# Quiz 37: Relativity

Physics & Astronomy

Q 1Q 1

Two events occur simultaneously at separated points on the y axis of reference frame S.According to an observer moving in the positive x direction:
A)the event with the greater y coordinate occurs first
B)the event with the greater y coordinate occurs last
C)either event might occur first, depending on the observer's speed
D)the events are simultaneous
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 2Q 2

A train traveling very fast (v = 0.6c)has an engineer (E)at the front, a guard (G)at the rear and an observer (S')exactly half way between them.Both E and G are equipped with yellow signaling lamps.The train passes a station, closely observed by the station master (S).Both E and G use their lamps to send signals.According to both S and S' these signals arrive simultaneously at the instant S' is passing S.According to S':
A)E and G sent their signals simultaneously from different distances
B)G sent his signal before E and from further away
C)G sent his signal before E but was the same distance away
D)E sent his signal before G and from further away
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

E

Q 3Q 3

A basic postulate of Einstein's theory of relativity is:
A)moving clocks run more slowly than when they are at rest
B)moving rods are shorter than when they are at rest
C)light has both wave and particle properties
D)the laws of physics must be the same for observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other
E)everything is relative

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 4Q 4

The speed of light in vacuum is approximately
A)186,000 miles per hour
B)300,000 km per minute
C)one foot per nanosecond
D)186,000 feet per second
E)300,000 meters per second

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Two events occur simultaneously on the x axis of reference frame S, one at x = a and the other at x = +a.According to an observer moving in the positive x direction:
A)the event at x = +a occurs first
B)the event at x = a occurs first
C)either event might occur first, depending on the value of a and the observer's speed
D)the events are simultaneous
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The proper time between two events is measured by clocks at rest in a reference frame in which the two events:
A)occur at the same time
B)occur at the same coordinates
C)are separated by the distance a light signal can travel during the time interval
D)occur on the Earth's surface
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

The spaceship U.S.S.Enterprise, traveling through the galaxy, sends out a smaller explorer craft that travels to a nearby planet and signals its findings back.The proper time for the trip to the planet is measured by clocks:
A)on board the Enterprise
B)on board the explorer craft
C)on Earth
D)at the center of the galaxy
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

As we watch, a spaceship passes us in time t.The crew of the spaceship measures the passage time and finds it to be t'.Which of the following statements is true?
A)t is the proper time for the passage and it is smaller than t'
B)t is the proper time for the passage and it is greater than t'
C)t' is the proper time for the passage and it is smaller than t
D)t' is the proper time for the passage and it is greater than t
E)None of the above statements are true.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

A millionairess was told in 1992 that she had exactly 15 years to live.However, if she immediately takes off, travels away from the Earth at 0.8 c and then returns at the same speed, the last New Year's Day the doctors expect her to celebrate is:
A)2001
B)2003
C)2007
D)2017
E)2033

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

An observer notices that a moving clock runs slow by a factor of exactly 10.The speed of the clock is:
A)0.0100c
B)0.100c
C)0.900c
D)0.990c
E)0.995c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

A meson when at rest decays 2 s after it is created.If moving in the laboratory at 0.99c, its lifetime according to laboratory clocks would be:
A)the same
B)0.28 s
C)4.6 s
D)14 s
E)none of these

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Pi mesons at rest have a half-life of T.If a beam of pi mesons is traveling at a speed of v = c, the distance in which the intensity of the beam is halved is:
A)cT(1 -

^{2})^{-1/2}B)cT[(1 + )/(1 - )]^{1/2}C)vT D)(1 - ^{2})^{1/2}vT E)none of the aboveFree

Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

A meson moving through a laboratory of length x at a speed v decays after a lifetime T as measured by an observer at rest in the laboratory.If the meson were at rest in the laboratory its lifetime would be:
A)T(1 - v/c)
B)T(1 - v/c)

^{-1}C)T(1 - v^{2}/c^{2})^{-1/2}D)T(1 - v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}E)(T - vx/c^{2})(1 - v^{2}/c^{2})^{-1/2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

A meter stick moves sideways (that is, in a direction perpendicular to its length)at 0.95c.According to measurements taken in the laboratory, its length is:
A)0 m
B)0.098 m
C)0.31 m
D)1.0 m
E)3.2 m

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

A consequence of Einstein's theory of relativity is:
A)moving clocks appear to run more slowly than when they are at rest
B)moving rods appear longer than when they are at rest
C)light has both wave and particle properties
D)the laws of physics must appear the same to all observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other
E)everything is relative

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

According to the theory of relativity:
A)moving clocks run fast
B)energy is not conserved in high speed collisions
C)the speed of light must be measured relative to the ether
D)momentum is not conserved in high speed collisions
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

A measurement of the length of an object that is moving relative to the laboratory consists of noting the coordinates of the front and back:
A)at different times according to clocks at rest in the laboratory
B)at the same time according to clocks that move with the object
C)at the same time according to clocks at rest in the laboratory
D)at the same time according to clocks at rest with respect to the fixed stars
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

A consequence of Einstein's theory of relativity is:
A)moving clocks appear to run faster than when they are at rest
B)moving rods appear shorter than when they are at rest
C)light has both wave and particle properties
D)the laws of physics must appear the same to all observers moving with uniform velocity relative to each other
E)everything is relative

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A meter stick moves in the direction of its length through a laboratory.According to measurements taken in the laboratory, its length is 0.31 m.The speed of the meter stick relative to the laboratory is:
A)0.096c
B)0.31c
C)0.69c
D)0.83c
E)0.95c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

A rocket ship of rest length 100 m is moving at speed 0.8c past a timing device which records the time interval between the passage of the front and back ends of the ship.This time interval is:
A)0.20 s
B)0.25 s
C)0.33 s
D)0.52 s
E)0.69 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A certain automobile is 6.0 m long if at rest.If it is measured to be 4.8 m long while moving, its speed is:
A)0.1c
B)0.3c
C)0.6c
D)0.8c
E)> 0.95c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A clock is moving along the x axis at 0.6c.It reads zero as it passes the origin (x = 0).When it passes the x = 180 m mark on the x axis the clock reads:
A)0.60 s
B)0.80 s
C)1.00 s
D)1.25 s
E)1.67 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Two events occur on the x axis separated in time by t and in space by x.A reference frame, traveling at less than the speed of light, in which the two events occur at the same time:
A)exists no matter what the values of x and t
B)exists only if x/t < c
C)exists only if x/t > c
D)exists only if x/t = c
E)does not exist under any condition

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Two events occur on the x axis separated in time by t and in space by x.A reference frame, traveling at less than the speed of light, in which the two events occur at the same coordinate:
A)exists no matter what the values of x and t
B)exists only if x/t < c
C)exists only if x/t > c
D)exists only if x/t = c
E)does not exist under any condition

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Which statement is correct?
A)Galilean transformations are correct at any relative speed, but Lorentz transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds near the speed of light.
B)Lorentz transformations are correct at any relative speed, but Galilean transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds near the speed of light.
C)Galilean transformations are correct at any relative speed, but Lorentz transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds that are small compared to the speed of light.
D)Lorentz transformations are correct at any relative speed, but Galilean transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds that are small compared to the speed of light.
E)Galilean transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds that are small compared to the speed of light, and Lorentz transformations are only approximately correct for relative speeds near the speed of light.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

The length of a meter stick moving at 0.95c in the direction of its length with respect to the laboratory is measured by simultaneously marking its ends on an axis which is stationary in the laboratory.As measured by clocks moving with the stick, the time interval between the making of the back mark and the making of the front mark is:
A)0 s
B)1.1 10

^{-9}s C)3.2 10^{-9}s D)3.5 10^{-9}s E)1.1 10^{-8}sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Two events occur 100 m apart with an intervening time interval of 0.60 s.The speed of a reference frame in which they occur at the same coordinate is:
A)0 c
B)0.25c
C)0.56c
D)1.1c
E)1.8c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Two independent events occur 100 m apart with an intervening time interval of 0.42 s.The proper time between the events is:
A)0 s
B)0.16 s
C)0.26 s
D)0.42 s
E)0.69 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Two events occur 100 m apart with an intervening time interval of 0.37 s.The speed of a clock that measures the proper time between the events is:
A)0 c
B)0.45c
C)0.56c
D)0.90c
E)1.8c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A rocket traveling with constant velocity makes an 8.4 10

^{15}m trip in 1 year.The proper time between events which mark the beginning and end of the trip is: A)0.21 years B)0.46 years C)1.0 years D)2.2 years E)4.7 yearsFree

Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

As a rocket ship moves by at 0.95c a mark is made on a stationary axis at the front end of the rocket and 9.0 10

^{-8}s later a mark is made on the axis at the back end.The marks are 100 m apart.The rest length of the rocket is: A)31 m B)78 m C)100 m D)240 m E)320 mFree

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Relative to reference frame 1, reference frame 2 moves with speed v in the negative x direction.When the origins of the two frames coincide the clocks in both frames are set to zero.An event occurs at coordinate x

_{1}and time t_{1}as measured in reference frame 1 and at coordinate x_{2}and time t_{2}as measured in frame 2.If , then the coordinates and times of the event are related by: A)x_{2}= [x_{1}- vt_{1}] and t_{2}= [t_{1}- vx_{1}/ c^{2}] B)x_{2}= [x_{1}- vt_{1}] and t_{2}= [t_{1}+ vx_{1}/ c^{2}] C)x_{2}= [x_{1}+ vt_{1}] and t_{2}= [t_{1}- vx_{1}/ c^{2}] D)x_{2}= [x_{1}+ vt_{1}] and t_{2}= [t_{1}+ vx_{1}/ c^{2}] E)none of the above are correctFree

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

An event occurs at x = 500 m, t = 0.90 s in one frame of reference.Another frame is moving at 0.90c in the positive x direction.The origins coincide at t = 0 and clocks in the second frame are zeroed when the origins coincide.The coordinate and time of the event in the second frame is:
A)500 m, 0.90 s
B)1700 m, 5.5 s
C)740 m, 2.4 s
D)260 m, -0.60 s
E)590 m, -1.4 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

An event occurs at x = 500 m, t = 0.90 s in one frame of reference.Another frame is moving at 0.90c in the negative x direction.The origins coincide at t = 0 and clocks in the second frame are zeroed when the origins coincide.The coordinate and time of the event in the second frame is:
A)500 m, 0.90 s
B)1700 m, 5.5 s
C)740 m, 2.4 s
D)260 m, -0.60 s
E)590 m, -1.4 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

Two flashes of light occur simultaneously at t = 0 in reference frame S, one at x = 0 and the other at x = 600 m.They are observed in reference frame S', which is moving at 0.95c in the positive x direction.The origins of the two frames coincide at t = 0 and the clocks of S' are zeroed when the origins coincide.In S' the coordinate where the leading edges of the two light flashes meet and the time when they meet are:
A)300 m, 1.0 s
B)15 m, 0.050 s
C)585 m, 1.95 s
D)48 m, 0.16 s
E)1900 m, 0.16 s

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

Spaceship A, traveling past us at 0.7c, sends a message capsule to spaceship B, which is in front of A and is traveling in the same direction as A at 0.8c relative to us.The capsule travels at 0.95c relative to us.A clock that measures the proper time between the sending and receiving of the capsule travels:
A)in the same direction as the spaceships at 0.7c relative to us
B)in the opposite direction from the spaceships at 0.7c relative to us
C)in the same direction as the spaceships at 0.8c relative to us
D)in the same direction as the spaceships at 0.95c relative to us
E)in the opposite direction from the spaceships at 0.95c relative to us

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Frame S' moves in the positive x direction at 0.6c with respect to frame S.A particle moves in the positive x direction at 0.4c as measured by an observer in S'.The speed of the particle as measured by an observer in S is:
A)c/5
B)5c/19
C)8c/25
D)25c/31
E)c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

Star S1 is moving away from us at a speed of 0.8c.Star S2 is moving away from us in the opposite direction at a speed of 0.5c.The speed of S1 as measured by an observer on S2 is:
A)0.21c
B)0.50c
C)0.93c
D)1.3c
E)2.2c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Observer A measures the velocity of a rocket as and a comet as .Here and are parallel and in the direction of the observer's positive x axis.The speed of the comet as measured by an observer on the rocket is:
A)(u - v)/(1 - uv/c

^{2}) B)(u - v)/(1 - v^{2}/c^{2}) C)(u - v)/(1 - v^{2}/c^{2})^{1/2}D)(u - v)/(1 + uv/c^{2}) E)(u + v)/(1 - uv/c^{2})Free

Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

Two electrons move in opposite directions at 0.70c as measured in the laboratory.The speed of one electron as measured from the other is:
A)0.35c
B)0.70c
C)0.94c
D)1.00c
E)1.40c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

Light from some stars shows an apparent change in frequency because of:
A)interference
B)refraction by layers of air
C)diffraction
D)reflection
E)relative motion

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

While emitting light of proper frequency f

_{0}, a source moves to the right with speed c/4 relative to reference frame S.A detector, to the left of the source, measures the frequency to be f, which is greater than f_{0}.This means: A)the detector is moving to the right with a speed that is greater than c/4 relative to S B)the detector is moving to the right with a speed that is less than c/4 relative to S C)the detector is moving to the left with a speed that is greater than c/4 relative to S D)the detector is moving to the left with a speed that is less than c/4 relative to S E)the detector is not movingFree

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Light from a stationary spaceship is observed, then the spaceship moves directly away from the observer at high speed.As a result, the light seen by the observer has:
A)a higher frequency and a longer wavelength than before
B)a lower frequency and a shorter wavelength than before
C)a higher frequency and a shorter wavelength than before
D)a lower frequency and a longer wavelength than before
E)the same frequency and wavelength as before

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

A train traveling very fast (v = 0.6c)has an engineer (E)at the front, a guard (G)at the rear and a passenger (S')exactly half way between them.Both E and G are equipped with yellow signaling lamps.The train passes a station, closely observed by the station master (S).Both E and G use their lamps to send signals.According to both S and S' these signals arrive simultaneously at the instant S' is passing S.According to S, the signal from E will look ______ and that from G will look _____:
A)red, blue
B)yellow, yellow
C)blue, red
D)blue, blue
E)red, red

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

A console lamp in the cabin of a spaceship appears green when the ship and observer are both at rest.When the ship is moving at 0.90c away from Earth, passengers on board see:
A)a dark lamp (the frequency is too high to be seen)
B)a dark lamp (the frequency is too low to be seen)
C)a red lamp
D)a violet lamp
E)a green lamp

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

Visible light, with a frequency of 6.0 10

^{14}Hz, is reflected from a spaceship moving directly away at a speed of 0.90c.The frequency of the reflected waves observed at the source is: A)3.2 10^{13}Hz B)1.4 10^{14}Hz C)6.0 10^{14}Hz D)2.6 10^{15}Hz E)1.1 10^{16}HzFree

Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

How fast should you move away from a 6.0 10

^{14}Hz light source to observe waves with a frequency of 4.0 10^{14}Hz? A)0.20c B)0.39c C)0.45c D)0.51c E)0.76cFree

Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

A spectral line of a certain star is observed to be "red shifted" from a wavelength of 500 nm to a wavelength of 1500 nm.Interpreting this as a Doppler effect, the speed of recession of this star is:
A)0.33c
B)0.50c
C)0.71c
D)0.80c
E)c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

A source at rest emits light of wavelength 500 nm.When it is moving at 0.90c toward an observer, the observer detects light of wavelength:
A)26 nm
B)115 nm
C)500 nm
D)2200 nm
E)9500 nm

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

A source at rest emits light of wavelength 500 nm.When it is moving at 0.90c away from an observer, the observer detects light of wavelength:
A)26 nm
B)115 nm
C)500 nm
D)2200 nm
E)9500 nm

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

A distant star has a transverse speed (perpendicular to our line of sight)of 30,000 km/s with respect to Earth.Its spectrum has an absorption line at a frequency of 5.00 x 10

^{14}Hz.What is the frequency of that line as observed on Earth? A)4.50 x 10^{14 }Hz B)4.90 x 10^{14 }Hz C)4.97 x 10^{14}Hz D)5.00 x 10^{14}Hz E)5.04 x 10^{14}HzFree

Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

If the mass of a particle is zero its speed must be:
A)c
B)infinite
C)0
D)any speed less than c
E)any speed greater than c

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

According to the theory of relativity:
A)mass is a form of energy
B)moving particles lose mass
C)momentum is not conserved in high speed collisions
D)a rod moving rapidly sideways (perpendicular to its length)is shorter along its length
E)a rod moving rapidly sideways (perpendicular to its length)is longer along its length

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

If the kinetic energy of a free particle is much less than its rest energy then its kinetic energy is proportional to:
A)the magnitude of its momentum
B)the square of the magnitude of its momentum
C)the square root of the magnitude of its momentum
D)the reciprocal of the magnitude of its momentum
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

An electron (m = 9.11 10

^{-31}kg)has a speed of 0.95c.The magnitude of its momentum is: A)2.6 10^{-22}kg m/s B)2.9 10^{-22}kg m/s C)6.0 10^{-22}kg m/s D)8.3 10^{-22}kg m/s E)8.8 10^{-22}kg m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

According to relativity theory a particle of mass m with a momentum of 2mc has a speed of:
A)4c
B)2c
C)c
D)0.89c
E)c/2

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

If the kinetic energy of a free particle is much greater than its rest energy then its kinetic energy is proportional to:
A)the magnitude of its momentum
B)the square of the magnitude of its momentum
C)the square root of the magnitude of its momentum
D)the reciprocal of the magnitude of its momentum
E)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

A particle with rest mass m moves with speed 0.6c.Its kinetic energy is:
A)0.18mc

^{2}B)0.22mc^{2}C)0.25mc^{2}D)mc^{2}E)1.25mc^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

An electron is moving at 0.6c.If we calculate its kinetic energy using (1/2)mv

^{2}, we get a result which is: A)just right B)just half enough C)twice the correct value D)about 1% too low E)about 28% too lowFree

Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

The velocity of an electron is changed from c/2 in the -x direction to c/2 in the +x direction.As a result, its kinetic energy changes by:
A)2mc

^{2}B)mc^{2}C)mc^{2}D)0.5mc^{2}E)0Free

Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

An electron (m = 9.11 10

^{-31}kg)has a speed of 0.95c.Its kinetic energy is: A)8.2 10^{-14}J B)1.8 10^{-13}J C)2.0 10^{-13}J D)2.2 10^{-13}J E)2.6 10^{-13}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

The mass of a particle is m.In order for its total energy to be twice its rest energy, its momentum must be:
A)mc/2
B)mc/
C)mc
D)mc
E)2mc

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

If the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to its rest energy then its speed must be:
A)0.25c
B)0.50c
C)0.87c
D)c
E)unknown unless its mass is given

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

The magnitude of the momentum of a particle can never exceed:
A)mc, where m is its mass
B)E/c, where E is its energy
C)K/c, where K is its kinetic energy
D)none of the above, but there is an upper limit
E)none of the above; there is no upper limit

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

An electron (m = 9.11 10

^{-31}kg)has a momentum of 1.3 10^{-}^{21}kg m/s.Its kinetic energy is: A)6.3 10^{-14}J B)8.2 10^{-14}J C)1.5 10^{-13}J D)3.2 10^{-13}J E)4.0 10^{-13}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

A certain particle has a kinetic energy of 3.2 10

^{-10}J and a momentum of 1.7 10^{-18}kg m/s.Its mass is: A)9.1 10^{-31}kg B)2.7 10^{-27}kg C)4.5 10^{-27}kg D)6.3 10^{-27}kg E)8.6 10^{-27}kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

The work that must be done to increase the speed of an electron (m = 9.11 10

^{-31}kg)from 0.90c to 0.95c is: A)8.2 10^{-13}J B)3.2 10^{-13}J C)2.6 10^{-13}J D)7.4 10^{-14}J E)3.8 10^{-15}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

Two isotopes of hydrogen fuse to form a helium nucleus and a neutron:

^{2}H +^{3}H →^{4}He + n The masses are: What is the Q value of this reaction? A)1.9 MeV B)2.5 MeV C)2.8 MeV D)17.6 MeV E)938 MeVFree

Multiple Choice