Quiz 10: Rogers: Person-Centered Theory
Maslow's theory of personality is largely a theory about motivation.His first assumption was that the whole person (holistic)-not separate parts-is motivated. Second, Maslow assumed that motivation is usually complex and stems from several needs at the same time.In addition, some needs are at least partially unconscious so that people are not always aware of why they behave as they do. Maslow also assumed that one need or another continually motivates everyone.As one need is satisfied, another need gains ascendancy and replaces the first need. Fourth, people everywhere are motivated by the same basic needs.Although the manner in which people in different cultures express their needs may differ, the fundamental needs for food, safety, friendship, esteem, and self-actualization are the same for everyone. Lastly, all of the above needs can be arranged on a hierarchy, meaning that the more basic needs must be obtain/achieved before a person can realize such higher-order needs as esteem and self-actualization.
Maslow assumed that needs can be ordered on a hierarchy and that low level needs must be satisfied or at least partially satisfied before higher level needs become motivators.In order of their prepotency, these needs are (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) love and belongingness, (4) esteem, and (5) self-actualization. Physiological needs are the most basic and occupy the bottom step on Maslow's hierarchy.These needs include the need for food, water, oxygen, maintenance of body temperature, and so on.When people do not have their physiological needs satisfied, they are motivated only by those needs.A starving person is not interested in love or esteem. After physiological needs are at least partially satisfied, people become motivated to secure safety.Safety needs include physical security, stability, protection, and freedom from danger and chaos.Young children sometimes have difficulty satisfying safety needs because they imagine danger when it is not present.People who do not adequately satisfy safety needs suffer from basic anxiety. Perhaps the needs that blocks most people from psychological growth are the love and belongingness needs.People who have love and belongingness needs only partially satisfied will strive almost continually to meet these needs.On the other hand, people who have never tasted love and belongingness, as well as people who fulfill these needs, are not strongly motivated to be loved and accepted. To the extent that people satisfy their love and belongingness needs, they are free to pursue esteem needs.Esteem needs include the need for self-respect, confidence, competence, and the esteem of others.Reputation needs include people's perception of the prestige and recognition that others bestow on them.Self-esteem needs, on the other hand, are feelings of competence that are independent of other people's opinions. As people meet lower needs, they advance automatically to the next higher need.However, Maslow believed that it is possible to have esteem needs met and not reach the level of self-actualization.To be motivated by self-actualization needs, Maslow said, people must not only have their lower needs relatively well satisfied, but they must be free from psychopathology and be motivated by such B-values (Being-values) as truth, beauty, justice, wholeness, simplicity, and so on.People who reach self-actualization are in the process of becoming fully human.
Maslow believed motivation is quite complex and people are not only motivated by several needs on the hierarchy but by aesthetic, cognitive, and neurotic needs as well. Needs on the hierarchy are called conative needs. Aesthetic needs do not seem to be universal, and some people are motivated more by the need for beauty and aesthetically pleasing experiences than are others.Aesthetic needs, like conative needs, can lead to pathology when they are not adequately met.People living in ugly, disorderly environments feel a kind of spiritual illness, Maslow said. Cognitive needs include the needs to know, to solve mysteries, to understand, and to be curious.The frustration of cognitive needs, like the thwarting of other needs, leads to a kind of pathology.When people cannot search for the truth and feel that they are constantly lied to, they become sick, resulting in paranoia and depression.The satisfaction of cognitive needs also is necessary for the pursuit of the conative needs. Neurotic needs differ from the previous three dimensions of needs in that they lead to pathology regardless of whether they are satisfied.For example, a person with sadistic needs is pathological if he finds a partner to torture, and he is sick if he cannot find such a partner.