# Quiz 3: Visual Displays of Data

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

A researcher labels the dependent variable of a bar graph Marital Distress, when what was measured was the number of arguments among couples attending marriage counseling.This misnomer is an example of the _____ lie.
A) interpolation
B) inaccurate values
C) extrapolation
D) sneaky sample

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Multiple Choice

D

Q 2Q 2

What type of lie is it when the method of assessment or measure has limited responses, thus creating an imbalance in possible responses?
A) inaccurate values
B) extrapolation
C) biased scale
D) interpolation

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 3Q 3

A student poll on your university website for athletics asks, "How high do you think the basketball team will finish this year: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th?" An article posted a week later reports "Students predict basketball team to finish within the top 5 out of 16 teams in the conference." What kind of manipulation occurred here?
A) an outright lie
B) false face validity
C) biased scale lie
D) interpolation lie

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

In the _____ lie participants in a study are preselected, resulting in biased results.
A) biased scale
B) extrapolation
C) sneaky sample
D) inaccurate values

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

To efficiently conduct an alumni survey, a university collects data on all those who attend the annual alumni reunion on campus.What type of manipulation is this?
A) biased scale lie
B) sneaky sample lie
C) extrapolation lie
D) interpolation lie

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The interpolation lie can involve:
A) using a biased scale.
B) using a biased sample.
C) graphing extreme data points and assuming a straight line between them.
D) using labels on the graph that do not precisely reflect what data the graph actually display.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

At major research institutions, the intense pressure to publish has led a few people to act desperately, creating fake data to impress their reviewers and colleagues.This faking may be demonstrated in the visual distortion of data in graphing.This is an example of a(n) _____ lie.
A) biased sample
B) interpolation
C) sneaky sample
D) inaccurate values

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Use the following to answer questions
This figure depicts the results of a study by Ahluwalia et al.(2006) investigating the effects of two types of gum (placebo or nicotine) and two types of counseling (educational or motivational) in helping people to stop smoking.
Figure: Smoking Cessation
-(Figure: Smoking Cessation) What is the difference between the data depicted in Figure A and the data in Figure B?
A) Figure A does not graph the same independent variables as Figure B.
B) Figure A does not graph the same dependent variable as Figure B.
C) The bars in Figure A are more accurate than those in Figure B.
D) The y-axis in Figure A has been shortened, which exaggerates the differences between the groups.

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Use the following to answer questions
This figure depicts the results of a study by Ahluwalia et al.(2006) investigating the effects of two types of gum (placebo or nicotine) and two types of counseling (educational or motivational) in helping people to stop smoking.
Figure: Smoking Cessation
-(Figure: Smoking Cessation) Which Figure, A or B, would be the best figure to use when presenting the results of this study and why?
A) Either graph would be perfectly acceptable for presenting the results of the study.
B) Figure A would be the best because it depicts the tallest bars.
C) Figure B would be the best because the y-axis depicts the actual possible values on the dependent measure.
D) Neither graph would be acceptable when presenting the results of the study.

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Use the following to answer questions
Figure: Class Rank
-(Figure: Class Rank) From this graph, one knows with certainty that a person with a class rank of 60 in the freshman year would have a class rank of 60 in his or her senior year.This statement is an example of a(n) _____ lie.
A) extrapolation
B) sneaky sample
C) interpolation
D) inaccurate values

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Use the following to answer questions
Figure: Class Rank
-(Figure: Class Rank) The type of graph depicted in the figure is a:
A) scatterplot.
B) histogram.
C) Pareto chart.
D) range-frame.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Use the following to answer questions
Figure: Class Rank
-(Figure: Class Rank) Given the construction of this graph, what is the dependent variable?
A) junior class rank
B) freshman class rank
C) senior class rank
D) sophomore class rank

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

Use the following to answer questions
Figure: Class Rank
-(Figure: Class Rank) Given the construction of this graph, what is the independent variable?
A) junior class rank
B) freshman class rank
C) senior class rank
D) sophomore class rank

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Use the following to answer questions
Figure: Class Rank
-(Figure: Class Rank) Based on this graph, what type of relation exists between freshman class rank and senior class rank?
A) linear
B) nonlinear
C) curvilinear
D) negative

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Use the following to answer questions
This figure depicts the typical relation found between a person's age (in years) and his or her reaction time in a simple reaction time task (e.g., time to press a button when a light turns green).
Figure: Age and Reaction Time
-(Figure: Age and Reaction Time) If one were to assume with certainty that a person who is 2 years old has a reaction time of 9,000 milliseconds, which error would be made?
A) sneaky sample lie
B) interpolation lie
C) extrapolation lie
D) inaccurate values lie

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Use the following to answer questions
This figure depicts the typical relation found between a person's age (in years) and his or her reaction time in a simple reaction time task (e.g., time to press a button when a light turns green).
Figure: Age and Reaction Time
-(Figure: Age and Reaction Time) Based on the graph, what type of relation exists between age and reaction time?
A) linear
B) nonlinear
C) It is not possible to tell, given the information in the graph.
D) There is no relation between age and reaction time.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Use the following to answer questions
This figure depicts the typical relation found between a person's age (in years) and his or her reaction time in a simple reaction time task (e.g., time to press a button when a light turns green).
Figure: Age and Reaction Time
-(Figure: Age and Reaction Time) Which statement best captures what the graph depicts?
A) Reaction time decreases throughout childhood and adolescence, becoming fastest in a person's early 20s, but after that point, reaction time slowly increases as a person continues to age.
B) There is a linear relation between age and reaction time such that reaction time increases with increased age.
C) Reaction time increases throughout childhood and adolescence, becoming slowest in a person's early 20s, but after that point, reaction time slowly decreases as a person continues to age.
D) There is no relation between age and reaction time.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Use the following to answer questions
This graph depicts fictional data that replicate the pattern of performance observed in a study published by Nietfeld and Ender (2003).
Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy
-(Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy) If the graph creator asserts with certainty that a person with a Raven's intelligence test score of 5 would have a teaching efficacy score of 15, the statement would be which kind of lie?
A) biased scale
B) interpolation
C) inaccurate values
D) extrapolation

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Use the following to answer questions
This graph depicts fictional data that replicate the pattern of performance observed in a study published by Nietfeld and Ender (2003).
Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy
-(Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy) What might be one way of improving the readability of the graph?
A) Add some ducks to the graph.
B) Trim the range represented on both axes so that it depicts only values in the actual data set.
C) Use a computer program to put gridlines on the background of the graph.
D) Expand the range represented on both axes so that it depicts values beyond the actual data set for grounding.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Use the following to answer questions
This graph depicts fictional data that replicate the pattern of performance observed in a study published by Nietfeld and Ender (2003).
Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy
-(Figure: Intelligence and Teaching Efficacy) The type of graph depicted in the figure is a:
A) nonlinear relation plot.
B) Pareto chart modified to dot form.
C) scatterplot with a line of best fit.
D) histogram.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A graph that depicts the relation between two scale variables is a:
A) frequency table.
B) bar graph.
C) time series plot.
D) scatterplot.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A researcher investigated the relationship between IQ and years of education.What type of graph should the researcher use to illustrate his findings?
A) bar graph
B) scatterplot
C) line graph
D) frequency polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

The first step in creating a scatterplot is to:
A) make a mark on the graph above each study participant's score on the x- and y-axes.
B) label the horizontal x-axis with the name of the independent variable and its possible values.
C) label the vertical y-axis with the name of the dependent variable and its possible values.
D) organize the data by participant.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Cut marks are sometimes used on an axis to indicate that the axis starts at a value other than:
A) zero.
B) the lowest possible score.
C) the largest possible score.
D) a positive number.

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

The last step in creating a scatterplot is to:
A) make a mark on the graph above each study participant's score on the x- and y-axes.
B) label the horizontal x-axis with the name of the independent variable and its possible values.
C) label the vertical y-axis with the name of the dependent variable and its possible values.
D) organize the data by participant.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Scatterplots are often used to assess what type of pattern the data create.For example, when the data form a pattern that flows upward and toward the right, this is considered to be a(n):
A) increasing nonlinear relation.
B) negative nonlinear relation.
C) positive linear relation.
D) negative linear relation.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Scatterplots are often used to assess what type of pattern the data create.For example, when the data form a pattern that flows downward and toward the right, this is considered to be a(n):
A) increasing nonlinear relation.
B) negative nonlinear relation.
C) positive linear relation.
D) negative linear relation.

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

When the data on a scatterplot form a pattern that breaks or bends to form a curve, these data are considered to be related in a(n) _____ way.
A) unmeaningful
B) nonlinear
C) unpredictable
D) linear

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Line graphs can offer additional information to scatterplots by including a line:
A) that shows predicted y scores for each x value.
B) of best fit rather than the individual data points.
C) that shows predicted x scores for each y value.
D) representing the relation of variables over time.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

The _____ allows researchers to make predictions from a person's value on one variable to a person's value on another variable.
A) linear relationship line
B) nonlinear relationship line
C) line of best fit
D) time plot line

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

Line graphs are used to represent the relation between two scale variables.Two common types of relations depicted in these graphs are:
A) the predicted value of a dependent variable for each value of an independent variable and the change in a variable over time.
B) linear relations and nonlinear relations.
C) the predicted value of a dependent variable for each value of an independent variable and the line of best fit.
D) time and change, as well as nonlinear relations.

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

A time plot is also known as a:
A) scatterplot.
B) time series plot.
C) line graph.
D) bar graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

Use the following to answer question
This figure depicts gas prices for the month of August from 1976 to 2004.(Data were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site.)
Figure: Gas Prices
-(Figure: Gas Prices) Identify the type of graph depicted in the figure.
A) histogram
B) time series plot
C) Pareto chart
D) line graph

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

A type of line graph used to depict changes in a dependent variable over time is a:
A) scatterplot.
B) histogram.
C) time series plot.
D) line graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

Which of these would be appropriate to depict on a time series plot?
A) life span duration for different breeds of dogs
B) hours of day and preference for dinner time for males versus females
C) the amount of water used in a shower before and after the installation of water-saving devices
D) airline tickets sales by month of year

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

A researcher was interested in measuring reaction time differences between men and women on a computerized task.What is the dependent variable?
A) researcher
B) computerized task
C) reaction time
D) gender

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

On a histogram the y-axis depicts counts or frequencies, while on a bar graph the y-axis depicts _____.
A) levels of a nominal variable
B) counts or percentages
C) the independent variable
D) the dependent variable

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

On a histogram the x-axis depicts the values of a scale variable, while on a bar graph the x-axis depicts the values of _____ variable.
A) the dependent
B) a scale
C) a nominal or ordinal
D) counts or percentages

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

What is a Pareto chart?
A) a bar graph with the bars ordered from highest (on the left) to lowest (on the right)
B) a line graph with bars depicted in three dimensions
C) a bar graph in which all the bars are stacked on top of one another
D) a pictorial graph that uses a symbol to represent the scale dependent variable

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

What is a potential benefit of creating a Pareto chart rather than a bar graph?
A) A Pareto chart is easier to create than a bar graph.
B) A Pareto chart looks more sophisticated than a bar graph.
C) A Pareto chart makes it easier to compare the magnitude of the dependent variable for different levels of the independent variable.
D) A Pareto chart uses pictorial symbols to make it easier to compare results.

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

The term levels refers to:
A) continuous variables.
B) linear relationships.
C) bar graphs.
D) categories.

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

Popular magazines and Internet sources often use _____ to display information, which tend to confuse rather than clarify information.
A) pie charts
B) line graphs
C) pictorial graphs
D) scatterplots

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

In a _____ images are used at each level of the independent variable to represent its value on the dependent variable.
A) scatterplot
B) time series plot
C) pictorial graph
D) bar graph

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

In a pictorial graph, images are used at each level of the _____ variable to represent its value on the _____ variable.
A) independent; dependent
B) dependent; independent
C) scale; nominal
D) scale; dependent

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Pictorial graphs are sometimes used when the independent variables has _____ categories.
A) only a few
B) a great number of
C) more than three
D) scale measurement

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

In a pie chart, the slices represent:
A) categories of the dependent variable.
B) levels of the independent variable.
C) values that would appear on the y-axis.
D) more than bars on a bar chart represent.

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Pie charts represent the percent or proportion of each observed category through the:
A) size of each slice of the pie.
B) color of each slice of the pie.
C) number of slices into which the pie is divided.
D) orientation of the pie on the page.

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

To graph the frequencies of one scale variable, use a:
A) scatterplot or line graph.
B) Pareto chart.
C) histogram or frequency polygon.
D) bar graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

If graphing one scale independent variable and one scale dependent variable, use a:
A) scatterplot or line graph.
B) Pareto chart.
C) histogram or frequency polygon.
D) bar graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

If graphing one nominal independent variable and one scale dependent variable, use a:
A) scatterplot or line graph.
B) frequency polygon.
C) histogram.
D) bar graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

If graphing two or more nominal independent variables and one scale dependent variable, use a:
A) scatterplot or line graph.
B) Pareto chart.
C) histogram or frequency polygon.
D) bar graph.

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

_____ refer(s) to any unnecessary information in a chart that is distracting.
A) Chartjunk
B) Grids
C) Ducks
D) Moiré vibrations

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

Any background pattern on which graphs appear is a form of chartjunk called:
A) background noise.
B) grids.
C) moiré vibrations.
D) ducks.

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

A bar graph summarizing the height of buildings in a major city depicts the bars as three-dimensional skyscrapers.The appearances of the bars qualify as which type of chartjunk?
A) grids
B) moiré vibrations
C) ducks
D) defaults

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

When constructing a graph, it is better to make one's own, intentional decisions about its appearance than to rely on computer:
A) defaults.
B) multivariable graphs.
C) programs.
D) interactive graphs.

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Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

_____ allow one to connect points on a map with data points located in space, such as homes for sale.
A) Pictorial graphs
B) Geographic information systems (GIS)
C) Interactive graphs
D) Word clouds

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Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

A bubble graph is one that:
A) is similar to a pie chart but is depicted as a bubble.
B) includes captions to explain each data point.
C) can display multiple variables.
D) portrays data such as income and life expectancy.

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Multiple Choice

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True False

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True False

Q 60Q 60

The lie of interpolation assumes that a trend in the data extends beyond the bounds of the measurement scale.

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True False

Q 61Q 61

The lie of extrapolation assumes that values beyond the data points will continue indefinitely, while the lie of interpolation assumes that some value between the data points lies on a straight line between those data points.

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True False

Q 62Q 62

The lie of interpolation assumes that values beyond the data points will continue indefinitely, while the lie of extrapolation assumes that some value between the data points lies on a straight line between those data points.

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True False

Q 63Q 63

An inaccurate values lie tells the truth in one part of the data but visually distorts it in another place.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 72Q 72

The y-axis on a graph should start with 0, or have cut marks to indicate that it does not go down to 0.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 75Q 75

It is always best to use the program defaults when creating graphs using computer software programs.

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True False

Q 76Q 76

Geographic information systems is an innovation in graphing that has abundant application in geography but not in other social sciences.

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True False

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True False

Q 78Q 78

A pie chart is a type of multivariable graph that allows you to plot numerous variables simultaneously.

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True False

Q 79Q 79

A graph showing new job growth by month from September 2013 to December 2013 shows a steady increase.A popular news magazine makes the claim that the job outlook is great for the New Year and beyond.This is an example of a(n) _____ lie.
A) sneaky sample
B) extrapolation
C) biased scale
D) interpolation

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

A pictorial graph that shows fire danger levels in Phoenix, Arizona, across the weeks of the summer might portray the risk each week as a flame, with larger flames corresponding to greater risk.However, the size of the flames varies in both height and width, resulting in an exaggerated impression of fire danger levels as the risk increases.This type of pictorial graph misleads readers through the _____ lie.
A) inaccurate values
B) biased scale
C) sneaky sample
D) interpolation

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

An insurance company hires Ulrich to explain car accidents that are the result of people who look at the road while driving but do not see an oncoming car, a type of accident labeled as "driver looked but did not see." Ulrich creates an experiment in which participants see two pictures flashing on a computer screen.Both pictures show the same scene but one is slightly different.Ulrich records how long it takes people to notice the change (reaction time) and how many sets of pictures they view during a 5-minute session.What should Ulrich include on a scatterplot to most effectively describe these data?
A) reaction time and gender
B) reaction time and total study time
C) reaction time and number of pictures viewed
D) number of pictures viewed and gender

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Multiple Choice

Q 82Q 82

To test whether a chemical found in many common plastic items is toxic, researchers fed different amounts of the chemical (from 0 to 20 micrograms) to mice and later performed a blood test to determine the amount of toxins present in each mouse.To create a scatterplot of the data, which variable should be listed on the x-axis?
A) independent variable, which is the amount of the chemical given to the mice
B) dependent variable, which is the amount of the chemical given to the mice
C) independent variable, which is the amount of toxins present in the blood test
D) dependent variable, which is the amount of toxins present in the blood test

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Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

_____ are an efficient way to visually display data to identify whether there is a linear or nonlinear relation between scale variables.
A) Histograms
B) Bar graphs
C) Time plots
D) Scatterplots

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Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

Line graphs are similar to scatterplots in that they display the relation between two _____ variables, but line graphs can also represent _____ y scores, given each x value.
A) scale; predicted
B) ordinal; predicted
C) nominal; ordinal
D) scale; scale

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Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

Tori wants to graph the relation between number of hours spent studying and type of major (pre-med, pre-law, and the sciences).What should be listed on the y-axis?
A) type of major; alphabetize the labels
B) number of hours spent studying, ranging from the lowest to the highest mean value
C) number of hours spent studying, ranging from 0 to the highest mean value
D) type of major; organize the labels by highest to lowest mean values

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Multiple Choice

Q 86Q 86

A private high school wants to show that students' test scores are superior to those of another school in the district.The administration creates a bar graph showing a very tall bar representing the private school's mean test score and a very short bar representing the mean score for the other school.What part of the graph would show if the private school is exaggerating the difference between schools?
A) labels on the x-axis
B) range of values on the x-axis
C) labels on the y-axis
D) range of values on the y-axis

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Multiple Choice

Q 87Q 87

Kurt is presenting data on how often owners give treats to their pets.He uses pictures of fish for cat treats and pictures of bones for dog treats in a graph of the data.Although this graph may look interesting, why should Kurt consider using a different type of graph?
A) Pictorial graphs are used only in research journals.
B) Bar graphs are supposed to include pictures or symbols to depict categories of the independent variable.
C) Pictorial graphs may mislead the audience and detract from the actual relation between variables.
D) Pictorial graphs do not present actual data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 88Q 88

In a pie chart, each slice represents a level on the _____ variable.
A) linear
B) independent
C) scale
D) dependent

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Multiple Choice

Q 89Q 89

What should be kept in mind when organizing data in graphs?
A) exclude outliers to reduce skew of data
B) distribution of the data
C) source from which data is collected
D) type of variable being examined and the independent and dependent variables

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Multiple Choice

Q 90Q 90

A group of students graphs the number of gold medals won by each country during the Olympics.What type of graph should be used and what should the x-axis include?
A) bar graph; list of countries
B) bar graph; number of gold medals won
C) line graph; list of countries
D) line graph; number of gold medals won

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Multiple Choice

Q 91Q 91

Which of these is an example of the clinical application of graphs?
A) depression levels plotted against number of treatment sessions, shown in comparison to expected outcomes
B) house prices plotted against marketing expenses, displayed on a map to show prices as a function of location
C) bubble graphs that allow multiple variables to be displayed simultaneously
D) a graph showing a time line with points along that line that can be accessed to learn more information about the events that occurred in history

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Multiple Choice

Q 92Q 92

The background images or patterns often included in visual displays of data are known as:
A) chart-fill.
B) moiré vibrations.
C) grids.
D) ducks.

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Multiple Choice

Q 93Q 93

The cutesy images used to represent data in pictorial graphs could be considered an example of:
A) moiré vibrations.
B) ducks.
C) chart-fill.
D) grids.

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Multiple Choice

Q 94Q 94

A researcher finds that first-year college students have a more positive outlook about their future job prospects compared to seniors who are about to graduate.The researcher infers that outlook decreases steadily with each year, including across the sophomore and junior years of college.This could represent a(n) _____ lie.
A) sneaky sample
B) biased scale
C) interpolation
D) extrapolation

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Multiple Choice

Q 95Q 95

When constructing graphs, it is best to include the zero value on both axes:
A) when it is practical.
B) always.
C) never.
D) only when 0 is a data point measured.

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Multiple Choice

Q 96Q 96

Scatterplots visually depict the type of relation between two variables, such as a _____ relation, where the data fall along a straight line, and a _____ relation, where the data follow a curved or broken pattern.
A) linear; negative
B) nonlinear; linear
C) nonlinear; line of best fit
D) linear; nonlinear

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Multiple Choice

Q 97Q 97

Viri wants to graph the number of hours of physical activity of a specific group of children over time, following them from the ages of 2 to 17 years.What would be the BEST type of graph for these longitudinal data?
A) scatterplot
B) line graph
C) time plot
D) bar graph

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Multiple Choice

Q 98Q 98

A _____ depicts the relation between two scale variables, whereas a _____ displays values of a scale variable within different categories of a nominal variable.
A) scatterplot; bar graph
B) line graph; scatterplot
C) bar graph; pictorial graph
D) pictorial graph; pie chart

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Multiple Choice

Q 99Q 99

Sun is reading an article about autism rates and how they are increasing in a majority of Western countries around the world.She notices that the authors incorrectly used a line graph to depict the number of autism diagnoses in five different countries, which is a nominal variable.What type of graph should have been created to represent the autism rates in different regions of the world?
A) scatterplot
B) time series plot
C) line graph
D) bar graph

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Multiple Choice

Q 100Q 100

What type of bar graph orders the categories on the x-axis from highest bar on the left to lowest bar on the right?
A) scatterplot
B) Pareto chart
C) line graph
D) pictorial graph

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Multiple Choice

Q 101Q 101

Bar graphs are highly informative, but they can also be deceiving because what seems to be a significant difference in means may actually be a small difference.What part of the graph reveals whether a difference in means is exaggerated?
A) labels on the x-axis
B) range of values on the y-axis
C) labels on the y-axis
D) range of values on the x-axis

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Multiple Choice

Q 102Q 102

Why are pictorial graphs typically used only in popular magazines, not in scientific journals?
A) Pictorial graphs cannot represent the independent and dependent variables.
B) Pictorial graphs use pictures or symbols to depict the independent variable.
C) Pictorial graphs are too expensive to print in scientific journals.
D) Pictorial graphs are eye-catching but often misleading and distracting.

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Multiple Choice

Q 103Q 103

The size of each slice in a pie chart represents:
A) the proportion of each category.
B) levels of the independent variable.
C) nominal categories.
D) the independent variable.

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Multiple Choice

Q 104Q 104

When one has a scale variable based on frequencies, what type of graph should be used?
A) line graph or bar graph
B) scatterplot or line graph
C) histogram or frequency polygon
D) pictorial graph or frequency polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 105Q 105

When plotting two scale variables, a _____ is the best graph option.
A) bar graph
B) pictorial graph
C) line graph
D) frequency polygon

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Multiple Choice

Q 106Q 106

When reading a graph, one of the first questions you should ask yourself is what is being predicted, or what the _____ variable is.
A) dependent
B) nominal
C) independent
D) scale

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Multiple Choice

Q 107Q 107

_____ are a form of chartjunk that refer to visual patterns that computers provide as options to fill in the bars.
A) Moiré vibrations
B) Ducks
C) Grids
D) Scatterplots

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Multiple Choice

Q 108Q 108

A graph of floral growth as a function of fertilizer portrays the data as flowers.The flowers are examples of:
A) moiré vibrations.
B) ducks.
C) grids.
D) categorical variables.

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Multiple Choice