# Quiz 18: Choosing and Reporting Statistics

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

Melanie is interested in whether science fiction movies typically get higher star ratings (on a five-star scale) than dramas.What kind of statistical test could be used to address this question?
A) parametric test
B) nonparametric test
C) correlation
D) independent-samples t test

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

The nonparametric equivalent of the paired-samples t test is the:
A) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
B) Mann-Whitney U test.
C) chi square.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 3Q 3

The nonparametric equivalent of the one-way between-groups ANOVA is the:
A) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
B) Mann-Whitney U test.
C) chi-square.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

A

Q 4Q 4

Blake is interested in training for his first marathon and wants to determine whether the finishing place of non-elite marathon runners depends on the type of training program used.There are three training programs he is interested in comparing: Hal Higdon's, Jeff Galloway's, and Art Liberman's.Blake is able to track down 30 runners, 10 who have used Higdon's, 10 who have used Galloway's, and 10 who have used Liberman's.Blake asks the runners how they placed in the marathon.What statistic should he use to analyze his data?
A) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient
B) Mann-Whitney U test
C) one-way ANOVA
D) Kruskal-Wallis H test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Blake is interested in training for his first marathon and wants to determine whether the finishing time of non-elite marathon runners depends on the type of training program used.There are three training programs he is interested in comparing: Hal Higdon's, Jeff Galloway's, and Art Liberman's.Blake is able to track down 30 runners, 10 who have used Higdon's, 10 who have used Galloway's, and 10 who have used Liberman's.Blake asks the runners for their marathon finishing times.What statistic should he use to analyze his data?
A) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient
B) Mann-Whitney U test
C) one-way ANOVA
D) Kruskal-Wallis H test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The nonparametric equivalent of the Pearson correlation coefficient is the:
A) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
B) chi-square.
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
D) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

You are interested in attempting to replicate the results of a 1973 study by Belmont and Marolla that found a negative correlation between birth order and IQ.You collect the necessary data using students in your school's participant pool.Which technique would you use to analyze your data?
A) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient
B) Pearson correlation coefficient
C) Mann-Whitney U test
D) Kruskal-Wallis H test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

The nonparametric equivalent of the independent-samples t test is the:
A) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
B) Mann-Whitney U test.
C) chi-square.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Now that you are an adult, you decide to test one of the truisms passed along by your mother: "Cheaters never win in the end." You randomly assign a group of 20 children to either cheat or to play fair on a scavenger hunt.You then rank the children by how many items they were able to get during the scavenger hunt.Which technique would you use to analyze the data to determine whether cheaters finish differently than non-cheaters?
A) independent-samples t test
B) paired-samples t test
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
D) Mann-Whitney U test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Does a person's letter grade in statistics depend on whether he or she is a member of a Greek organization? In three statistics classes, data is collected on the letter grades of students belonging to Greek organizations and of students who are not members.Which technique would be used to analyze the data?
A) independent-samples t test
B) paired-samples t test
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
D) Mann-Whitney U test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Does the number of points a person earns on the final exam in statistics depend on whether the person is a member of a Greek organization? In three statistics classes, data is collected on the final exam points of students belonging to Greek organizations and of students who do not belong.Which technique would be used to analyze the data?
A) independent-samples t test
B) paired-samples t test
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
D) Mann-Whitney U test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Nonparametric tests are usually used when the sample data are:
A) nominal or ordinal.
B) nominal or extremely skewed.
C) ordinal or extremely skewed.
D) ordinal or when participants have been randomly selected.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

To use a nonparametric test despite having scale data, transform the data from scale to:
A) nominal.
B) ordinal.
C) the square root of the scale values.
D) the square root of the ratio values.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

A researcher wants to examine the relation between class rank and popularity among peers.Class rank is provided by the school and includes each student's rank in order.The researcher assesses popularity using a likability measure that provides scale data.What statistic should be used to assess this relation?
A) chi-square test for goodness-of-fit
B) independent-samples t test
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
D) Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

A researcher wants to examine the relation between class rank and popularity among peers.Class rank is provided by the school and includes each student's rank in order.The researcher assesses popularity using a likability measure that provides scale data.What does the researcher need to do to the data before calculating a statistic using a nonparametric test?
A) compute difference scores
B) convert the scale data to ordinal data
C) subtract the mean from each score
D) standardize the scores

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

When transforming scale data to ordinal data, if two people have exactly the same score, what is their rank?
A) They receive the average of the two ranks they would hold if the scores were different.
B) They receive the same lower rank.
C) They receive the highest and second-highest rank.
D) They receive the lowest and the second-lowest rank.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

A researcher is transforming finishing times from a 5K race into ordinal data and has the following scores in minutes: 17.6, 25.3, 18.4, 28.2, 32.6, 31.5, and 25.3.If the researcher ranks from fastest to slowest, what would be the rank of the two people with a finish time of 25.3?
A) 4.5
B) 4
C) 3.5
D) 3

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

A researcher is transforming finishing times from a 5K race into ordinal data and has the following scores in minutes: 12.2, 16.5, 12.8, 13.4, 17.8, 13.4, 13.4, and 18.6.If the researcher ranks from fastest to slowest, what would be the rank of the three people with a finish time of 13.4?
A) 5
B) 4
C) 3.5
D) 3

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

To calculate a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, first convert both variables to ranks.After that:
A) compute the difference between each pair of ranks.
B) sum the ranks for each pair.
C) square the ranks and add them together.
D) subtract the mean from each score and square the sum.

Free

Multiple Choice

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A Spearman's correlation coefficient can range from _____ to _____.
A) 0; 1.00
B) -1.00; 0
C) -1.00; 1.00
D) -10.00; 10.00

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

The interpretation of the Spearman correlation coefficient is identical to that for the:
A) independent-samples t test.
B) Pearson correlation coefficient.
C) chi-square test for independence.
D) Mann-Whitney U test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

A correlation of 0.56 is found between class rank and student likeability.What can be concluded based on this correlation?
A) Good grades cause increases in popularity.
B) Class rank is predictive of academic performance.
C) Low class ranks tend to be associated with low likeability ranks, and high class ranks tend to be associated with high ranks for likeability.
D) High likeability is associated with low class rank, and low likeability is associated with high class rank.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A Spearman correlation of r

_{s}= -0.30 between birth order and IQ means that: A) having a lower birth order causes a person to have a lower IQ. B) people with lower birth orders tend to have lower IQs. C) having a lower birth order causes a person to have a higher IQ. D) people with lower birth orders tend to have higher IQs.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

One of the assumptions of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is that the distribution of the population of difference scores is:
A) skewed.
B) symmetric.
C) bimodal.
D) normal.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

The assumptions of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test are that:
A) the difference between pairs of scores can be ranked, participants are randomly selected, and the population distribution of differences is symmetric.
B) the mean difference between pairs of scores is 0, participants are randomly selected, and the population is symmetric.
C) participants are randomly selected and the population is symmetric.
D) the mean of the population of difference scores is 0 and its distribution is symmetric.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

The comparison distribution for the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is the _____ distribution.
A) t
B) F
C) z
D) T

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

The sample size for the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is:
A) equal to the number of participants.
B) two times the number of participants.
C) the number of difference scores that are not 0.
D) N - 1.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

The paired scores for a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were 1, 1; 2, 4; 5, 2; 2, 1; 4, 4; 3, 5; 4, 3.What is the sample size for this test?
A) 5
B) 10
C) 4
D) 1

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

The paired scores for a Wilcoxon signed-rank test were: 1, 1; 2, 2; 5, 3; 3, 5; 2, 4; 4, 4.What is the sample size for this test?
A) 6
B) 4
C) 3
D) 2

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

When using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, reject the null hypothesis only when the _____ of the two calculated statistics is equal to or _____ than the critical value.
A) smaller; less
B) larger; less
C) smaller; greater
D) larger; greater

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Using a p level of 0.05, a researcher performed the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a sample size of 10 and found that ∑R

_{+}= 3 and ∑R_{-}= 9.Which statement accurately describes the results of this hypothesis test? A) Because T = 9, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis. B) Because T = 9, the researcher rejected the null hypothesis. C) Because T = 3, the researcher rejected the null hypothesis. D) Because T = 3, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

Using a p level of 0.05, a researcher performed the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a sample size of 16 and found that the sum of the ranks for positive differences was 36 and the sum of the ranks for negative differences was 100.Which statement accurately describes the results of the hypothesis test for these data?
A) Reject the null because the test statistics sum to above 100.
B) The test statistic is larger than the critical cutoff, which is 29, so fail to reject the null hypothesis.
C) The test statistic is larger than the critical cutoff, which is 29, so reject the null hypothesis.
D) Fail to reject the null hypothesis because 36 is less than 100.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

The Mann-Whitney U test would be used in which of these examples?
A) Ranked job satisfaction was compared for members of five different work teams.
B) Ranked job satisfaction was compared for the same eight women before and after they had a child.
C) Ranked job satisfaction was compared for males and females at a local business.
D) Job satisfaction as a scale variable is compared for three different work teams.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

The assumptions of the Mann-Whitney U test are that:
A) the data are ordinal and randomly distributed.
B) participants are randomly selected and the population is symmetric.
C) the data are ordinal, the participants are randomly selected, and ideally no ranks are tied.
D) the data are ordinal, the participants are randomly selected, and the population is symmetric.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

One of the assumptions of the Mann-Whitney U test is that there are no ties.If there are ties in the data set:
A) do not use the Mann-Whitney U test.
B) use the Mann-Whitney U test if there are just a few ties as it is robust to violations of this assumption.
C) use the Mann-Whitney U test anyway, even if you have lots of ties in your data since it is robust to this assumption.
D) use the Kruskal-Wallis H test instead.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Does a person's letter grade in statistics depend on whether he or she is a member of a Greek organization? In three statistics classes, data is collected on the letter grades of students belonging to Greek organizations and of students who are not members.Which of these is the null hypothesis for this study?
A) Members and nonmembers of Greek organizations do not tend to differ in letter grades.
B) Members and nonmembers of Greek organizations tend to differ in letter grades.
C) There is a relationship between Greek organization membership and letter grade.
D) The distributions of letter grades for members and nonmembers of Greek organizations is the same.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

A sample of 10 men and 12 women are compared on their ranked life satisfaction.Which of these is the null hypothesis for this study?
A) Men and women do not tend to differ in ranked life satisfaction.
B) Men and women tend to differ in ranked life satisfaction.
C) There is a relationship between gender and ranked life satisfaction.
D) The distributions of ranked life satisfaction for men and women are the same.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Does a person's letter grade in statistics depend on whether he or she is a member of a Greek organization? In three statistics classes, data is collected on the letter grades of students belonging to Greek organizations and of students who are not members.Which of these is the research hypothesis for this study?
A) Members and nonmembers of Greek organizations do not tend to differ in letter grades.
B) Members and nonmembers of Greek organizations tend to differ in letter grades.
C) There is a relationship between Greek organization membership and letter grade.
D) The distributions of letter grades for members and nonmembers of Greek organizations is the same.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

A sample of 10 men and 12 women are compared on their ranked life satisfaction.Which of these is the research hypothesis for this study?
A) Men and women do not tend to differ in ranked life satisfaction.
B) Men and women tend to differ in ranked life satisfaction.
C) There is a relationship between gender and ranked life satisfaction.
D) The distributions of ranked life satisfaction for men and women are the same.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

To determine the critical cutoff for Mann-Whitney U, which of these must be known?
A) sample size of both groups
B) degrees of freedom for both groups
C) degrees of freedom for the smallest group
D) size of the population

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

A sample of 10 men and 12 women are compared on their ranked life satisfaction.What is the critical cutoff for a two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test comparing these groups?
A) 30
B) 29
C) 23
D) 20

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Jasmine wonders whether the ratings for movies that are dramas differ, on average, from the ratings of movies that are comedies.She retrieves the ratings of five comedies and five dramas from the Internet Movie Database (IMDB).The R for drama is 32 and R for comedies is 23.Using a p level of 0.05, what conclusion should be drawn on the basis of these results?
A) Given that the largest of the R (32) is greater than the critical value of 2, reject the null hypothesis.The ratings of dramas and comedies differ.
B) Given that the smallest U (U = 8) is not equal to or less than the critical value of 2, fail to reject the null hypothesis.There is no evidence that the ratings of dramas and comedies differ.
C) Given that the smallest of the R (23) is greater than the critical value of 2, reject the null hypothesis.The ratings of dramas and comedies differ.
D) Given that the smallest of the R (23) is not equal to or less than the critical value of 2, fail to reject the null hypothesis.There is no evidence that the ratings of dramas and comedies differ.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

A Mann-Whitney U test is used to compare two groups of 18 on ranked athleticism.Which of these U test statistics would be considered significant?
A) 100
B) 115
C) 121
D) 91

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

When using the Mann-Whitney U test, the null hypothesis is rejected when the _____ of the two calculated statistics is equal to or _____ than the critical value.
A) smaller; greater
B) larger; greater
C) smaller; less
D) larger; less

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

The assumptions of the Kruskal-Wallis H test are that the:
A) data are ordinal and participants are randomly selected.
B) data are ordinal, participants are randomly selected, and the population distribution of ranks is symmetric.
C) data are scale and participants are randomly selected.
D) participants are randomly selected and the population distribution is symmetric.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

The H distribution for the Kruskal-Wallis H test is very close to the _____ distribution, so the latter is often used for determining the critical values for the Kruskal-Wallis H test.
A) F
B) t
C) T
D) chi-square

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

Four different sports teams are compared for the athleticism of their members.The data on athleticism is available as ranks only.What would be the critical cutoff for the Kruskal-Wallis test on these data, assuming a p level of 0.05?
A) 3.841
B) 5.992
C) 7.815
D) 9.488

Free

Multiple Choice

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

One should reject the null hypothesis using the Kruskal-Wallis H test when the calculated H statistic is _____ the critical value.
A) less than or equal to
B) greater than
C) five times
D) less than five times

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

If one rejects the null hypothesis when using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, then:
A) all the groups differ significantly from one another.
B) at least one of the groups differs significantly from another, but you do not know which one.
C) the group ranks are similar.
D) the largest difference between a ranked pair is at least two times the smallest difference.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

Three different ethnic groups are compared on their ranked language skills and an H statistic of 7.1 is computed.What conclusion could be made about a hypothesis test at a p level of 0.05?
A) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among these groups for ranked language skills.
B) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that all three groups are significantly different from each other.
C) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude no differences exist.
D) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there was no statistical power.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

The process of representing an entire population of data by repeatedly sampling from the original sample is called:
A) repeated sampling.
B) bootstrapping.
C) transformation.
D) null hypothesis testing.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

The process of bootstrapping requires:
A) sampling without replacement.
B) access to the entire population of scores.
C) performing a log transformation of all scores.
D) sampling with replacement.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

Bootstrapping is used on a sample of data with the following values: 520, 515, 480, 420, 610, 470, 420, and 630.Each sample collected during the bootstrapping process must have how many scores?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 5
D) 8

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

One should fail to reject the null hypothesis using the Kruskal-Wallis H test when the calculated H statistic is _____ the critical value.
A) less than
B) greater than
C) five times
D) less than five times

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

Three different ethnic groups are compared on their ranked language skills and an H statistic of 5.1 is computed.What conclusion could be made about a hypothesis test at a p level of 0.05?
A) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude there are differences among these groups for ranked language skills.
B) Reject the null hypothesis and conclude that all three groups are significantly different from each other.
C) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude no differences exist.
D) Fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude there was no statistical power.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

Bootstrapping is used on a sample of data with the following values: 520, 515, 480, 420, 610, 470, 420, and 630.The confidence interval created through bootstrapping will be centered around what value?
A) mean of the original sample
B) mean of the distribution of sample means
C) zero
D) mean of the test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

Parametric tests are appropriate for scale data, but they are not appropriate for ordinal data.

Free

True False

Free

True False

Q 61Q 61

Even with scale data, one may choose to run a nonparametric test when there is a small sample size and the data are skewed.

Free

True False

Q 62Q 62

The Spearman correlation can be performed to examine the relation between one ordinal variable and one scale variable.

Free

True False

Q 63Q 63

The Spearman correlation can be performed to examine the relation between two ordinal variables.

Free

True False

Q 64Q 64

To quantify the strength of association between an ordinal and a scale variable, first transform the scale variable into an ordinal variable.

Free

True False

Q 65Q 65

When converting data to ranks, scores of the same value receive the average of the two ranks they would hold if different.

Free

True False

Q 66Q 66

When converting data to ranks, scores of the same value receive the lowest of the two ranks they would hold if different.

Free

True False

Q 67Q 67

The Wilcoxin signed-rank test is the nonparametric equivalent of the independent-samples t test.

Free

True False

Free

True False

Free

True False

Q 70Q 70

The Wilcoxon signed-rank test has three assumptions, including that the differences are normally distributed.

Free

True False

Free

True False

Free

True False

Q 73Q 73

The Mann-Whitney U test is the nonparametric equivalent of the one-way between-groups ANOVA.

Free

True False

Q 74Q 74

The Mann-Whitney U test has three assumptions: the data are ordinal, random selection is used, and ideally no ranks are tied.

Free

True False

Q 75Q 75

The Kruskal-Wallis H test is the nonparametric equivalent to the one-way between-groups ANOVA.

Free

True False

Q 76Q 76

The Kruskal-Wallis H test is the nonparametric equivalent of the two-way within-groups ANOVA.

Free

True False

Free

True False

Free

True False

Free

True False

Q 80Q 80

Bootstrapping involves using limited sample data to represent the entire population through repeated sampling.

Free

True False

Q 81Q 81

Bootstrapping involves using limited sample data to represent the entire population through repeated sampling without replacement.

Free

True False

Q 82Q 82

When using ordinal data, a nonparametric test instead of a parametric statistic is employed because ordinal variables are:
A) based on absolute values that are not normally distributed.
B) not as scientific as scale data.
C) based on rankings and will not be normally distributed.
D) normally distributed.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

What happens to outliers in scale data when they are converted to ordinal data?
A) There are no longer any outliers because the data are transformed to rankings.
B) The values of the outliers decrease so that the distribution appears normal.
C) The values of the outliers increase so that the distribution appears normal.
D) The values of the normal scores are increased to the value of the outliers.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

A researcher is planning to perform a Pearson's correlation on scale data but notices several extreme outliers that appear to skew the distribution.What is the best alternative method to analyze the data?
A) Transform the data to ordinal rankings and perform a Spearman correlation.
B) Transform the data to ratio variables and perform a Spearman correlation.
C) Use the scale data to run a Spearman correlation.
D) Throw out the outliers and run a Pearson correlation on the scale data.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

Sue is converting scale data to ordinal rankings.She has organized the data from highest to lowest but does not know what to do with two data points that have the same value of 12.8.The two scores would hold the 5th and 6th ranks.What should she do?
A) Randomly assign one value to the rank of 5 and the other to 6.
B) Assign whichever is first on the list to the rank of 5 and the other to the rank of 6.
C) Use a rank of 5.5 for both.
D) Use a rank of 5 for both.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 86Q 86

A Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.72 indicates a strong positive correlation, and a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.72 indicates _____ correlation.
A) a strong positive
B) no
C) a strong negative
D) a weak positive

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 87Q 87

A Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.72 indicates a strong negative correlation, and a Spearman correlation coefficient of -0.72 indicates _____ correlation.
A) a strong positive
B) no
C) a strong negative
D) a weak positive

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 88Q 88

When comparing two groups in which each participant gets a score for each level of the ordinal independent variable (a within-groups design), the best nonparametric test to use is the:
A) paired-samples t test.
B) Mann-Whitney U test.
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
D) Kruskal-Wallis H test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 89Q 89

Is there a relationship between rugby players' ability to score a goal and their height? The International Rugby Board is investigating whether there are any differences in the average rankings for number of goals scored by tall and short players in a season.What is the research hypothesis for this Mann-Whitney U test?
A) Tall rugby players and short rugby players do not differ in average scores per season.
B) Tall rugby players and short rugby players differ in average scores per season.
C) Tall rugby players have a higher number of scores per season than do short rugby players.
D) Short rugby players have a higher number of scores per season than do tall rugby players.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 90Q 90

The International Rugby Board calculates test statistics for a Mann-Whitney U test on tall versus short rugby players and the average ranking for number of goals they score in a season.The smaller calculated test value of the two groups is 5, and the critical value or cutoff for the test is 3.What can the board conclude?
A) Tall rugby players and short rugby players differ in average goals per season.
B) Height of the players is strongly correlated with number of goals scored in a rugby game per season.
C) Short rugby players do not score goals very often.
D) There is insufficient evidence that tall and short rugby players differ in average goals per season.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 91Q 91

When comparing three or more levels of an independent variable for an ordinal dependent variable, one should use a _____ test, specifically _____.
A) nonparametric; the Mann-Whitney U test
B) nonparametric; the Kruskal-Wallis H test
C) parametric; a one-way ANOVA
D) parametric; the Wilcoxon signed-rank test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 92Q 92

A statistical process in which original sample data are used to represent an entire population through repeated sampling is called:
A) hypothesis testing.
B) inferential statistics.
C) parametric estimation.
D) bootstrapping.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 93Q 93

If a researcher is planning to perform a parametric test on scale data but finds it is not normally distributed, what should be done?
A) Continue with the parametric test, ignoring the violation of assumptions.
B) Transform the scale data to ordinal rankings and perform a nonparametric test.
C) Throw out the data points that skew the distribution and perform a parametric test.
D) Use the scale data as presented and perform a nonparametric test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 94Q 94

The data used for a Spearman correlation are _____, whereas the data for the Pearson correlation are _____.
A) scale; nominal
B) nominal; ordinal
C) scale; scale
D) ordinal; scale

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 95Q 95

SENIC (Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control) has a public data set from 1975 to 1976 that contains information on 113 hospitals, including rankings according to cleanliness and the probability of acquiring an infection in the hospital.If a researcher wants to look for a relationship between these variables, what test should be used and why?
A) paired-samples t test, because two means are being compared
B) z test, because the underlying parameters of the population are known
C) Pearson correlation, because scale variables are used for both the ranking of cleanliness variable and the risk probability variable
D) Spearman correlation, because the cleanliness variable is ordinal and the risk probability can be converted into an ordinal variable

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 96Q 96

SENIC (Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control) has a public data set from 1975 to 1976 that contains information on 113 hospitals, including rankings according to cleanliness and the probability of acquiring an infection in the hospital.A Spearman correlation coefficient of -0.58 between cleanliness ranking (high rank = very clean) and risk of infection ranking (high rank = high risk) is found from the SENIC data set.What can be concluded from these findings?
A) There is a fairly strong negative correlation between risk of infection and cleanliness rank, because patients were more likely to get an infection at hospitals with a low cleanliness ranking.
B) There is a fairly strong positive correlation between risk of infection and cleanliness rank, because as the rank for cleanliness increased, so did a patient's risk of infection.
C) There is no correlation between cleanliness of hospitals and risk of patient infection.
D) Unsanitary conditions at hospitals cause more infections in patients.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 97Q 97

A sample of 13 women who have been competing in beauty pageants since they were young girls is found.In total, they have all competed in a youth pageant and a young adult pageant at some time.Information about their relative standing in each of those pageants is available.What analysis could be used to investigate whether relative standing differed across the two time periods?
A) Spearman correlation
B) paired-samples t test
C) Mann-Whitney U test
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 98Q 98

The nonparametric equivalent for the paired-samples t-test is the:
A) Spearman correlation.
B) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
C) Mann-Whitney U test.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 99Q 99

The Mann-Whitney U test is the nonparametric test used when assumptions for the _____ are violated, because it is the parallel to this parametric statistic.
A) dependent-samples t test
B) independent-samples t test
C) standardized z test
D) one-way ANOVA

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 100Q 100

A political analyst categorized two groups of people as either having traveled to Europe or not traveled to Europe and asked the two groups to rank the importance of economic issues currently being debated by the European Union.The analyst wants to compare the rankings for the two groups.Which test should be used?
A) Wilcoxon signed-rank test
B) paired-samples t test
C) independent-samples t test
D) Mann-Whitney U test

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 101Q 101

The nonparametric equivalent for the independent-samples t-test is the:
A) Spearman correlation.
B) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
C) Mann-Whitney U test.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 102Q 102

The nonparametric equivalent for the one-way between-groups ANOVA is the:
A) Spearman correlation.
B) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
C) Mann-Whitney U test.
D) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 103Q 103

A census reporter is trying to determine which of six countries has the largest city population, that is, the greatest concentration of population in urban areas.He is using ordinal data for all the cities in each of the countries, ranked from largest to smallest for city population.To compare the countries based on city population he should use a:
A) Kruskal-Wallis H test.
B) Mann-Whitney U test.
C) Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
D) one-way ANOVA.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 104Q 104

The test statistic H for the Kruskal-Wallis test is compared to a cutoff value based on a _____ distribution.
A) F
B) z
C) chi-square
D) t

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 105Q 105

When using bootstrapping to create a confidence interval, what is true about the width of that confidence interval?
A) A wide interval indicates that the estimate is highly accurate.
B) A narrow interval results in lower confidence.
C) A narrow interval indicates that the estimate for the mean is not very precise.
D) A wide interval indicates that the estimate for the mean is not very precise.

Free

Multiple Choice