# Quiz 5: A Survey of Probability Concepts

Statistics

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Q 2Q 2

The probability of rolling a 3 or 2 on a single die is an example of mutually exclusive events.

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True

Q 3Q 3

An individual can assign a subjective probability to an event based on the individual's knowledge about the event.

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True False

True

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Q 6Q 6

The joint probability of two independent events,A and B,is computed as P(A and
B)= P(A)× P(B).

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Q 7Q 7

The joint probability of two events,A and B,that are NOT independent is computed as
P(A and
B)= P(A)× P(B|A).

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True False

Q 8Q 8

A coin is tossed four times. The joint probability that all four tosses will result in a head is 1/4 or 0.25.

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Q 9Q 9

If there are "m" ways of doing one thing,and "n" ways of doing another thing,the multiplication formula states that there are (m)× (n)ways of doing both.

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True False

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Q 11Q 11

The complement rule states that the probability of an event not occurring is equal to 1 minus the probability of its occurrence.

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True False

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True False

Q 13Q 13

An illustration of an experiment is turning the ignition key of an automobile as it comes off the assembly line to determine whether or not the engine will start.

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True False

Q 14Q 14

Bayes' theorem is a method to revise the probability of an event given additional information.

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True False

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Q 16Q 16

The National Center for Health Statistics reported that of every 883 deaths in recent years,24 resulted from an automobile accident,182 from cancer,and 333 from heart disease. What is the probability that a particular death is due to an automobile accident?
A)24/883 or 0.027
B)539/883 or 0.610
C)24/333 or 0.072
D)182/883 or 0.206

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Deep Check
-If two events A and B are mutually exclusive,what does the special rule of addition state?
A)P(A or
B)= P(A)+ P(B)
B)= P(A)+ P(B)
B)= P(A)+ P(B)
B)= P(A)− P(B)

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

What does the complement rule state?
A)
A)P(A)= P(A)− P(B)
B)P(A)= 1 - P(not
C)P(A)= P(A)× P(B)
D)P(A)= P(A)X + P(B)

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Which approach to probability is exemplified by the following formula? Probability of an event =
A)The classical approach
B)The empirical approach
C)The subjective approach
D)None of these answers are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

A study of 200 computer service firms revealed these incomes after taxes: What is the probability that a particular firm selected has $1 million or more in income after taxes?
A)0.00
B)0.25
C)0.49
D)0.51

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A firm offers routine physical examinations as part of a health service program for its employees. The exams showed that 8% of the employees needed corrective shoes,15% needed major dental work,and 3% needed both corrective shoes and major dental work. What is the probability that an employee selected at random will need either corrective shoes or major dental work?
A)0.20
B)0.25
C)0.50
D)1.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A survey of top executives revealed that 35% of them regularly read Time magazine,20% read Newsweek,and 40% read U.S. News & World Report. A total of 10% read both Time and U.S. News & World Report. What is the probability that a particular top executive reads either Time or U.S. News & World Report regularly?
A)0.85
B)0.06
C)1.00
D)0.65

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

A study by the National Park Service revealed that 50% of the vacationers going to the Rocky Mountain region visit Yellowstone Park,40% visit the Grand Tetons,and 35% visit both. What is the probability that a vacationer will visit at least one of these magnificent attractions?
A)0.95
B)0.35
C)0.55
D)0.05

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A tire manufacturer advertises,"The median life of our new all-season radial tire is 50,000 miles. An immediate adjustment will be made on any tire that does not last 50,000 miles." You purchased four of these tires. What is the probability that all four tires will wear out before traveling 50,000 miles?
A)1/10 or 0.10
B)1/4 or 0.25
C)1/64 or 0.0156
D)1/16 or 0.0625

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

A sales representative calls on four hospitals in Westchester County. It is immaterial what order he calls on them. How many ways can he organize his calls?
A)4
B)24
C)120
D)37

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

There are 10 AAA batteries in a box and 3 are defective. Two batteries are selected without replacement. What is the probability of selecting a defective battery followed by another defective battery?
A)1/2 or 0.50
B)1/4 or 0.25
C)1/120 or about 0.0083
D)1/15 or about 0.07

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Giorgio offers the person who purchases an 8-ounce bottle of Allure two free gifts,chosen from the following: an umbrella,a 1-ounce bottle of Midnight,a feminine shaving kit,a raincoat,or a pair of rain boots. If you purchased Allure,what is the probability you randomly select an umbrella and a shaving kit in that order?
A)0.00
B)1.00
C)0.05
D)0.20

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

A board of directors consists of eight men and four women. A four-member search committee is randomly chosen to recommend a new company president. What is the probability that all four members of the search committee will be women?
A)1/120 or 0.00083
B)1/16 or 0.0625
C)1/8 or 0.125
D)1/495 or 0.002

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

A lamp manufacturer designed five lamp bases and four lampshades that could be used together. How many different arrangements of base and shade can be offered?
A)5
B)10
C)15
D)20

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A gumball machine has just been filled with 50 black,150 white,100 red,and 100 yellow gumballs that have been thoroughly mixed. Sue and Jim each purchase one gumball. What is the likelihood that both Sue and Jim will get red gumballs?
A)0.50
B)0.062
C)0.33
D)0.75

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

In a management trainee program,80% of the trainees are female,while 20% are male. Ninety percent of the females attended college; 78% of the males attended college. A management trainee is selected at random. What is the probability that the person selected is a female who did NOT attend college?
A)0.20
B)0.08
C)0.25
D)0.80

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

In a management trainee program,80% of the trainees are female,while 20% are male. Ninety percent of the females attended college; 78% of the males attended college. A management trainee is selected at random. What is the probability that the person selected is a female who attended college?
A)0.20
B)0.08
C)0.25
D)0.72

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

In a management trainee program,80% of the trainees are female,while 20% are male. Ninety percent of the females attended college; 78% of the males attended college. A management trainee is selected at random. What is the probability that the person selected is a male who did NOT attend college?
A)0.044
B)0.440
C)0.256
D)0.801

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

In a management trainee program,80% of the trainees are female,while 20% are male. Ninety percent of the females attended college; 78% of the males attended college. A management trainee is selected at random. What is the probability that the person selected is a male who did NOT attend college?
A)P (male)P (did not attend college | male)
B)P (did not attend college)P (male | did not attend college)
C)P (male)P (did not attend college)
D)P (did not attend college)

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

In a management trainee program,80% of the trainees are female,while 20% are male. Ninety percent of the females attended college; 78% of the males attended college. A management trainee is selected at random. What is the probability that the person selected is a female who attended college?
A)P (female)P (did not attend college | female)
B)P (did attend college)P (female | did not attend college)
C)P (female)P (did attend college | female)
D)P (did attend college)

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

A supplier delivers an order for 20 electric toothbrushes to a store. By accident,three of the electric toothbrushes are defective. What is the probability that the first two electric toothbrushes sold are defective?
A)3/20 or 0.15
B)3/17 or 0.176
C)1/4 or 0.25
D)6/380 or 0.01579

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

An electronics firm sells four models of stereo receivers,three amplifiers,and six speaker brands. When the four types of components are sold together,they form a "system." How many different systems can the electronics firm offer?
A)36
B)18
C)72
D)144

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

The numbers 0 through 9 are used in code groups of four to identify an item of clothing. Code 1083 might identify a blue blouse,size medium. The code group 2031 might identify a pair of pants,size 18,and so on. Repetitions of numbers are not permitted-in other words,the same number cannot be used more than once in a total sequence. As examples,2,256,2,562,or 5,559 would not be permitted. How many different code groups can be designed?
A)5,040
B)620
C)10,200
D)120

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Multiple Choice

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Q 41Q 41

You are assigned to design color codes for different parts. Three colors are used to code on each part. Once a combination of three colors is used-such as green,yellow,and red-these three colors cannot be rearranged to use as a code for another part. If there are 35 combinations,how many colors are available?
A)5
B)7
C)9
D)11

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

A developer of a new subdivision wants to build homes that are all different. There are three different interior plans that can be combined with any of five different home exteriors. How many different homes can be built?
A)8
B)10
C)15
D)30

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Six basic colors are used in decorating a new condominium. They are applied to a unit in groups of four colors. One unit might have gold as the principal color,blue as a complementary color,red as the accent color,and touches of white. Another unit might have blue as the principal color,white as the complementary color,gold as the accent color,and touches of red. If repetitions are permitted,how many different units can be decorated?
A)7,825
B)25
C)125
D)1,296

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

The ABCD football association is considering a Super Ten Football Conference. The top 10 football teams in the country,based on past records,would be members of the Super Ten Conference. Each team would play every other team in the conference during the season and the team winning the most games would be declared the national champion. How many games would the conference commissioner have to schedule each year? (Remember,Oklahoma versus Michigan is the same as Michigan versus Oklahoma.)
A)45
B)50
C)125
D)14

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

A rug manufacturer has decided to use seven compatible colors in her rugs. However,in weaving a rug,only five spindles can be used. In advertising,the rug manufacturer wants to indicate the number of different color groupings for sale. How many color groupings using the seven colors taken five at a time are there? (This assumes that five different colors will go into each rug-in other words,there are no repetitions of color.)
A)7
B)21
C)840
D)42

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

The first card selected from a standard 52-card deck was a king. If it is returned to the deck,what is the probability that a king will be drawn on the second selection?
A)1/4 or 0.25
B)1/13 or 0.077
C)12/13 or 0.923
D)1/3 or 0.33

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

The first card selected from a standard 52-card deck was a king. If it is NOT returned to the deck,what is the probability that a king will be drawn on the second selection?
A)1/3 or 0.33
B)1/51 or 0.0196
C)3/51 or 0.0588
D)1/13 or 0.077

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

Which approach to probability assumes that events are equally likely?
A)Classical
B)Empirical
C)Subjective
D)Mutually exclusive

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

An experiment may have ________.
A)only one outcome
B)only two outcomes
C)one or more outcomes
D)several events

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

When are two experimental outcomes mutually exclusive?
A)When they overlap on a Venn diagram.
B)If one outcome occurs,then the other cannot.
C)When the probability of one affects the probability of the other.
D)When the joint probability of the two outcomes is not equal to zero.

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

Probabilities are important information when ________.
A)summarizing a data set with a frequency chart
B)applying descriptive statistics
C)computing cumulative frequencies
D)using inferential statistics

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

The result of a particular experiment is called a(n)________.
A)observation
B)conditional probability
C)event
D)outcome

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

The probability of two or more events occurring concurrently is called a(n)________.
A)conditional probability
B)empirical probability
C)joint probability
D)tree diagram

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

The probability of a particular event occurring,given that another event has occurred,is known as a(n)________.
A)conditional probability
B)empirical probability
C)joint probability
D)tree diagram

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

A graphical method used to calculate joint and conditional probabilities is ________.
A)a tree diagram
B)a Venn diagram
C)a histogram
D)inferential statistics

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Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

When an experiment is conducted "without replacement," ________.
A)events are dependent
B)events are equally likely
C)the experiment can be illustrated with a Venn diagram
D)the probability of two or more events is computed as a joint probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

If two events are independent,then their joint probability is computed with ________.
A)the special rule of addition
B)the special rule of multiplication
C)the general rule of multiplication
D)the Bayes' theorem

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Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

When applying the special rule of addition for mutually exclusive events,the joint probability is ________.
A)1
B)0.5
C)0
D)unknown

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Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

When an event's probability depends on the occurrence of another event,the probability is a(n)________.
A)conditional probability
B)empirical probability
C)joint probability
D)mutually exclusive probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

A group of employees of Unique Services will be surveyed about a new pension plan. In-depth interviews with each employee selected in the sample will be conducted. The employees are classified as follows: What is the probability that the first person selected is classified as a maintenance employee?
A)0.20
B)0.50
C)0.025
D)1.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

A group of employees of Unique Services will be surveyed about a new pension plan. In-depth interviews with each employee selected in the sample will be conducted. The employees are classified as follows: What is the probability that the first person selected is either in maintenance or in secretarial?
A)0.200
B)0.015
C)0.059
D)0.001

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Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

A group of employees of Unique Services will be surveyed about a new pension plan. In-depth interviews with each employee selected in the sample will be conducted. The employees are classified as follows: What is the probability that the first person selected is either in management or in supervision?
A)0.00
B)0.06
C)0.15
D)0.21

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Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

The process used to calculate the revised probability of an event given additional information can be obtained through ________.
A)Bayes' theorem
B)classical probability
C)permutation
D)subjective probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

Each salesperson in a large department store chain is rated on their sales ability and their potential for advancement. The data for the 500 sampled salespeople are summarized in the following table. What is the probability that a salesperson selected at random has above-average sales ability and has excellent potential for advancement?
A)0.20
B)0.50
C)0.27
D)0.75

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Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Each salesperson in a large department store chain is rated on his or her sales ability and potential for advancement. The data for the 500 sampled salespeople are summarized in the following table. What is the probability that a salesperson selected at random will have average sales ability and good potential for advancement?
A)0.09
B)0.12
C)0.30
D)0.525

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Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

Each salesperson in a large department store chain is rated on his or her sales ability and potential for advancement. The data for the 500 sampled salespeople are summarized in the following table. What is the probability that a salesperson selected at random will have below-average sales ability and fair potential for advancement?
A)0.032
B)0.10
C)0.16
D)0.32

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Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

Each salesperson in a large department store chain is rated on his or her sales ability and potential for advancement. The data for the 500 sampled salespeople are summarized in the following table. What is the probability that a salesperson selected at random will have an excellent potential for advancement given he or she also has above-average sales ability?
A)0.27
B)0.60
C)0.404
D)0.45

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

Each salesperson in a large department store chain is rated on his or her sales ability and potential for advancement. The data for the 500 sampled salespeople are summarized in the following table. What is the probability that a salesperson selected at random will have an excellent potential for advancement given he or she also has average sales ability?
A)0.27
B)0.30
C)0.404
D)0.45

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Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

A study of interior designers' opinions with respect to the most desirable primary color for executive offices showed the following: What is the probability that a designer does NOT prefer red?
A)1.00
B)0.77
C)0.73
D)0.23

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

A study of interior designers' opinions with respect to the most desirable primary color for executive offices showed the following: What is the probability that a designer does NOT prefer yellow?
A)0.000
B)0.765
C)0.885
D)1.000

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

A study of interior designers' opinions with respect to the most desirable primary color for executive offices showed the following: What is the probability that a designer does NOT prefer blue?
A)1.0000
B)0.9075
C)0.8850
D)0.7725

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

An automatic machine inserts mixed vegetables into a plastic bag. Past experience revealed that some packages were underweight and some were overweight,but most of them had satisfactory weight. What is the probability of selecting three packages that are overweight?
A)0.0000156
B)0.0004219
C)0.0000001
D)0.075

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

An automatic machine inserts mixed vegetables into a plastic bag. Past experience revealed that some packages were underweight and some were overweight,but most of them had satisfactory weight. What is the probability of selecting three packages that are satisfactory?
A)0.900
B)0.810
C)0.729
D)0.075

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

In a finance class,the final grade is based on three tests. Historically,the instructor tells the class that the joint probability of scoring As on the first two tests is 0.5. A student assigns a probability of 0.9 that she will get an A on the first test. What is the probability that the student will score an A on the second test given that she scored an A on the first test?
A)0.50
B)0.95
C)0.56
D)0.90

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

Using the terminology of Bayes' theorem,a posterior probability can also be defined as a
A)revised probability
B)joint probability
C)subjective probability
D)classical probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

If A and B are mutually exclusive events with P(A)= 0.2 and P(B)= 0.6,then P(A or
A)0.00
B)0.12
B)= ________.
C)0.80
D)0.40

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Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

Deep Check
-If P(A)= 0.62,P(B)= 0.47,and P(A or
A)0.2914
B)1.9700
B)= 0.88,then P(A and
B)= ________.
C)0.6700

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Multiple Choice

Q 78Q 78

A method of assigning probabilities based upon judgment,opinions,and available information is referred to as the ________.
A)empirical method
B)probability method
C)classical method
D)subjective method

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

Your favorite soccer team has two remaining matches to complete the season. The possible outcomes of a soccer match are win,lose,or tie. What is the possible number of outcomes for the season?
A)2
B)4
C)6
D)9

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Multiple Choice