# Quiz 15: Correlation

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

The numerical value for a correlation ranges between _____ and _____.
A) 0; 1.00
B) -1.00; 1.00
C) -1.00; 0
D) negative infinity; positive infinity

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

A positive correlation between head size and foot size indicates that:
A) having a large head causes a person to have large feet.
B) having large feet causes a person to have a large head.
C) people with larger feet also tend to have larger heads.
D) people with larger feet tend to have smaller heads.

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 3Q 3

What kind of correlation would one expect to find between levels of family income and household spending on consumer goods?
A) positive
B) zero
C) negative
D) perfect positive

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 4Q 4

What kind of correlation would one expect to find between the age of a car (nonclassic) and its value?
A) positive
B) zero
C) negative
D) perfect positive

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

"The incidence of depression among college students is negatively correlated with the number of sunny days each year in the locale where they attend college." This statement means that:
A) the chances of a college student being depressed tend to increase with fewer sunny days.
B) a student attending college in a locale with very few sunny days will become depressed.
C) the chances of a college student being depressed tend to increase as the number of sunny days increases.
D) a depressed student who moves to a locale with more sunny days will become less depressed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

What kind of correlation would one expect to find between the severity of snowstorms and rates of attendance at college classes?
A) positive
B) zero
C) negative
D) perfect negative

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

Use the following to answer question
Nietfeld and Ender (2003) performed a study investigating the relation between the intelligence of student teachers and their efficacy in the classroom.This relation is depicted in the scatterplot, which shows fictional data that replicate the pattern of performance observed by the researchers.
Figure: Teaching Efficacy
-(Figure: Teaching Efficacy) Based on the scatterplot, what kind of relation between intelligence and teaching efficacy did Nietfeld and Ender find?
A) perfect positive
B) positive
C) negative
D) no relation

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

If a negative relation exists between two variables, then low scores on one variable will be associated with _____ scores on the other variable.
A) low
B) high
C) both high and low
D) neither high nor low

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Researchers who study the process of reading in children have discovered that better readers make smoother eye movements across the page.If a scatterplot of the data is drawn, the points on the graph would likely run from _____ left to _____ right.
A) upper; lower
B) lower; upper
C) upper; upper
D) lower; lower

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

If a positive relation exists between two variables, then low scores on one variable will be associated with _____ scores on the other variable.
A) low
B) high
C) both high and low
D) neither high nor low

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

If a positive relation exists between two variables, then high scores on one variable will be associated with _____ scores on the other variable.
A) low
B) high
C) both high and low
D) neither high nor low

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

If a negative relation exists between two variables, then high scores on one variable will be associated with _____ scores on the other variable.
A) low
B) high
C) both high and low
D) neither high nor low

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

Use the following to answer questions
The relation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box during the regular 2006-2007 season is shown in the figure.The 18 players were members of the New Jersey Devils hockey team who played in more than 40 games that season.
Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes
-(Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes) Based on the scatterplot, what is the relation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box?
A) perfect positive
B) positive
C) negative
D) no relation

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Use the following to answer questions
The relation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spent in the penalty box during the regular 2006-2007 season is shown in the figure.The 18 players were members of the New Jersey Devils hockey team who played in more than 40 games that season.
Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes
-(Figure: Age and Penalty Minutes) Based on the scatterplot, it appears that as a hockey player's age increases, the number of minutes spent in the penalty box:
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains the same.
D) is unrelated.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Researchers who study the process of reading in children have discovered that better readers watch fewer hours of television.If a scatterplot of the data is drawn, the points on the graph would likely run from _____ left to _____ right.
A) upper; lower
B) lower; upper
C) upper; upper
D) lower; lower

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

What is the correlation between a person's weight as measured in grams and a person's weight as measured in pounds?
A) -1.00
B) 0.00
C) +0.50
D) +1.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

In a re-analysis of published studies, Twenge and Im (2007) found that for the time period 1958-2001, the need for social approval of people in the United States was negatively correlated with the U.S.divorce rate during the same period (the correlation coefficient was -0.38).This correlation means that:
A) the need for social approval prevented people from seeking divorce.
B) the need for social approval spurred people to divorce.
C) when the need for social approval was high, divorce rates were low.
D) when the need for social approval was high, divorce rates were high.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

In a re-analysis of published studies, Twenge and Im (2007) found that for the time period 1958-2001, the need for social approval of people in the United States was negatively correlated with the U.S.violent crime rate during the same period (the correlation coefficient was -0.31).This correlation means that:
A) the need for social approval prevented people from committing violent crimes.
B) the need for social approval spurred people to commit violent crimes.
C) as the need for social approval went up, the number of violent crimes also increased.
D) as the need for social approval went up, the number of violent crimes decreased.

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A negative correlation between a hockey player's age and the number of minutes he spends in the penalty box indicates that:
A) spending more time on the ice leads hockey players to become skilled at avoiding the referees.
B) older players make fewer penalties because they have reduced testosterone levels.
C) the older a player is, the less time he spends in the penalty box.
D) an older player's greater experience has taught him how to avoid making penalties.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

A researcher discovers that length of time spent following a Mediterranean diet is negatively correlated with risk of developing cancer.Which statement logically follows from this information?
A) Eating a Mediterranean diet increases the risk of developing cancer.
B) Eating a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of developing cancer.
C) People who ate a Mediterranean diet for longer periods were less likely to have cancer.
D) People who ate a Mediterranean diet for longer periods were more likely to have cancer.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

The correlation coefficient between class attendance and number of problems missed on an exam is -0.77.Which statement regarding this finding is correct?
A) If you start attending class more regularly, the number of problems you miss on the next exam is certain to be increased.
B) There is no causal relationship between the two variables.
C) If you attend class regularly, you are more likely to do well on the exam than someone who does not attend class regularly.
D) The correlation demonstrates causality.

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

In a re-analysis of published studies, Twenge and Im (2007) found that for the time period of 1958 to 2001, the need for social approval of people in the United States was positively correlated with changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average during that same period (the correlation coefficient was 0.10).This means that:
A) the need for social approval caused people to invest more money in the stock market.
B) the need for social approval prevented people from investing money in the stock market.
C) when the need for social approval was high, the Dow Jones Industrial Average was also high.
D) when the need for social approval was high, the Dow Jones Industrial Average was low.

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Which of these represents a perfect correlation?
A) -1.00 only
B) 1.00 only
C) 0
D) -1.00 or 1.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Use the following to answer question
The scatterplot, created from 1995 U.S.News & World Report data on approximately 1,300 U.S.colleges and universities, depicts the relation between the student-faculty ratio at the school and the number of admissions applications the school received.
Figure: Student-Faculty Ratio
-(Figure: Student-Faculty Ratio) Based on the scatterplot, what is the relation between an institution's student-faculty ratio and the number of applications it receives?
A) perfect positive
B) positive
C) negative
D) no relation

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Which of these correlation coefficients allows a perfect prediction of scores on one variable from knowledge of scores on the other variable?
A) -1.00
B) 0
C) 0.50
D) 2.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

If all the points on a scatterplot fall on a single line:
A) there is no relation between the variables.
B) the relation between the variables is perfect.
C) the variables are causally related.
D) the relation between the variables is positive.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

What kind of correlation would one expect to find between the results of two dice thrown simultaneously?
A) positive
B) zero
C) negative
D) perfect positive

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Why do correlation coefficients greater than 0.50 rarely occur in the social sciences?
A) Human behavior is the product of many interacting variables; any single variable will be limited in its association with a behavior.
B) Social scientists fail to construct experiments carefully enough to detect larger correlations.
C) The highest value a correlation coefficient can take on is 0.60.
D) Social scientists have not yet discovered the variables that are the best predictors of human behavior.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Which of these values of the correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
A) -0.87
B) -0.30
C) 0.42
D) 0.03

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Which of these values indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
A) 0.65
B) 0.59
C) -0.25
D) -0.72

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of _____ is considered small, _____ is medium, and _____ is strong.
A) 0.10; 0.30; 0.50
B) 0.25; 0.50; 0.75
C) 0.40; 0.60; 0.80
D) 1.00; 2.00; 3.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of -0.55 would be considered:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) large.
D) very large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of 0.29 would be considered:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) large.
D) very large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

Based on research with her patients, Dr.Sabine knows that the correlation coefficient between scores on an anxiety scale and comfort at a social gathering is -0.46.According to guidelines established by Cohen, how would the strength of this relationship be characterized?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

What is the relationship between correlation and causation?
A) There is no relationship between correlation and causation.
B) Correlation is necessary for causation.
C) Correlation is sufficient for causation.
D) Correlation is both necessary and sufficient for causation.

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

The results of a study find a positive correlation between gum chewing and life expectancy.Which statement would be a statistically appropriate response to the results of the study?
A) You purchase a lifetime supply of gum because chewing gum is good for your health.
B) You bemoan the possibility of living so long that you will have to chew lots of gum.
C) You become curious about what third variables might cause both increases in gum chewing and increases in life expectancy.
D) You tell all your friends and family members to chew gum because it is good for their health.

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Researchers who study the process of reading in children have discovered that better readers make smoother eye movements across the page (i.e., there is a positive correlation between reading skill and the smoothness of the eye movements).Which statement is a possible cause of the correlation between smooth eye movements and reading ability?
A) The ability to make smooth eye movements improves reading ability.
B) Having good reading skills allows a child to make smooth eye movements.
C) Some third factor might cause both smooth eye movements and improved reading ability.
D) All of these options are possible causes of the correlation.

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

Which of these values of the correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
A) -0.94
B) -0.62
C) 0.68
D) 0.95

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Which of these values indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
A) 0.48
B) 0.36
C) -0.25
D) -0.45

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of -0.48 would be considered:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) large.
D) very large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

According to guidelines published by Cohen (1988), a correlation value of -0.09 would be considered:
A) small.
B) medium.
C) large.
D) very large.

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

Using the Pearson correlation coefficient to analyze the relationship between two variables is only appropriate if the variables are:
A) scale variables.
B) ordinal variables.
C) linearly related.
D) linearly related and scale variables.

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

The Pearson correlation coefficient is a statistic that measures:
A) the causal association between scale variables.
B) an association between scale, ordinal, and nominal variables.
C) a linear relation between two scale variables.
D) relatedness in terms of variability between variables.

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Before calculating the correlation coefficient, it is advisable to create a _____ as a way of displaying the association between the two variables.
A) scatterplot
B) line graph
C) histogram
D) polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

A _____ is a graphical representation of the relation between two variables.
A) correlation coefficient
B) scatterplot
C) histogram
D) polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

When a positive relation exists between two variables, what will be true in the calculation of the Pearson correlation coefficient?
A) The product of most pairs of deviations will be positive.
B) Most deviation scores will be positive.
C) Most deviation scores will be negative.
D) The product of most pairs of deviations will be negative.

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The denominator of the Pearson correlation equation corrects for _____ and _____ issues present in the numerator.
A) sample size; variability
B) sample size; non-normality
C) negative values; variability
D) negative values; nonlinear data

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

The numerator (top half) of the Pearson correlation coefficient formula includes the:
A) sum of the product of the deviations for each variable.
B) square root of the product of the two sums of squares.
C) difference between the two sample means.
D) correction for variability and sample size.

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

The denominator (bottom half) of the Pearson correlation coefficient includes the:
A) sum of the product of the deviations for each variable.
B) square root of the product of the two sum of squares.
C) difference between the sample means.
D) square root of the deviations for each variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

The first step involved in calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient is to:
A) multiply each raw score in one variable by the corresponding raw score in the second variable.
B) square all the scores.
C) calculate the deviation of each score from its mean.
D) calculate the standard deviation for each variable.

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

Which of these is NOT an assumption when conducting hypothesis testing for r?
A) The population distributions should be normal.
B) To insure generalizability, the data should be randomly selected.
C) The variability of scores on one variable should be equal across all levels of the second variable.
D) The variables being studied are positively correlated.

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

Which statement is an assumption that should be met before hypothesis testing with the correlation coefficient?
A) The two variables should be significantly related to one another.
B) At least one of the variables is ordinal or nominal.
C) The variability in one variable should not be the same as the variability in the other variable.
D) Each variable should vary equally, regardless of the magnitude of the other variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

One assumption for using hypothesis testing for Pearson correlation is that one variable should vary equally at each level of the other variable.What is the easiest way to determine whether this assumption has been met?
A) Review the value of r; if it is high, then the assumption has been met.
B) Conduct a post hoc test following the calculation of r.
C) Draw a scatterplot to see whether the range of values is equal across all values of the other variable.
D) Calculate the cross-products of the deviation scores.If the result is positive, then the assumption has been met.

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Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

What is the null hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
A)

_{1}= _{2}B) r = 0 C) r 0 D) = 0Free

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

What is the research hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
A)

_{ 1}= _{ 2}B) r = 0 C) 0 D) = 1Free

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

When conducting a hypothesis test for the Pearson correlation coefficient, degrees of freedom is calculated by:
A) (X - M

_{X})^{2}. B) (N_{1}- 1)(N_{2}- 1). C) N - 1. D) N - 2.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

A Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated for 48 individuals.What value of df should be used to determine statistical significance in hypothesis testing?
A) 48
B) 47
C) 46
D) 45

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

When conducting a hypothesis test for the Pearson correlation coefficient, the null hypothesis states that there is _______ between the two variables.
A) a correlation
B) no correlation
C) a positive correlation
D) a negative correlation

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

When conducting a hypothesis test for the Pearson correlation coefficient, the research hypothesis states that there is _______ between the two variables.
A) a correlation
B) no correlation
C) a positive correlation
D) a negative correlation

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Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

A correlation is computed using data from 28 people.What is the critical cutoff for a two-tailed hypothesis test with a p level of 0.05?
A) 0.317
B) 0.374
C) -0.317 and 0.317
D) -0.374 and 0.374

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Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

A correlation is computed using data from 19 people.What is the critical cutoff for a two-tailed hypothesis test with a p level of 0.05?
A) -0.389 or 0.389
B) -0.456 and 0.456
C) -0.528 and 0.528
D) -0.575 or 0.575

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

Based on research with her patients, Dr.Sabine knows that the correlation coefficient between scores on an anxiety scale and comfort at a social gathering is -0.35.If the critical value for r is 0.330, what should she conclude?
A) The null hypothesis should be retained.
B) Scores on the anxiety scale are significantly related to feelings of comfort in a social gathering.
C) Scores on the anxiety scale are not significantly related to feelings of comfort in a social gathering.
D) Scores on the anxiety scale are causally related to feelings of comfort in a social gathering.

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Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Psychometricians are concerned with:
A) developing high-quality tests and measures.
B) fixing psychological issues in people.
C) studying illness and the onset of psychological illness.
D) statistics and computers.

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Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

Test-retest reliability is determined by:
A) administering the same measure to the same sample at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance on the two administrations.
B) administering the same measure to two different samples at two different points in time and calculating the correlation between an individual's performance at the two different times.
C) correlating the odd-numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even-numbered items of that same measure.
D) correlating the odd-numbered items of a measure with an individual's performance on the even-numbered items of a different measure.

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Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

The average of all possible split-half correlations is:
A) coefficient alpha, a measure of validity.
B) coefficient alpha, a measure of reliability.
C) the test-retest reliability.
D) the test-retest validity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

The most widely used measure of reliability is:
A) the split-half correlation, in which the odd and even numbered items of a measure are correlated to assess internal consistency.
B) coefficient alpha, the average of all possible split-half correlations.
C) the test-retest reliability.
D) criterion-related reliability.

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Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

A coefficient alpha of _____ is considered a minimally acceptable level of reliability for measures that will be used in research studies in which individual scores will be averaged.
A) 0.95
B) 0.90
C) 0.80
D) 0.75

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

A coefficient alpha of _____ is considered a minimally acceptable level of reliability for measures that will be used to make decisions about individuals based on their scores on the measure.
A) 0.65
B) 0.80
C) 0.90
D) 1.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

If a test actually measures what it is intended to measure, then that test is:
A) reliable.
B) valid.
C) free of restriction of range problems.
D) internally consistent.

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

In an investigation of the psychometric properties of the Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS), Witte et al.(2006) administered the scale to 72 sex offenders.They found that scores on the scale correlated positively with recidivism for nonsexual crimes, but not for sexual crimes.This research suggests that the CSS is:
A) a valid measure of sentiment to commit sexual crimes, but not a valid measure of the sentiment to commit nonsexual crimes.
B) a valid measure of sentiment to commit nonsexual crimes, but not a valid measure of the sentiment to commit sexual crimes.
C) a valid measure of sentiment to commit both nonsexual crimes and sexual crimes.
D) not a reliable measure.

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

A technique that quantifies the degree of association between two variables after statistically removing the association of a third variable with both of those two variables is:
A) split-half reliability.
B) partial correlation.
C) concurrent validity.
D) coefficient alpha.

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

If one wishes to assess the relation between a farming county's average annual temperature and the crop yield, it may be important to take into account the overlapping variability that crop yield and temperature share with rainfall.To do so, one would compute a:
A) split-half reliability.
B) partial correlation.
C) concurrent validity.
D) coefficient alpha.

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

If one wishes to assess the relation between race and access to healthcare, it may be important to take into account the overlapping variability that race and access to healthcare share with household income.If a correlation between race and access to healthcare is found after controlling for household income, it indicates that:
A) access to healthcare is not associated with race or household income.
B) race, access to healthcare, and household income are perfectly correlated with one another.
C) there are racial inequities in access to healthcare that cannot be accounted for by differences in household income.
D) any differences in access to healthcare are attributable to differences in household income.

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Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

If two variables are positively correlated, then low scores on one variable would be associated with low scores on the other variable.

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True False

Q 77Q 77

If two variables are positively correlated, then high scores on one variable would be associated with high scores on the other variable.

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True False

Q 78Q 78

If two variables are negatively correlated, then low scores on one variable would be associated with low scores on the other variable.

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True False

Q 79Q 79

If two variables are positively correlated, then high scores on one variable would be associated with low scores on the other variable.

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True False

Q 80Q 80

If two variables are negatively correlated, then high scores on one variable would be associated with low scores on the other variable.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 88Q 88

A correlation coefficient higher than 0.05 is extremely unusual in behavioral science research.

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True False

Q 89Q 89

A correlation coefficient higher than 0.50 is extremely unusual in behavioral science research.

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True False

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True False

Q 91Q 91

In calculating the correlation coefficient, the denominator corrects for variability and sample size.

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True False

Q 92Q 92

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the null hypothesis that = 1.0.

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True False

Q 93Q 93

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the null hypothesis that = -1.0.

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True False

Q 94Q 94

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the research hypothesis that = 1.0.

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True False

Q 95Q 95

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the null hypothesis that = 0.0.

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True False

Q 96Q 96

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the null hypothesis that 0.0.

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True False

Q 97Q 97

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the research hypothesis that 0.0.

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True False

Q 98Q 98

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the research hypothesis that 1.0.

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True False

Q 99Q 99

When performing a hypothesis test for correlation, one tests the research hypothesis that -1.0.

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True False

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True False

Q 101Q 101

Test-retest reliability is intended to measure a person's, not a test's, consistency over time.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 104Q 104

A partial correlation describes a situation where the complete correlation calculation has not been performed.

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True False

Q 105Q 105

The correlation coefficient is how one measures the _____ of a correlation.
A) causal relationship
B) outcome
C) strength
D) interval

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Multiple Choice

Q 106Q 106

As the age of a male professor increases, the hair on his head decreases.This is an example of what type of correlation?
A) positive
B) negative
C) zero
D) perfect

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Multiple Choice

Q 107Q 107

As the age of a male professor increases, his income increases.This is an example of what type of correlation?
A) positive
B) negative
C) zero
D) perfect

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Multiple Choice

Q 108Q 108

As the number of hours a student studies increases, the number of errors made on the exam decreases.This is an example of what type of correlation?
A) positive
B) negative
C) zero
D) perfect

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Multiple Choice

Q 109Q 109

As the number of hours a student studies increases, the final exam score increases.This is an example of what type of correlation?
A) positive
B) negative
C) zero
D) perfect

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Multiple Choice

Q 110Q 110

The correlation of height and weight is 0.75, and the correlation of depression and satisfaction with work is -0.42.Which is a stronger correlation and why?
A) height and weight; 0.75 is closer to 1 than -0.42 is to -1
B) depression and work satisfaction; 0.75 is closer to 1 than -0.42 is to -1
C) height and weight; -0.42 is closer to -1 than 0.75 is to 1
D) depression and work satisfaction; -0.42 is closer to -1 than 0.75 is to 1

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Multiple Choice

Q 111Q 111

Based on research with her patients, Dr.Sabine knows that the correlation coefficient between scores on an anxiety scale and comfort at a social gathering is -0.35.According to guidelines established by Cohen, how would the strength of this relationship be characterized?
A) small
B) medium
C) large
D) very large

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Multiple Choice

Q 112Q 112

What is the primary limitation of the correlation coefficient?
A) It is not appropriate if the variables are related in a linear fashion.
B) It cannot be used to establish causal relations between two variables.
C) It can be used to establish the direction of a relation between two variables but not the strength.
D) It can only be used if the data are measured on a nominal or ordinal scale.

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Multiple Choice

Q 113Q 113

Tysha notices that every time she wears jewelry to work she has a very productive day and finishes all her projects on time.When she doesn't wear jewelry she struggles to get everything done.She concludes that wearing jewelry is the cause for her successful days at work and buys more jewelry.Is she correct?
A) Yes; she is using an experimental design to draw causal links.
B) Yes; she is using a correlation to draw causal conclusions.
C) No; she cannot make causal claims from correlations.
D) No; there is no relationship between the variables at all.

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Multiple Choice

Q 114Q 114

The formula for correlation is similar to the formula for z score in that they both:
A) take into account sample size only.
B) take into account variability only.
C) take into account sample size and variability.
D) remove outliers from the calculations.

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Multiple Choice

Q 115Q 115

In the formula for the Pearson correlation coefficient, the calculation of variability (SS) can be found in:
A) the denominator.
B) the numerator.
C) both the denominator and the numerator.
D) neither the denominator nor the numerator.

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Multiple Choice

Q 116Q 116

Which expression represents the research hypothesis when testing for significance using the Pearson correlation coefficient?
A)

_{1 }_{2}B) r 0 C) 0 D) r 1Free

Multiple Choice

Q 117Q 117

How are degrees of freedom calculated for the r distribution?
A) N - 1
B) N - 2
C) N

_{1}+ N_{2}- 1 D) (SS_{X})(SS_{Y})Free

Multiple Choice

Q 118Q 118

A researcher is interested in the number of days spent unemployed and feelings of efficacy related to work.She recruits 82 unemployed professionals randomly from a list provided by her community unemployment office.She computes a correlation of -0.38.What decision would this researcher make for a two-tailed hypothesis test at a p level of 0.05?
A) The test statistic is not significant so she can fail to reject the null hypothesis.
B) The test statistic is significant, so she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the number of days spent unemployed is positively correlated with work efficacy.
C) The test statistic is not significant but would have been had she computed a positive correlation.
D) The test statistic is significant, so she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the number of days spent unemployed is negatively correlated with work efficacy.

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Multiple Choice

Q 119Q 119

_____ is a branch of statistics focused on developing accurate and unbiased tests and measurements.
A) Descriptive statistics
B) Psychometrics
C) Correlations
D) Economics

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Multiple Choice

Q 120Q 120

What is the best way to test a measure's reliability over time?
A) test-retest
B) random sampling
C) criterion-related
D) split-half

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Multiple Choice

Q 121Q 121

What is the best way to test a measure's internal consistency?
A) test-retest
B) random sampling
C) criterion-related
D) split-half

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Multiple Choice

Q 122Q 122

A researcher is interested in days spent unemployed and feelings of efficacy related to work.She wonders what impact one's explanatory style might have on the relationship between these variables.She wants to be sure to understand the relation between her variables as clearly as possible.What technique could she use to help address this issue, and what would be accomplished through this method?
A) Analysis of variance will allow her to examine the influence of all variables at once.
B) Regression will allow all three variables to be examined simultaneously.
C) Partial correlation will allow her to examine the relationship between length of unemployment and efficacy while removing the influence of the third variable, explanatory style.
D) Correlations performed between each pair of variables will allow her to examine which relationship is the strongest.

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Multiple Choice

Q 123Q 123

Every day for the last month, Boris has recorded the number of times it has rained and the height of all of his tomato plants.He wants to see if the two are correlated, so he creates a scatterplot of the data.He sees a pattern that he could probably draw a line through (from the bottom left going up to the top right) as rainy days and plant height both increase.Should he proceed in calculating a correlation, and if so, why?
A) No; the data appear skewed and not a normal distribution.
B) No; the data appear to have a nonlinear relationship.
C) Yes, there appears to be a nonlinear relationship.
D) Yes, there appears to be a linear relationship.

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Multiple Choice

Q 124Q 124

The range of the correlation coefficient is always:
A) 0 to 1.0.
B) -1.0 to 1.0.
C) -2.0 to 2.0.
D) -4.0 to 4.0.

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Multiple Choice

Q 125Q 125

Every day for the last month, Boris has recorded the number of times it has rained and the height of all of his tomato plants.He wants to see if the two are correlated, so he creates a scatterplot of the data.He sees a pattern that he could probably draw a line through (from the bottom left going up to the top right) as rainy days and plant height both increase.What type of correlation is this?
A) positive
B) negative
C) zero
D) partial

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Multiple Choice

Q 126Q 126

Assume that the relation between SAT scores and first-year grade point average (GPA) is stronger than between SAT and second-year GPA.If two scatterplots were constructed to represent these data, how would they compare?
A) The cluster of points for SAT and second-year GPA would more closely approximate a straight line.
B) The cluster of points for SAT and first-year GPA would more closely approximate a straight line.
C) The pattern for both sets of data would be from the upper left portion of the graph to the lower right.
D) The graph for SAT and first-year GPA would have more outliers.

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Multiple Choice

Q 127Q 127

Which value represents the strongest relation between two variables?
A) 0.35
B) 0.24
C) -0.25
D) -0.42

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Multiple Choice

Q 128Q 128

The correlation coefficient between the two variables, ear size and IQ score, is zero.What does this statement mean?
A) The scores of the two variables are evenly matched.
B) As the value of one variable changes, the other is not necessarily affected.
C) As the value of one variable changes, the other increases.
D) As the value of one variable changes, the other decreases.

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Multiple Choice

Q 129Q 129

There is a correlation between global warming and the decline of polar bears.The most likely explanation is that:
A) polar bears don't like warm weather.
B) the presence of polar bears on the Earth kept the temperatures lower.
C) there is a third variable causing both effects.
D) polar bears emit greenhouse gases when they die.

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Multiple Choice

Q 130Q 130

Which of these is a reason why cause and effect is NOT assumed in correlational studies?
A) We know the direction of the relationship between the variables.
B) We know which variable came first to cause the effect in the other variable.
C) There could be another variable that causes the effect in both variables of interest.
D) We do not know the direction of the relationship but we do know which variable came first.

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Multiple Choice

Q 131Q 131

When graphing a correlation coefficient, how many data points come from each participant?
A) 1 data point
B) 2 data points
C) 1 for each dependent variable
D) 2 for each dependent variable

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Multiple Choice

Q 132Q 132

Before starting the calculations of a correlation, one should:
A) examine the data for outliers.
B) construct a scatterplot.
C) compute deviation scores for each participant's scores.
D) check to see if the pattern of the data appears to be nonlinear.

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Multiple Choice

Q 133Q 133

Bart scored 86 on his statistics midterm, and the class average was 85.What would his deviation and z score be in a distribution of the midterm grades?
A) It would be -1.
B) It would be 0.
C) It would be negative.
D) It would be positive.

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Multiple Choice

Q 134Q 134

Bart scored 84 on his statistics midterm, and the class average was 85.What would his deviation and z score be in a distribution of the midterm grades?
A) It would be -1.
B) It would be 0.
C) It would be negative.
D) It would be positive.

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Multiple Choice

Q 135Q 135

A state transportation department is determining the safety of roadways in a locality based on the age of drivers and number of traffic accidents.The department calculates a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.295.If the critical value for r = 0.330, what could be concluded?
A) The number of traffic accidents is significantly related to the age of drivers.
B) The age of drivers is significantly related to the number of traffic accidents.
C) The age of drivers is not significantly related to the number of traffic accidents.
D) The age of drivers is causally related to the number of traffic accidents they have.

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Multiple Choice

Q 136Q 136

A psychometrician uses correlation to examine what important aspects of the development of measures?
A) reliability and validity
B) power and effect size
C) statistical significance and independence
D) homoscedasticity and alpha

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Multiple Choice

Q 137Q 137

_____ reliability measures consistency of a test over time, while _____ reliability measures internal consistency of a test.
A) Partial; test-retest
B) Test-retest; partial
C) Test-retest; split-half
D) Split-half; test-retest

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Multiple Choice

Q 138Q 138

A computer analysis that essentially calculates the average of every possible split-half correlation as a measure of reliability is known as:
A) split-half reliability.
B) test-retest reliability.
C) coefficient alpha.
D) Cronbach's beta.

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Multiple Choice

Q 139Q 139

A researcher examines the relationship between an individual's adjustment to becoming a parent and his or her age, while removing the influence of financial status.What procedure would allow such an analysis?
A) correlation
B) split-half reliability
C) Cronbach's alpha
D) partial correlation

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Multiple Choice