have a tail that indicates extreme scores _____ the center of the distribution.
A) around
B) below
C) above
D) on either side of

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

A negative skew may have a tail that indicates extreme scores _____ the center of the distribution.
A) around
B) below
C) above
D) on either side of

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

Positively skewed distributions often result from:
A) a ceiling effect.
B) a floor effect.
C) unimodal curves.
D) a symmetrical distribution.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

Negatively skewed distributions often result from:
A) a ceiling effect.
B) a floor effect.
C) unimodal curves.
D) a symmetrical distribution.

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

A researcher wanted to find the tallest person in a group of 20 women.Although he found that the tallest woman was 6 feet tall, his measurement was compromised by the fact that his scale reached only 6 feet.This example BEST illustrates which concept?
A) floor effect
B) skewed distribution
C) ceiling effect
D) negative skew

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

Professor Kellogg calculates the grades on the first exam for her statistics class.She finds that students did really well, with most students scoring 98 or higher.What type of effect, which often corresponds to a negatively skewed distribution, is MOST likely to be influencing the shape of the distribution of scores?
A) floor
B) ceiling
C) raw score
D) interval score

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Stem-and-leaf plots offer an advantage over histograms and frequency polygons in that they allow:
A) data to be displayed visually.
B) comparison of two groups of data together.
C) values of the data to be retained for later analyses.
D) comparison of participants across different measures.

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

In a stem-and-leaf plot for two-digit numbers, the:
A) stem is the first digit.
B) stem is the second digit.
C) leaf is the first digit.
D) leaf consists of both digits.

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Multiple Choice

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True False

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True False

Q 49Q 49

It is advisable to use a grouped frequency table when depicting the frequency of interval data that vary over a large range of numbers in table format.

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True False

Q 50Q 50

When creating a grouped frequency table, most researchers recommend using between 5 and 10 intervals.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 58Q 58

The line drawn in a frequency polygon should float above the x-axis, never touching the axis.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 63Q 63

People who report "married" as their relationship status are assumed to have no less than one marriage.The fact that the number of marriages cannot vary below one represents a ceiling effect.

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True False

Q 64Q 64

Some sports have what is called a "mercy rule," that is, once the difference in scores between two teams gets to a certain level, the game is ended.In soccer, the mercy rule might end a game when one team has 15 more goals than the other team.This limit on how big the difference between points can be is an example of a ceiling effect.

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True False

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True False

Q 66Q 66

A stem-and-leaf plot offers an advantage over a histogram in that it shows the data both visually and numerically, whereas a histogram displays the data visually only.

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True False

Q 67Q 67

In a side-by-side stem-and-leaf plot, data from unrelated variables are often presented so that they might be compared.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 70Q 70

Dr.Choi is examining the weights of 750 children, 2 to 18 years old, to find out if childhood obesity rates are increasing in his city.With this type of data, is it better to use a frequency table or a grouped frequency table? Why?
A) A frequency table is better because the data are discrete whole numbers.
B) A frequency table is better because the data cover a small range.
C) A grouped frequency table is better because the data are a large set of continuous intervals.
D) A grouped frequency table is better because the data are nominal.

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

The two most common methods for graphing interval data for one variable are the _____ and the _____.
A) grouped frequency table; frequency distribution
B) frequency distribution; frequency polygon
C) grouped frequency table; frequency polygon
D) histogram; frequency polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

Mark is looking at a histogram depicting students placed in various high schools.In this histogram, the x-axis most likely represents the _____ while the y-axis most likely represents the _____.
A) values of the variable "high school"; frequencies or number of students
B) frequencies or number of students; values of the variable "high school"
C) total number of students; frequencies
D) number of extreme observations; total number of students

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

When creating histograms and frequency polygons, the x-axis typically represents _____ and the y-axis represents _____.
A) values or intervals; the sum of squares
B) values or intervals; frequencies
C) midpoints; reaction times
D) frequencies; the sum of squares

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

The numbers of avalanche fatalities in Colorado for the last eight seasons were reported as 1, 1, 5, 5, 5, 5, 8, and 10.Roughly what type of distribution is shown?
A) normal
B) positively skewed
C) negatively skewed
D) nominal

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

A graduate statistics class is unhappy with the midterm grades.The majority of students scored 45 or below on a 100-point scale, with just several students performing very well.Which type of distribution do the test scores represent?
A) normal
B) positively skewed
C) negatively skewed
D) nominal

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Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

The EPA noticed a large increase in the output of greenhouse gases from automobile traffic between 1996 and 1998 in California.When the agency looked at the data by city, it noticed that the score for Los Angeles was significantly higher than that for the other major cities in California combined.How was the city skewing the distribution?
A) positively
B) negatively
C) symmetrically
D) unimodally

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Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

Of the different types of distributions, which distribution is described by a tail that extends to the left?
A) positively skewed
B) negatively skewed
C) nominal
D) normal

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Multiple Choice

Q 78Q 78

A(n) _____ is often seen in negatively skewed distributions, while a(n) _____ is often seen in positively skewed distributions.
A) ceiling effect; floor effect
B) floor effect; ceiling effect
C) symmetrical distribution; asymmetrical distribution
D) asymmetrical distribution; symmetrical distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

What type of graph displays individual data points of one variable both numerically and visually?
A) histogram
B) frequency polygon
C) stem-and-leaf plot
D) frequency table

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

A _____ is a data point that has not yet been manipulated.
A) frequency distribution
B) raw score
C) normal distribution
D) positively skewed distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

Why is it sometimes easier to use a frequency table to interpret data than to examine a distribution of raw scores?
A) Raw scores do not represent the data.
B) A frequency table transforms the raw scores by showing the means.
C) Raw scores are not based on the sample.
D) Frequency tables display patterns, organizing the data by frequency of scores.

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Multiple Choice

Q 82Q 82

What is one important reason for looking at visual descriptions of the data, such as frequency tables and histograms?
A) The patterns revealed in the data may lead to more specific research questions.
B) Visual depictions of data are important only for publishing research.
C) Raw data are not useful.
D) Graphs show what kind of statistical tests have been performed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

To calculate a percentage in a frequency distribution:
A) divide the number of participants in a group by the total number of participants and multiply by 100.
B) divide the total number of participants by the number of groups and multiply by 100.
C) multiply each raw score by a value of 100 and divide by 20.
D) divide the total number of participants by the number of participants in each group and divide by 100.

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Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

It would be preferable to have a grouped frequency table rather than a frequency table when data:
A) are small.
B) include many raw scores and only one group.
C) go to many decimal places and cover a large range.
D) contain many extreme observations.

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Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

A _____ is a line graph with the x-axis and y-axis representing values (or midpoints of intervals) and frequencies, respectively.
A) frequency polygon
B) frequency distribution
C) histogram
D) skewed distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 86Q 86

A normal distribution is _____, while a skewed distribution is _____.
A) nonsymmetric; symmetric
B) symmetric; nonsymmetric
C) unimodal; symmetric
D) symmetric; unimodal

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Multiple Choice

Q 87Q 87

When looking at a distribution of data with a possible extreme observation, it is important to keep in mind that the extreme observation may _____ the data.
A) skew
B) floor
C) restrict
D) expand

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Multiple Choice

Q 88Q 88

A positive skew has a long tail to the _____ of the distribution, while a negative skew has a long tail to the _____ of the distribution.
A) left; right
B) right; left
C) right; right
D) left; left

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Multiple Choice

Q 89Q 89

A benefit to using the stem-and-leaf plot is that it easily identifies _____ and allows for quick comparisons between _____.
A) outliers or unusual scores; variables
B) skew; different variables
C) symmetry; histograms
D) variables; floor and ceiling effects

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Multiple Choice