Quiz 9: Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory

Psychology
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In general terms, Erikson made three additions to Freudian theory: (1) he added four later stages to Freud's oral, anal, phallic, and latency stages; (2) he gathered data from historical and cultural sources, thus relying more on social factors than on biological factors; and (3) he emphasized the ego over the id. Erikson saw the ego as being capable of adapting to changes throughout the life cycle.He also identified three aspects of the ego: (1) the body ego, (2) the ego ideal, and (3) ego identity. An individual's cultural background has a strong influence on how the ego will develop.Some societies tend to produce generous people (the Sioux nation) and others produce hoarders (the Yurok tribe). The ego grows in stages according to the epigenetic principle; that is, each step of ego growth implies future growth and rests on previous development.

Psychological growth takes place according to the epigenetic principle, meaning that one component arises out of another and has its own time of ascendancy, but does not entirely replace earlier components. Each stage has both a syntonic or harmonious element, and a dystonic or disruptive element.Both components are necessary for future growth. The conflict between the dystonic and syntonic elements produces an ego quality, or ego strength, called a basic strength. Each of the eight Eriksonian stages has a psychosexual mode, a psychosocial crisis, a basic strength, and a core pathology. Events in earlier stages do not cause later personality development.Ego identity is shaped by a multiplicity of conflicts and events. Each stage from adolescence on is marked by an identity crisis or turning point filled with potential for catastrophe or for growth.

Erikson's infancy stage goes beyond Freud's oral stage by including an oral-sensory psychosexual mode of incorporating or taking in objects through all the sense organs. The two modes of incorporation are receiving and accepting. The psychosocial crisis of infancy is basic trust versus basic mistrust.Although trust is syntonic and mistrust is dystonic, both must be experienced during infancy. From the conflict between basic trust and basic mistrust emerges the basic strength of infancy-hope. The antithesis of hope is withdrawal, which is the core pathology of infancy.