# Quiz 10: Thermal Physics

Physics & Astronomy

Q 1Q 1

Which best describes the relationship between two systems in thermal equilibrium?
A)no net energy is exchanged
B)volumes are equal
C)masses are equal
D)zero velocity

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 2Q 2

The zeroth law of thermodynamics pertains to what relational condition that may exist between two systems?
A)zero net forces
B)zero velocities
C)zero temperature
D)thermal equilibrium

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Multiple Choice

D

Q 3Q 3

If it is given that 546 K equals 273C, then it follows that 400 K equals:
A)127C.
B)150C.
C)473C.
D)1 200C.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 4Q 4

What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system made up of water and steam at one atmosphere of pressure?
A)0F
B)273 K
C)0 K
D)100C

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

What is the temperature of a system in thermal equilibrium with another system made up of ice and water at one atmosphere of pressure?
A)0F
B)273 K
C)0 K
D)100C

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

Which best describes a system made up of ice, water and steam existing together?
A)absolute zero
B)triple point
C)ice point
D)steam point

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Q 7Q 7

A temperature change from 15C to 35C corresponds to what incremental change in F?
A)20
B)40
C)36
D)313

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

A substance is heated from 15C to 35C.What would the same incremental change be when registered in kelvins?
A)20
B)40
C)36
D)313

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Q 10Q 10

At what temperature is the same numerical value obtained in Celsius and Fahrenheit?
A)-40
B)0
C)40
D)-72

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Q 11Q 11

Normal body temperature for humans is 37C.What is this temperature in kelvins?
A)296
B)310
C)393
D)273

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Carbon dioxide forms into a solid (dry ice) at approximately -157F.What temperature in degrees Celsius does this correspond to?
A)-157C
B)-93C
C)-121C
D)-105C

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

An interval of one Celsius degree is equivalent to an interval of:
A)one Fahrenheit degree.
B)one kelvin.
C)5/9 Fahrenheit degree.
D)5/9 kelvin.

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Q 15Q 15

Which of the following properties can be used to measure temperature?
A)the color of a glowing object
B)the length of a solid
C)the volume of gas held at constant pressure
D)all of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

The pressure in a constant-volume gas thermometer extrapolates to zero at what temperature?
A)0C
B)0 K
C)0F
D)0 Pa

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

A steel wire, 150 m long at 10C, has a coefficient of linear expansion of 11 * 10

^{-6}/C.Give its change in length as the temperature changes from 10C to 45C. A)0.65 cm B)1.8 cm C)5.8 cm D)12 cmFree

Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

A rectangular steel plate with dimensions of 30 cm * 25 cm is heated from 20C to 220C.What is its change in area? (Coefficient of linear expansion for steel is 11 * 10

^{-6}/C.) A)0.82 cm^{2}B)1.65 cm^{2}C)3.3 cm^{2}D)6.6 cm^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

What happens to a given mass of water as it is cooled from 4C to zero?
A)expands
B)contracts
C)vaporizes
D)Neither expands, contracts, nor vaporizes.

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Q 20Q 20

The observation that materials expand in size with an increase in temperature can be applied to what proportion of existing substances?
A)100%
B)most
C)few
D)none

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Q 21Q 21

Which best expresses the value for the coefficient of volume expansion, b, for given material as a function of its corresponding coefficient of linear expansion, a?
A)b = a

^{3}B)b = 3a C)b = a^{2}D)b = 2aFree

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A steel plate has a hole drilled through it.The plate is put into a furnace and heated.What happens to the size of the inside diameter of a hole as its temperature increases?
A)increases
B)decreases
C)remains constant
D)becomes elliptical

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

A brass cube, 10 cm on a side, is raised in temperature by 200C.The coefficient of volume expansion of brass is 57 * 10

^{-6}/C.By what percentage does volume increase? A)12% B)2.8% C)1.1% D)0.86%Free

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Q 24Q 24

A brass cube, 10 cm on a side, is raised in temperature by 200C.The coefficient of volume expansion of brass is 57 * 10

^{-6}/C.By what percentage is any one of the 10-cm edges increased in length? A)4% B)2.8% C)0.38% D)0.29%Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

An automobile gas tank is filled to its capacity of 15.00 gallons with the gasoline at an initial temperature of 10C.The automobile is parked in the sun causing the gasoline's temperature to rise to 60C.If the coefficient of volume expansion for gasoline is 9.6 * 10

^{-4}/C, what volume runs out the overflow tube? Assume the change in volume of the tank is negligible. A)1.74 gallons B)1.18 gallons C)0.72 gallons D)0.30 gallonsFree

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

What happens to a given volume of water when heated from 0C to 4C?
A)density increases
B)density decreases
C)density remains constant
D)vaporizes

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Q 27Q 27

What happens to a volume of water when its temperature is reduced from 8C to 4C?
A)density increases
B)density decreases
C)density remains constant
D)vaporizes

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Q 28Q 28

The thermal expansion of a solid is caused by:
A)the breaking of bonds between atoms.
B)increasing the amplitude of the atoms vibration.
C)increasing the distance between equilibrium positions for the vibrating atoms.
D)all of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

A steel sphere sits on top of an aluminum ring.The steel sphere (a = 1.10 * 10

^{-5}/C) has a diameter of 4.000 0 cm at 0C.The aluminum ring (a = 2.40 * 10^{-5}/C) has an inside diameter of 3.994 0 cm at 0C.Closest to which temperature given will the sphere just fall through the ring? A)462C B)208C C)116C D)57.7CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Between 0 and 4C, the volume coefficient of expansion for water:
A)is positive.
B)is zero.
C)is becoming less dense.
D)is negative.

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Q 31Q 31

A long steel beam has a length of twenty-five meters on a cold day when the temperature is 0C.What is the length of the beam on a hot day when T = 40C? (a

_{steel}= 1.1 * 10^{-5}/C) A)25.000 44 m B)25.004 4 m C)25.011 m D)25.044 mFree

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Suppose the ends of a 20-m-long steel beam are rigidly clamped at 0C to prevent expansion.The rail has a cross-sectional area of 30 cm

^{2}.What force does the beam exert when it is heated to 40C? (a_{steel}= 1.1 * 10^{-5}/C, Y_{steel }= 2.0 * 10^{11}N/m^{2}). A)2.6 * 10^{5 }N B)5.6 * 10^{4}N C)1.3 * 10^{3}N D)6.5 * 10^{2}NFree

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

At 20C an aluminum ring has an inner diameter of 5.000 cm, and a brass rod has a diameter of 5.050 cm.Keeping the brass rod at 20C, which of the following temperatures of the ring will allow the ring to just slip over the brass rod? (a

_{Al}= 2.4 * 10^{-5}/C, a_{brass}= 1.9 * 10^{-5}/C) A)111C B)236C C)384C D)437CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

As a copper wire is heated, its length increases by 0.100%.What is the change of the temperature of the wire? (a

_{Cu }= 16.6 * 10^{-6}/C) A)120.4C B)60.2C C)30.1C D)6.0CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

The coefficient of area expansion is:
A)half the coefficient of volume expansion.
B)three halves the coefficient of volume expansion.
C)double the coefficient of linear expansion.
D)triple the coefficient of linear expansion.

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Q 36Q 36

At room temperature, the coefficient of linear expansion for Pyrex glass is ____ that for ordinary glass.
A)the same as
B)more than
C)less than
D)stronger than

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Q 37Q 37

A pipe of length 10.0 m increases in length by 1.5 cm when its temperature is increased by 90F.What is its coefficient of linear expansion?
A)30 * 10

^{-6}/C B)17 * 10^{-6}/C C)13 * 10^{-6}/C D)23 * 10^{-6}/CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

A material has a coefficient of volume expansion of 60 * 10

^{-6}/C.What is its area coefficient of expansion? A)120 * 10^{-6}/C B)40 * 10^{-6}/C C)20 * 10^{-6}/C D)180 * 10^{-6}/CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

What happens to its moment of inertia when a steel disk is heated?
A)It increases.
B)It decreases.
C)It stays the same.
D)It increases for half the temperature increase and then decreases for the rest of the temperature increase.

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

An ideal gas is confined to a container with adjustable volume.The pressure and mole number are constant.By what factor will volume change if absolute temperature triples?
A)1/9
B)1/3
C)3.0
D)9.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

An ideal gas is confined to a container with constant volume.The number of moles is constant.By what factor will the pressure change if the absolute temperature triples?
A)1/9
B)1/3
C)3.0
D)9.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

An ideal gas is confined to a container with adjustable volume.The number of moles and temperature are constant.By what factor will the volume change if pressure triples?
A)1/9
B)1/3
C)3.0
D)9.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

A 2.00-L container holds half a mole of an ideal gas at a pressure of 12.5 atm.What is the gas temperature? (R = 0.082 1 Latm/molK)
A)1 980 K
B)1 190 K
C)965 K
D)609 K

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

With volume and molar quantity held constant, by what factor does the absolute temperature change for an ideal gas when the pressure is five times bigger?
A)0.2
B)1.0
C)5.0
D)25.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

With molar quantity and temperature held constant, by what factor does the pressure of an ideal gas change when the volume is five times bigger?
A)0.2
B)1.0
C)5.0
D)25.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

Two moles of nitrogen gas are contained in an enclosed cylinder with a movable piston.If the molecular mass of nitrogen is 28, how many grams of nitrogen are present?
A)0.14
B)56
C)42
D)112

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Two moles of nitrogen gas are contained in an enclosed cylinder with a movable piston.If the gas temperature is 298 K, and the pressure is 1.01 * 10

^{6}N/m^{2}, what is the volume? (R = 8.31 J/molK) A)9.80 * 10^{-3 }m^{3}B)4.90 * 10^{-3}m^{3}C)17.3 * 10^{-3 }m^{3}D)8.31 * 10^{-3}m^{3}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

Boltzmann's constant, k

_{B}, may be derived as a function of R, the universal gas constant, and N_{A}, Avogadro's number.Which expresses the value of k_{B}? A)N_{A}R^{2}B)N_{A}R C)R/N_{A}D)N_{A}/RFree

Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

How many atoms are present in a sample of pure iron with a mass of 300 g? (The atomic mass of iron = 56 and N

_{A}= 6.02 * 10^{23}) A)1.8 * 10^{19}B)6.7 * 10^{22}C)1.6 * 10^{28}D)3.2 * 10^{24}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

Two moles of an ideal gas at 3.0 atm and 10C are heated up to 150 C.If the volume is held constant during this heating, what is the final pressure?
A)4.5 atm
B)1.8 atm
C)0.14 atm
D)1.0 atm

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

One way to heat a gas is to compress it.A gas at 1.00 atm at 25.0C is compressed to one tenth of its original volume, and it reaches 40.0 atm pressure.What is its new temperature?
A)1 500 K
B)1 500C
C)1 192C
D)919C

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

A pressure of 1.0 * 10

^{-7}mm of Hg is achieved in a vacuum system.How many gas molecules are present per liter volume if the temperature is 293 K? (760 mm of Hg = 1 atm, R = 0.082 1 Latm/molK, and N_{A}= 6.02 * 10^{23}) A)16 * 10^{18}B)4.7 * 10^{16}C)3.3 * 10^{12}D)3.4 * 10^{9}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

A helium-filled weather balloon has a 0.90 m radius at liftoff where air pressure is 1.0 atm and the temperature is 298 K.When airborne, the temperature is 210 K, and its radius expands to 3.0 m.What is the pressure at the airborne location?
A)0.50 atm
B)0.013 atm
C)0.019 atm
D)0.38 atm

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

One mole of an ideal gas at 1.00 atm and 0.00C occupies 22.4 L.How many molecules of an ideal gas are in one cm

^{3}under these conditions? A)28.9 B)22 400 C)2.69 * 10^{19}D)6.02 * 10^{23}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

How many moles of air must escape from a 10-m * 8.0-m * 5.0-m room when the temperature is raised from 0C to 20C? Assume the pressure remains unchanged at one atmosphere while the room is heated.
A)1.3 * 10

^{3}moles B)1.2 * 10^{3 }moles C)7.5 * 10^{2 }moles D)3.7 * 10^{2 }molesFree

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

Estimate the volume of a helium-filled balloon at STP if it is to lift a payload of 500 kg.The density of air is 1.29 kg/m

^{3}and helium has a density of 0.178 kg/m^{3}. A)4 410 m^{3}B)932 m^{3}C)450 m^{3}D)225 m^{3}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

Tricia puts 44 g of dry ice (solid CO

_{2}) into a 2.0-L container and seals the top.The dry ice turns to gas at room temperature (20C).Find the pressure increase in the 2.0-L container.(One mole of CO_{2}has a mass of 44 g, R = 0.082 1 Latm/molK.Ignore the initial volume of the dry ice.) A)6.0 atm B)12 atm C)18 atm D)2.0 atmFree

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

The mass of a hot-air balloon and its cargo (not including the air inside) is 200 kg.The air outside is at a temperature of 10C and a pressure of 1 atm = 10

^{5}N/m^{2}.The volume of the balloon is 400 m^{3}.Which temperature below of the air in the balloon will allow the balloon to just lift off? (Air density at 10C is 1.25 kg/m^{3}.) A)37C B)69C C)99C D)200CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

9.0 g of water in a 2.0-L pressure vessel is heated to 500C.What is the pressure inside the container? (R = 0.082 Latm/molK, one mole of water has a mass of 18 grams)
A)7.9 atm
B)16 atm
C)24 atm
D)32 atm

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

A spherical air bubble originating from a scuba diver at a depth of 18.0 m has a diameter of 1.0 cm.What will the bubble's diameter be when it reaches the surface? (Assume constant temperature.)
A)0.7 cm
B)1.0 cm
C)1.4 cm
D)1.7 cm

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

A tank with a volume of 0.150 m

^{3}contains 27.0C helium gas at a pressure of 100 atm.How many balloons can be blown up if each filled balloon is a sphere 30.0 cm in diameter at 27.0C and absolute pressure of 1.20 atm? Assume all the helium is transferred to the balloons. A)963 balloons B)884 balloons C)776 balloons D)598 balloonsFree

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Q 62Q 62

The ideal gas law treats gas as consisting of:
A)atoms.
B)molecules.
C)chemicals.
D)bubbles.

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Q 63Q 63

The sulfur hexafluoride molecule consists of one sulfur atom and six fluorine atoms.The atomic masses of sulfur and fluorine are 32.0 u and 19.0 u respectively.One mole of this very heavy gas has what mass?
A)32 g
B)51 g
C)146 g
D)608 g

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

A room has a volume of 60 m

^{3}and is filled with air of an average molecular mass of 29 u.What is the mass of the air in the room at a pressure of 1.0 atm and temperature of 22C? R = 0.082 Latm/molK A)2.4 kg B)2 400 kg C)72 kg D)700 kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Different units can be used for length: m and cm, and of these two, m is the larger by a factor of 100.Different units can also be used for R: (1) J/molK, (2) Latm/molK, and (3) (N/m

^{2})m^{3}/molK.Which of these units for R is the largest? Hint: When expressing R in each of these units, which expression has the lowest numerical factor? (1L = 10^{-3}m^{3}, 1 atm = 1.01 * 10^{5}Pa) A)1 B)2 C)3 D)They are all equal.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

Two ideal gases, X and Y, are thoroughly mixed and at thermal equilibrium in a single container.The molecular mass of X is 9 times that of Y.What is the ratio of root-mean-square velocities of the two gases, v

_{X, rms }/v_{Y, rms}? A)9/1 B)3/1 C)1/3 D)1/9Free

Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

The absolute temperature of an ideal gas is directly proportional to which of the following properties, when taken as an average, of the molecules of that gas?
A)speed
B)momentum
C)mass
D)kinetic energy

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

What is the root-mean-square speed of chlorine gas molecules at a temperature of 320 K? (R = 8.31 J/molK, N

_{A}= 6.02 * 10^{23}, and the molecular mass of Cl_{2}= 71) A)1.7 * 10^{2}m/s B)3.4 * 10^{2}m/s C)0.8 * 10^{4}m/s D)1.1 * 10^{5}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

If the temperature of an ideal gas contained in a box is increased:
A)the average velocity of the molecules in the box will be increased.
B)the average speed of the molecules in the box will be increased.
C)the distance between molecules in the box will be increased.
D)all of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

For an ideal gas of a given mass, if the pressure remains the same and the volume increases:
A)the average kinetic energy of the molecules decreases.
B)the average kinetic energy of the molecules stays the same.
C)the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases.
D)Nothing can be determined about the molecular kinetic energy.

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

John rapidly pulls a plunger out of a cylinder.As the plunger moves away, the gas molecules bouncing elastically off the plunger are:
A)rebounding at a higher speed than they would have if the plunger weren't removed.
B)rebounding at a lower speed than they would have if the plunger weren't removed.
C)rebounding at the same speed as they would have if the plunger weren't removed.
D)Whether they speed up or slow down depends on how fast the plunger is removed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

Consider two containers with the same volume and temperature.Container One holds "dry" air--a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen.Container Two holds "moist" air.The "moist" air has the same ratio of nitrogen to oxygen molecules, but also contains water vapor.According to the ideal gas law, if the pressures are equal, the weight of the gas in Container One will be:
A)lighter than the gas inside the second container.
B)equal to the weight of the gas in the second container.
C)heavier than the gas inside the second container.
D)all the above are incorrect because the pressures cannot be equal.

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

Evaporation cools the liquid that is left behind because the molecules that leave the liquid during evaporation:
A)have kinetic energy.
B)have greater than average speed.
C)have broken the bonds that held them in the liquid.
D)create vapor pressure.

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

What is the internal energy of 50 moles of Neon gas (molecular mass = 20 u) at 27C? (R = 8.31 J/molK)
A)1.9 * 10

^{5}J B)1.6 * 10^{5}J C)3.8 * 10^{3}J D)It depends on the container size, which is not given.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

A quantity of a monatomic ideal gas expands to twice the volume while maintaining the same pressure.If the internal energy of the gas were U

_{0}before the expansion, what is it after the expansion? A)U_{0}B)2 U_{0}C)4 U_{0}D)The change in temperature must also be known to answer this question.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

The internal energy of a monatomic ideal gas is equal to which of the following?
A)(3/2)PV
B)(3/2)nT/V
C)3 T/P
D)none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

Metal lids on glass jars can often be loosened by running them under hot water.Why is this?
A)The hot water is a lubricant.
B)The metal and glass expand due to the heating, and the glass being of smaller radius expands less than the metal.
C)The metal has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than glass so the metal expands more than the glass thus loosening the connection.
D)This is just folklore.

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Multiple Choice

Q 78Q 78

Why do vapor bubbles get larger in boiling water as they approach the surface?
A)They only appear to get larger, this being a magnification effect due to looking through the water.
B)The bubbles' pressure increases as they rise.
C)The pressure in the water decreases as the bubble moves toward the surface.
D)Bubbles always get bigger after they form.

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

Suppose the pressure of 20 g of an ideal monatomic gas is tripled while its volume is halved.What happens to the internal energy of the gas?
A)It stays the same, as the described changes do not involve internal energy.
B)It increases.
C)It decreases.
D)This depends on the molecular weight of the gas involved, thus this is indeterminate.

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

The temperature of a quantity of ideal gas in a sealed container is increased from 0C to 273C.What happens to the rms speed of the molecules of the gas as a result of this temperature increase?
A)It does not change since rms speed is independent of temperature.
B)It increases but it less than doubles.
C)It doubles.
D)It quadruples.

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

The noble gases, listed by increasing molecular weight, are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn.If samples of 1 mole each of these gases are placed in separate containers and heated to 300 K, which gas has the greatest internal energy and the molecules of which gas have the highest rms speed?
A)The He has the greatest internal energy, and the Rn has the greatest rms speed.
B)The Rn has the greatest internal energy, and the He has the greatest rms speed.
C)All the gases have the same internal energy, and the Rn has the greatest rms speed.
D)All the gases have the same internal energy, and the He has the greatest rms speed.

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Multiple Choice