# Quiz 36: Diffraction

Physics & Astronomy

Q 1Q 1

Sound differs from light in that sound:
A)is not subject to diffraction
B)is a torsional wave rather than a longitudinal wave
C)does not require energy for its origin
D)is a longitudinal wave rather than a transverse wave
E)is always monochromatic

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 2Q 2

Radio waves are readily diffracted around buildings whereas light waves are negligibly diffracted around buildings.This is because radio waves:
A)are plane polarized
B)have much longer wavelengths than light waves
C)have much shorter wavelengths than light waves
D)are nearly monochromatic (single frequency)
E)are amplitude modulated (AM)

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 3Q 3

Diffraction plays an important role in which of the following phenomena?
A)The sun appears as a disk rather than a point to the naked eye
B)Light is bent as it passes through a glass prism
C)A cheerleader yells through a megaphone
D)A farsighted person uses eyeglasses of positive focal length
E)A thin soap film exhibits colors when illuminated with white light

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

The rainbow seen after a rain shower is caused by:
A)diffraction
B)interference
C)refraction
D)polarization
E)absorption

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

When a highly coherent beam of light is directed against a very fine wire, the shadow formed behind it is not just that of a single wire but rather looks like the shadow of several parallel wires.The explanation of this involves:
A)refraction
B)diffraction
C)reflection
D)Doppler effect
E)an optical illusion

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

When the atmosphere is not quite clear, one may sometimes see colored circles concentric with the Sun or the Moon.These are generally not more than a few diameters of the Sun or Moon and invariably the innermost ring is blue.The explanation for these phenomena involves:
A)reflection
B)refraction
C)interference
D)diffraction
E)Doppler effect

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

The shimmering or wavy lines that can often be seen near the ground on a hot day are due to:
A)Brownian movement
B)reflection
C)refraction
D)diffraction
E)dispersion

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

In order to obtain a single-slit diffraction pattern with a central maximum and several secondary maxima, the slit width could be:
A)
B)/10
C)10
D)10

^{4} E)/10^{4}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

A point source of monochromatic light is placed in front of a soccer ball and a screen is placed behind the ball.The light intensity pattern on the screen is best described as:
A)a dark disk on a bright background
B)a dark disk with bright rings outside
C)a dark disk with a bright spot at its center
D)a dark disk with a bright spot at its center and bright rings outside
E)a bright disk with bright rings outside

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

At the first minimum adjacent to the central maximum of a single-slit diffraction pattern the phase difference between the Huygens wavelet from the top of the slit and the wavelet from the midpoint of the slit is:
A)/8 rad
B)/4 rad
C)/2 rad
D) rad
E)3/2 rad

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

At the second minimum adjacent to the central maximum of a single-slit diffraction pattern the Huygens wavelet from the top of the slit is 180 out of phase with the wavelet from:
A)a point one-fourth of the slit width from the top
B)the midpoint of the slit
C)a point one-fourth of the slit width from the bottom of the slit
D)the bottom of the slit
E)none of these

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

A plane wave with a wavelength of 500 nm is incident normally on a single slit with a width of 5.0 10

^{-6}m.Consider waves that reach a point on a far-away screen such that rays from the slit make an angle of 1.0 with the normal.The difference in phase for waves from the top and bottom of the slit is: A)0 rad B)0.55 rad C)1.1 rad D)1.6 rad E)2.2 radFree

Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

In the equation sin= /a for single-slit diffraction, is:
A)the angle to the first minimum
B)the angle to the second maximum
C)the phase angle between the extreme rays
D)N where N is an integer
E)(N + 1/2) where N is an integer

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

No fringes are seen in a single-slit diffraction pattern if:
A)the screen is far away
B)the wavelength is less than the slit width
C)the wavelength is greater than the slit width
D)the wavelength is less than the distance to the screen
E)the distance to the screen is greater than the slit width

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

The diagram shows a single slit with the direction to a point P on a distant screen (not shown).At P, the pattern has its second minimum (from its central maximum).If X and Y are the edges of the slit, what is the path length difference (PX)- (PY)?
A)/2
B)
C)3/2
D)2
E)5/2

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

The diagram shows a single slit with the direction to a point P on a distant screen (not shown).At P, the pattern has its maximum nearest the central maximum.If X and Y are the edges of the slit, what is the path length difference (PX)- (PY)?
A)/2
B)
C)3/2
D)2
E)5/2

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Consider a single-slit diffraction pattern caused by a slit of width a.There is a minimum at sinequal to:
A)exactly /a
B)slightly more than /a
C)slightly less than /a
D)exactly /2a
E)very nearly /2a

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Monochromatic plane waves of light are incident normally on a single slit.Which one of the five figures below most correctly shows the diffraction pattern observed on a distant screen?
A)I
B)II
C)III
D)IV
E)V

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A student wishes to produce a single-slit diffraction pattern in a ripple tank experiment.He considers the following parameters: Which two of the above should be decreased to produce more bending?
A)I, III
B)I, IV
C)II, III
D)II, IV
E)III, IV

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

A parallel beam of monochromatic light is incident on a slit of width 2 cm.The light passing through the slit falls on a screen 2 m away.As the slit width is decreased:
A)the width of the pattern on the screen continuously decreases
B)the width of the pattern on the screen at first decreases but then increases
C)the width of the pattern on the screen increases and then decreases
D)the width of the pattern on the screen remains the same
E)the width of the pattern on the screen continuously increases

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A diffraction pattern is produced on a viewing screen by illuminating a long narrow slit with light of wavelength .If is increased and no other changes are made:
A)the intensity at the center of the pattern decreases and the pattern expands away from the bright center
B)the intensity at the center of the pattern increases and the pattern contracts toward the bright center
C)the intensity at the center of the pattern does not change and the pattern expands away from the bright center
D)the intensity at the center of the pattern does not change and the pattern contracts toward the bright center
E)neither the intensity at the center of the pattern nor the pattern itself change

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A diffraction pattern is produced on a viewing screen by illuminating a long narrow slit with light of wavelength .If the slit width is decreased and no other changes are made:
A)the intensity at the center of the pattern decreases and the pattern expands away from the bright center
B)the intensity at the center increases and the pattern contracts toward the bright center
C)the intensity at the center of the pattern does not change and the pattern expands away from the bright center
D)the intensity at the center of the pattern does not change and the pattern contracts toward the bright center
E)neither the intensity at the center of the pattern nor the pattern itself change

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

In a single-slit diffraction pattern, the central maximum is about twice as wide as the other maxima.This is because:
A)half the light is diffracted up and half is diffracted down
B)the central maximum has both electric and magnetic fields present
C)the small angle approximation applies only near the central maximum
D)the screen is flat instead of spherical
E)none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

The intensity at a secondary maximum of a single-slit diffraction pattern is less than the intensity at the central maximum chiefly because:
A)some Huygens wavelets sum to zero at the secondary maximum but not at the central maximum
B)the secondary maximum is further from the slits than the central maximum and intensity decreases as the square of the distance
C)the Huygens construction is not valid for a secondary maximum
D)the amplitude of every Huygens wavelet is smaller when it travels to a secondary maximum than when it travels to the central maximum
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Two wavelengths, 800 nm and 600 nm, are used separately in single-slit diffraction experiments.The diagram shows the intensities on a far-away viewing screen as function of the angle made by the rays with the straight-ahead direction.If both wavelengths are then used simultaneously, which point corresponds to the smallest angle at which the light on the screen is purely 800-nm light?
A)A
B)B
C)C
D)D
E)E

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

The intensity of the single-slit diffraction pattern at any angle θ is given by .For light of wavelength 480 nm falling on a slit of width 3.5 µm, what is the value of α when θ = 18°?
A)0.31 rad
B)2.3 rad
C)7.1 rad
D)7.3 rad
E)9.8 rad

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Light of wavelength 480 nm falls on a slit of width 3.5 µm.What is the relative intensity (that is, the value of I/I

_{m})of the diffraction pattern at an angle of 18°? A)2.4 x 10^{-4}B)1.7 x 10^{-3}C)1.1 x 10^{-2}D)1.0 x 10^{-1}E)1.0Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

A diffraction-limited laser of length ℓ and aperture diameter d generates light of wavelength .If the beam is directed at the surface of the Moon a distance D away, the radius of the illuminated area on the moon is approximately:
A)dD/ ℓ
B)dD/
C)D ℓ
D)D/d
E)ℓd

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Two stars that are close together are photographed through a telescope.The black and white film is equally sensitive to all colors.Which situation would result in the most clearly separated images of the stars?
A)Small lens, red stars
B)Small lens, blue stars
C)Large lens, red stars
D)Large lens, blue stars
E)Large lens, one star red and the other blue

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

The resolving power of a telescope can be increased by:
A)increasing the objective focal length and decreasing the eyepiece focal length
B)increasing the lens diameters
C)decreasing the lens diameters
D)inserting a correction lens between objective and eyepiece
E)none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

Figure (i)shows a double-slit pattern obtained using monochromatic light.Consider the following five possible changes in conditions: Which of the above would change Figure (i)into Figure (ii)?
A)3 only
B)5 only
C)1 and 3 only
D)1 and 5 only
E)2 and 4 only

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Two slits of width a and separation d are illuminated by a beam of light of wavelength .The separation of the interference fringes on a screen a distance D away is:
A)a/D
B)d/D
C)D/d
D)dD/
E)D/a

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

If we increase the wavelength of the light used to form a double-slit diffraction pattern:
A)the width of the central diffraction peak increases and the number of bright fringes within the peak increases
B)the width of the central diffraction peak increases and the number of bright fringes within the peak decreases
C)the width of the central diffraction peak decreases and the number of bright fringes within the peak increases
D)the width of the central diffraction peak decreases and the number of bright fringes within the peak decreases
E)the width of the central diffraction peak increases and the number of bright fringes within the peak stays the same

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

Two slits in an opaque barrier each have a width of 0.020 mm and are separated by 0.050 mm.When coherent monochromatic light passes through the slits the number of interference maxima within the central diffraction maximum:
A)is 1
B)is 2
C)is 4
D)is 5
E)cannot be determined unless the wavelength is given

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

When 450-nm light is incident normally on a certain double-slit system the number of interference maxima within the central diffraction maximum is 5.When 900-nm light is incident on the same slit system the number is:
A)2
B)3
C)5
D)9
E)10

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

In a double-slit diffraction experiment the number of interference fringes within the central diffraction maximum can be increased by:
A)increasing the wavelength
B)decreasing the wavelength
C)increasing the slit separation
D)decreasing the slit width
E)increasing the slit width

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

In the equation d sin= m for the lines of a diffraction grating, d is:
A)the number of slits
B)the slit width
C)the slit separation
D)the order of the line
E)the index of refraction

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

A light spectrum is formed on a screen using a diffraction grating.The entire apparatus (source, grating and screen)is now immersed in a liquid of index 1.33.As a result, the pattern on the screen:
A)remains the same
B)spreads out
C)crowds together
D)becomes reversed, with the previously blue end becoming red
E)disappears because the index isn't an integer

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

At a bright diffraction line phasors associated with waves from the slits of a multiple-slit barrier:
A)are aligned
B)form a closed polygon
C)form a polygon with several sides missing
D)are parallel but adjacent phasors point in opposite directions
E)form the arc of a circle

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

For a certain multiple-slit barrier the slit separation is 4 times the slit width.For this system:
A)the orders of the lines that appear are all multiples of 4
B)the orders of the lines that appear are all multiples of 2
C)the orders of the missing lines are all multiples of 4
D)the orders of the missing lines are all multiples of 2
E)none of the above are true

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

Light of wavelength is normally incident on some plane optical device.The intensity pattern shown is observed on a distant screen (is the angle measured to the normal of the device).The device could be:
A)a single slit of width W
B)a single slit of width 2W
C)two narrow slits with separation W
D)two narrow slits with separation 2W
E)a diffraction grating with slit separation W

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

A person with her eye relaxed looks through a diffraction grating at a distant monochromatic point source of light.The slits of the grating are vertical.She sees:
A)one point of light
B)a hazy horizontal strip of light of the same color as the source
C)a hazy strip of light varying from violet to red
D)a sequence of horizontal points of light
E)a sequence of closely spaced vertical lines

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

In the equation d sin= m for the lines of a diffraction grating, m is:
A)the number of slits
B)the slit width
C)the slit separation
D)the order of the line
E)the index of refraction

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

In the equation d sin= m for the lines of a diffraction grating, d sinis:
A)the number of slits
B)the slit width
C)the slit separation
D)the order of the line
E)the path length difference

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

An N-slit system has slit separation d and slit width a.Plane waves with intensity I and wavelength are incident normally on it.The angular separation of the lines depends only on:
A)a and N
B)a and
C)N and
D)d and
E)I and N

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

600-nm light is incident on a diffraction grating with a ruling separation of 1.7 10

^{-6}m.The second order line occurs at a diffraction angle of: A)0° B)10 C)21 D)42 E)45Free

Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Monochromatic light is normally incident on a diffraction grating that is 1 cm wide and has 10,000 slits.The first order line is deviated at a 30 angle.What is the wavelength of the incident light?
A)300 nm
B)400 nm
C)500 nm
D)600 nm
E)1000 nm

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The spacing between adjacent slits on a diffraction grating is 3.The deviation of the first order diffracted beam is given by:
A)sin(/2)= 1/3
B)sin(/3)= 2/3
C)sin()= 1/3
D)tan(/2)= 1/3
E)tan()= 2/3

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

When light of a certain wavelength is incident normally on a certain diffraction grating the line of order 1 is at a diffraction angle of 25.The diffraction angle for the second order line is:
A)25
B)42
C)50
D)58
E)75

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

A diffraction grating of width W produces a deviation in second order for light of wavelength .The total number N of slits in the grating is given by:
A)2W/sin
B)(W/)sin
C)W/2sin
D)(W/2)sin
E)2/sin

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

Light of wavelength is normally incident on a diffraction grating G.On the screen S, the central line is at P and the first order line is at Q, as shown.The distance between adjacent slits in the grating is:
A)3/5
B)3/4
C)4/5
D)5/4
E)5/3

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

A mixture of 450-nm and 900-nm light is incident on a multiple-slit system.Which of the following is true?
A)All lines of the 900-nm light coincide with lines of the 450-nm light
B)All lines of the 450-nm light coincide with lines of the 900-nm light
C)None of the lines of the 900-nm light coincide with lines of the 450-nm light
D)None of the lines of the 450-nm light coincide with lines of the 900-nm light
E)None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

A beam of white light (from 400 nm for violet to 700 nm for red)is normally incident on a diffraction grating.It produces two orders on a distant screen.Which diagram below (R = red, V = violet)correctly shows the pattern on the screen?
A)I.
B)II.
C)III.
D)IV.
E)V.

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

If white light is incident on a diffraction grating:
A)the first order lines for all visible wavelengths occur at smaller diffraction angles than any of the second order lines
B)some first order lines overlap the second order lines if the ruling separation is small but do not if it is large
C)some first order lines overlap second order lines if the ruling separation is large but do not if it is small
D)some first order lines overlap second order lines no matter what the ruling separation
E)first and second order lines have the same range of diffraction angles

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

Monochromatic light is normally incident on a diffraction grating.The m

^{th}order line is at an angle of diffraction and has width w.A wide single slit is now placed in front of the grating and its width is then slowly reduced.As a result: A)both and w increase B)both and w decrease C)remains the same and w increases D)remains the same and w decreases E)decreases and w increasesFree

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

If 550-nm light is incident normally on a diffraction grating and exactly 6 lines are produced, the ruling separation must be:
A)between 2.75 10

^{}^{6}m and 5.50 10^{}^{6}^{}m B)between 5.50 10^{}^{6}m and 1.10 10^{}^{5}m C)between 3.30 10^{}^{6}m and 3.85 10^{}^{6}m D)between 3.85 10^{}^{6}m and 4.40 10^{}^{6}m E)between 2.20 10^{}^{6}m and 3.30 10^{}^{6}mFree

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

Light of wavelength 550 nm is incident on a diffraction grating that is 1 cm wide and has 1000 slits.What is the half-width of the m = 1 line?
A)5.5 x 10

^{-5}rad B)5.5 x 10^{-4}rad C)5.5 x 10^{-3}rad D)5.5 x 10^{-2}rad E)5.5 x 10^{-1}radFree

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

As more slits with the same spacing are added to a multiple-slit system the lines:
A)spread further apart
B)move closer together
C)become wider
D)become narrower
E)do not change in position or width

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Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

The widths of the lines produced by monochromatic light falling on a diffraction grating can be reduced by:
A)increasing the wavelength of the light
B)increasing the number of rulings without changing their spacing
C)decreasing the spacing between adjacent rulings without changing the number of rulings
D)decreasing both the wavelength and the spacing between rulings by the same factor
E)increasing the number of rulings and decreasing their spacing so the length of the grating remains the same

Free

Multiple Choice

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

The resolving power R of a grating can have units:
A)cm
B)degree/nm
C)watt
D)nm/cm
E)watt/nm

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

The resolving power of a diffraction grating is defined by R = /.Here and + are:
A)any two wavelengths
B)any two wavelengths that are nearly the same
C)two wavelengths for which lines of the same order are separated by radians
D)two wavelengths for which lines of the same order are separated by 2 radians
E)two wavelengths for which lines of the same order are separated by half the width of a maximum

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

The dispersion of a diffraction grating indicates:
A)the resolution of the grating
B)the separation of lines of the same order
C)the number of rulings in the grating
D)the width of the lines
E)the spreading apart of diffraction lines associated with different wavelengths

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

A light beam incident on a diffraction grating consists of waves with two different wavelengths.The separation of the two first order lines is great if:
A)the dispersion is great
B)the resolution is great
C)the dispersion is small
D)the resolution is small
E)none of the above (line separation does not depend on either dispersion or resolution)

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Light of wavelength 550 nm is incident on a diffraction grating that is 1 cm wide and has 1000 slits.What is the dispersion of the m = 2 line?
A)2.0 x 10

^{5}rad/m B)2.0 x 10^{4}rad/m C)2.0 x 10^{3}rad/m D)2.0 x 10^{2}rad/m E)2.0 x 10^{1}rad/mFree

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

To obtain greater dispersion by a diffraction grating:
A)the slit width should be increased
B)the slit width should be decreased
C)the slit separation should be increased
D)the slit separation should be decreased
E)more slits with the same width and separation should be added to the system

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

Two nearly equal wavelengths of light are incident on an N slit grating.The two wavelengths are not resolvable.When N is increased they become resolvable.This is because:
A)more light gets through the grating
B)the lines get more intense
C)the entire pattern spreads out
D)there are more orders present
E)the lines become more narrow

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

A diffraction grating just resolves the wavelengths 400.0 nm and 400.1 nm in first order.The number of slits in the grating is:
A)400
B)1000
C)2500
D)4000
E)not enough information is given

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Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

What is the minimum number of slits required in a diffraction grating to just resolve light with wavelengths of 471.0 nm and 471.6 nm?
A)99
B)197
C)393
D)786
E)1179

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

Bragg's law for x-ray diffraction is 2d sin= m.The quantity d is:
A)the height of a unit cell
B)the smallest interatomic distance
C)the distance from detector to sample
D)the distance between planes of atoms
E)the usual calculus symbol for a differential

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

Which of the following is true for Bragg diffraction but not for diffraction from a grating?
A)Two different wavelengths may be used
B)For a given wavelength, a maximum may exist in several directions
C)Long waves are deviated more than short ones
D)There is only one grating spacing
E)Maxima occur only for particular angles of incidence

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

X rays are:
A)electromagnetic waves
B)negatively charged ions
C)rapidly moving electrons
D)rapidly moving protons
E)rapidly moving neutrons

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

Bragg's law for x-ray diffraction is 2d sin= m, where is the angle between the incident beam and:
A)a reflecting plane of atoms
B)the normal to a reflecting plane of atoms
C)the scattered beam
D)the normal to the scattered beam
E)the refracted beam

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

The largest x-ray wavelength that can be diffracted by crystal planes with a separation of 0.316 nm is:
A)0.158 nm
B)0.316 nm
C)0.474 nm
D)0.632 nm
E)1.26 nm

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

A beam of x-rays of wavelength 0.20 nm is diffracted by a set of planes in a crystal whose separation is 3.1 10

^{-8}cm.The smallest angle between the beam and the crystal planes for which a reflection occurs is: A)0.70 rad B)0.33 rad C)0.066 rad D)0.033 rad E)0.0033 radFree

Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

An x-ray beam of wavelength 3 10

^{-11}m is incident on a calcite crystal of lattice spacing 0.3 nm.The smallest angle between crystal planes and the x-ray beam which will result in constructive interference is: A)2.9° B)5.7° C)12° D)23° E)none of theseFree

Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

A beam of x rays of wavelength 0.10 nm is found to diffract in second order from the face of a LiF crystal at a Bragg angle of 30.The distance between adjacent crystal planes is about:
A)0.10 nm
B)0.20 nm
C)0.25 nm
D)0.30 nm
E)0.40 nm

Free

Multiple Choice