Quiz 12: Allport: Psychology of the Individual
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The basic unity of person and environment is expressed by the term Dasein, meaning "to exist there" or, as it is usually expressed, "being-in-the-world." Modern civilization has led to people feeling isolated and alienated from both self and the world.As a result, people feel (1) separation from nature; (2) a lack of meaningful interpersonal relations; and (3) alienation from their own authentic self.Thus, three modes of the world characterize people in their being-in-the-world: Umwelt, Mitwelt, and Eigenwelt. Umwelt refers to the world around us; it is the world of objects and things, of nature and natural law.We cannot escape Umwelt and must learn to live in the world around us. Mitwelt refers to our world shared with another person.To become authentic, we must live in Mitwelt; that is, we must relate to other people as people and not as things.To live in Mitwelt means to accept and respect all people, not just those who are close to us. Eigenwelt refers to our relationship with our self.It means to be aware of our self as a human being and to accept who we are.Psychologically healthy people live in all three worlds simultaneously. Nonbeing or nothingness refers to the dread of losing our existence.Death is but one way of losing one's existence.Nonbeing is also seen in addiction to drugs, promiscuous sexual activity, and other compulsive behaviors.
May identified four kinds of love in Western tradition: (1) sex, (2) eros, (3) philia, and (4) agape. Sex is a biological function that can be satisfied through release of sexual tension.May believed that sex has become cheapened in modern Western societies and is the source of much anxiety. Eros should not be confused with sex.Whereas sex is a physiological need that seeks gratification through the release of tension, eros is a psychological desire that seeks procreation or creation through an enduring union with a loved one. Philia provides a foundation for eros.It is an intimate nonsexual friendship between two people.Philia takes time to grow.The slowly evolving love between siblings or lifelong friends is an example of philia. Agape is the unconditional esteem or concern for another person.It is an altruistic love that demands nothing in return.It is a kind of spiritual love, as the love of God for humanity.