Quiz 4: Jung: Analytical Psychology
Jung divided the psyche into two levels: the conscious and the unconscious.The unconscious, in turn, is divided into the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The conscious psyche plays a relatively minor role in analytical psychology.When people rely too heavily on the conscious, to the exclusion of the unconscious, they become shallow and unbalanced.The ego is the center of consciousness. The personal unconscious in Jungian theory is comparable to the unconscious in Freudian theory.It is a storehouse for repressed memories.The contents of the personal unconscious are called complexes, or emotionally tinged ideas that spring from personal experiences. Jung's most distinctive and controversial concept is that of a collective unconscious.The collective unconscious is the psychological counterpart to an instinct.It stems from the repeated experiences of our ancestors and is passed from one generation to the next as psychic potential.The collective unconscious does not consist of inherited ideas, but of predispositions to act.Before people react to these inherited predispositions, however, they must have a personal experience that sparks the collective unconscious.The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes.
The persona is the side of personality that we show to the outside world.It is the role we adopt in society. The shadow is the archetype of darkness and repression and represents the evil side of our personality.Rather than hiding their shadow, self-realized people become acquainted with it and thus learn to control their dark side.Jung believed the realization of the shadow is our first test of courage on the road to self-realization. The anima is the feminine side of men.Psychologically healthy men recognize their feminine disposition, become comfortable with it, and do not project it onto the women in their lives.The anima influences the feeling side of men. The animus is a woman's masculine side, and it influences her thinking and reasoning.Jung also believed the animus is also responsible for some women's irrational moods and unfounded opinions. The great mother is the archetype of both nourishment and destruction.It represents our ancestors' collective experiences with a mother who was capable of either nurturing or destroying them.Today, gardens, plowed fields, a grandmother, Mother Nature, or a witch symbolize the great mother archetype. The wise old man is the archetype of wisdom and meaning, but his wisdom and meaning is superficial and deceptive.A father, grandfather, teacher, rabbi, or priest symbolizes the wise old man archetype. The hero archetype is represented as a powerful man, and it is represented sometimes as part god.However, the hero has a tragic flaw, or weakness.Without such a weakness, no one could be heroic; that is, one must be vulnerable to be a hero.In legends and fairy tales, a strong person who conquers a villain using great personal courage represents the hero archetype.The hero also is symbolic of ancient humanity's conquering darkness and achieving consciousness. The self is an all-inclusive archetype that includes all aspects of personality, both conscious and unconscious.The self is manifested by our quest for perfection, completion, and self-realization.It is symbolized by the mandala, or a perfect geometric figure.
Jung's ideas of extraversion and introversion are not the same as most people's views of extraversion and introversion.To Jung, an extravert is not necessarily someone who is socially outgoing; rather, it is someone who looks at things objectively-in much the same way that others look at them. An introvert, in Jung's psychology, is someone who takes a personalized or individualistic view of the world.An introvert is in tune with his or her subjective world, including dreams, unique opinions, biases, and fantasies.Introverts have a minority view of things and look to their own standards rather than socially popular standards. Both extraversion and introversion can combine with each of the four functions to create eight general types.