# Quiz 26: Relativity

Physics & Astronomy

Q 1Q 1

Which characterizes the main result of the Michelson-Morley experiment?
A)verified the existence of ether
B)involved measuring the speed of sound from a moving source
C)detected no difference in the speed of light regardless of speed of the source relative to observer
D)was designed purposely to verify Einstein's theory of relativity

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

The experiment that dispelled the idea that light travels in the ether is called the:
A)Michelson-Morley experiment.
B)Hafele and Keating experiment.
C)Fitzgerald-Kennedy experiment.
D)twin paradox.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

The Michelson-Morley experiment was designed to make use of ________ to find the motion of the Earth relative to the luminiferous ether.
A)sound waves
B)interference fringes
C)electromagnetic wind
D)none of the above

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

The significant result of the Michelson-Morley experiment was that it found:
A)the ether moved with the sun.
B)the ether moved with the Earth.
C)the speed of the ether wind was greater than expected.
D)no effect.

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Einstein's theory of relativity is based in part on which one of the following postulates?
A)Mass and energy are equivalent.
B)Space and time are absolutes.
C)Energy is conserved only in elastic collisions.
D)Speed of light in a vacuum is same for all observers regardless of source velocity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

According to a postulate of Einstein, which of the following describes the nature of the laws of physics as one observes processes taking place in various inertial frames of reference?
A)Laws are same only in inertial frames with zero velocity.
B)Laws are same only in inertial frames moving at low velocities.
C)Laws are same only in inertial frames moving at near speed of light.
D)Laws are same in all inertial frames.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

I am stationary in a reference system but if my reference system is not an inertial reference system, then, relative to me, a system that is an inertial reference system must:
A)remain at rest.
B)move with constant velocity.
C)be accelerating.
D)be none of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

The speed of light is equal to:
A)5.28 * 10

^{7}miles per hour. B)one meter per nanosecond. C)one light-year per year. D)none of the above.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

That the speed of light in a vacuum has the same value for all inertial frames is:
A)inconsistent with the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment.
B)consistent with the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment.
C)not related to the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment.
D)not true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

A mass is bouncing on the end of a spring with a period T when measured by a ground observer.What would the period of oscillation be (as measured by the same observer) if the mass and spring were moving past the ground observer at a speed of 0.80 c?
A)0.44 T
B)0.60 T
C)1.0 T
D)1.7 T

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

The observed relativistic length of a super rocket moving by the observer at 0.70 c will be what factor times that of the measured rocket length if it were at rest?
A)0.45
B)0.71
C)0.82
D)1.4

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

The relativistic effect of time dilation has been verified by which of the following?
A)the discovery of black holes
B)muon experiments
C)twin experiments
D)red shift in distant galaxies

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

According to the special theory of relativity, which of the following happens to the size of the time interval between two events occurring in an inertial frame of reference as the frame's velocity with respect to the observer increases?
A)interval increases
B)interval decreases
C)interval remains constant
D)interval vanishes to zero when velocity equals half speed of light

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Doubling the momentum of:
A)a particle doubles its relativistic total energy.
B)a particle quadruples its relativistic total energy.
C)a photon doubles its relativistic total energy.
D)a photon quadruples its relativistic total energy.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

According to the special theory of relativity, which of the following happens to the length of an object, measured in the dimension parallel to the motion of its inertial frame of reference, as the velocity of this frame increases with respect to a stationary observer?
A)length increases
B)length decreases
C)length remains constant
D)length vanishes to zero when velocity equals half speed of light

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

According to the special theory of relativity, if a 30-year old astronaut sent on a space mission is accelerated to speeds close to that of light, and then returns to earth after 20 years as measured on earth, what would be his biological age upon returning?
A)less than 50 years
B)50 years
C)more than 50 years
D)exactly 100 years

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

The period of a pendulum is 2.0 s in a stationary inertial frame of reference.What is its period when measured by an observer moving at a speed of 0.60 c with respect to the inertial frame of reference?
A)1.2 s
B)1.6 s
C)2.5 s
D)3.3 s

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

The period of an oscillating weight on a spring in an inertial frame of reference is 0.80 s.What would be its speed if it were to move by an observer who measures its period as 1.2 s? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)1.1 * l0^{8 }m/s B)2.2 * 10^{8}m/s C)2.5 * l0^{8}m/s D)2.9 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A tuning fork has a frequency of 400 Hz and hence a period of 2.50 * 10

^{-3 }s.If the tuning fork is in an inertial frame of reference moving by the observer at speed of 0.750 c, what is the frequency of the fork as measured by the observer? (Assume that measurements are strictly by optical means and that the speed of sound waves in air is not pertinent here). A)265 Hz B)302 Hz C)454 Hz D)605 HzFree

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

A ground observer measures the period of a pendulum moving as a part of an inertial frame of reference to be 2.30 s as the inertial frame moves by at a velocity of 0.600 c.What would the observed period be of the same pendulum if its inertial frame were at rest with respect to the observer?
A)4.25 s
B)2.07 s
C)3.03 s
D)1.84 s

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

A space probe has an 18.0-m length when measured at rest.What length does an observer at rest measure when the probe is going by at a speed of 0.700 c?
A)25.2 m
B)12.9 m
C)12.6 m
D)9.18 m

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A rocket ship is 80.0 m in length when measured before leaving the launching pad.What would its velocity be if a ground observer measured its length as 60.0 m while it is in flight? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)0.980 * 10^{8}m/s B)1.15 * 10^{8}m/s C)1.33 * 10^{8}m/s D)1.98 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

An earth observer sees a spaceship at an altitude of 980 m moving downward toward the earth at a speed of 0.800 c.What is the spaceship's altitude as measured by an observer in the spaceship?
A)1 630 m
B)1 270 m
C)893 m
D)588 m

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

How fast would a rocket have to move past a ground observer if the latter were to observe a 4.0% length shrinkage in the rocket length? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)0.12 * 10^{8}m/s B)0.28 * 10^{8}m/s C)0.84 * 10^{8}m/s D)1.2 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

An astronaut at rest has a heart rate of 65 beats/min.What will her heart rate be as measured by an earth observer when the astronaut's spaceship goes by the earth at a speed of 0.60 c?
A)39 beats/min
B)52 beats/min
C)108 beats/min
D)81 beats/min

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

The astronaut whose heart rate on Earth is 60 beats/min increases his velocity to v = 0.80 c.Now what is his heart rate as measured by an Earth observer?
A)36 beats/min
B)48 beats/min
C)75 beats/min
D)100 beats/min

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

A meter stick moving in a direction parallel to its length appears to be only 40.0 cm long to an observer.What is the meter stick's speed relative to the observer? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)1.19 * 10^{8 }m/s B)2.52 * 10^{8}m/s C)2.75 * 10^{8}m/s D)2.93 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

From a stationary position, I observe a moving boxcar, which has a mirror along the front wall, but it is open at the back of the boxcar.I send a flash of light from my flashlight and time the flash of light as it goes to the front of the boxcar and returns to the back of the boxcar.A passenger in the boxcar also times the round trip of the flash of light.Compare the times recorded on our watches.
A)The time recorded on his watch is longer.
B)The time recorded on the two watches is the same.
C)The time recorded on his watch is shorter.
D)The answer depends on the reference system you are in.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

From a stationary position, I observe a moving boxcar, which has a mirror along the front wall, but it is open at the back of the boxcar.I send a flash of light from my flashlight and time the flash of light as it goes to the front of the boxcar and returns to the back of the boxcar.A passenger in the boxcar also times the round trip of the flash of light.Previously I had measured the time required for the round trip of a flash of light when the boxcar was stationary, and I call this the stationary time.Which two times are the same?
A)the time recorded on my watch and the previous stationary time
B)the time recorded on the passenger's watch and the previous stationary time
C)the time recorded on my watch and the time recorded on the passenger's watch
D)None of the times are the same.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

The short lifetime of muons created in the upper atmosphere of the Earth would not allow them to reach the surface of the Earth unless their lifetime increased by time dilation.From the reference system of the muons, the muons can reach the surface of the Earth because:
A)time dilation increases their velocity.
B)time dilation increases their energy.
C)length contraction decreases the distance to the Earth.
D)the relativistic speed of the Earth toward them is added to their velocity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

A boxcar without a front or a back is moving toward the right.Two flashes of light move through the boxcar, one moving from back to front toward the right, the other moving from front to back toward the left.A passenger in the boxcar records how long it takes each flash of light to pass from one end of the boxcar to the other end.According to the passenger, which took longer?
A)the flash going from back to front
B)the flash going from front to back
C)They both took the same time.
D)It depends on whether the passenger is sitting at the front or the back of the boxcar.

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

A boxcar without a front or a back is moving toward the right.Two electrons move through the boxcar, one moving from back to front toward the right, the other moving from front to back toward the left.According to me, each electron is moving with a speed of 0.8 c, and the boxcar is moving with a speed of 0.6 c.A passenger in the boxcar records how long it takes each electron to pass from one end of the boxcar to the other end.According to the passenger, which took longer?
A)the electron going from back to front
B)the electron going from front to back
C)They both took the same time.
D)Since nothing can go faster than light, an electron cannot move toward the left with a speed of 0.8 c through a boxcar moving toward the right with a speed of 0.6 c.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

A knight on horseback holds a 10-m lance.The horse can run at 0.70 c.(It wins most of its races!) How long will the lance appear to a person that is standing still on the ground as the horse runs past?
A)7.1 m
B)10 m
C)14 m
D)15 m

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

At what speed would a clock have to be moving in order to run at a rate that is one-third the rate of a clock at rest?
A)0.79 c
B)0.89 c
C)0.94 c
D)0.97 c

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

A muon formed high in the Earth's atmosphere travels at a speed 0.990 c for a distance of 4.60 km before it decays.What is the muon's lifetime as measured in its reference frame?
A)1.55 * 10

^{-5}s B)2.18 * 10^{-6}s C)3.04 * 10^{-6}s D)4.65 * 10^{-6}sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

A muon formed high in Earth's atmosphere travels at a speed 0.990 0 c for a distance (as we see it) of 4 600 m before it decays.How far does the muon travel as measured in its frame?
A)4 554 m
B)2 596 m
C)1 298 m
D)649 m

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Muons at speed 0.999 4 c are sent round and round a circular storage ring of radius 500 m.If a muon at rest decays into other particles after an average T = 2.2 * 10

^{-6}s, how many trips around the storage ring do we expect the 0.999 4 c muons to make before they decay? A)0.2 B)2 C)4 D)6Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

If astronauts could travel at v = 0.95 c, we on Earth would say it takes (4.2/0.95) = 4.4 years to reach Alpha Centauri, 4.2 lightyears away.The astronauts disagree.How much time passes on the astronaut's clocks?
A)1.4 years
B)1.9 years
C)2.4 years
D)3.0 years

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Our best measurements from Earth indicate that the star system Alpha Centauri is 4.2 lightyears away.Suppose some of our astronauts traveled there at a speed v = 0.95 c.What would the astronauts measure as the distance to Alpha Centauri?
A)4.0 lightyears
B)2.7 lightyears
C)1.9 lightyears
D)1.3 lightyears

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

A spaceship of triangular shape, having a length twice its width, is capable of relativistic speeds. How fast would it have to move so that to a stationary observer its length would equal its width?
A)0.500 c
B)0.750 c
C)0.866 c
D)This is not possible.

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

A proton with mass 1.67 * 10

^{-27 }kg moves with a speed of 0.600 c in an accelerator.What is its relativistic momentum? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)0.530 * 10^{-19}kgm/s B)2.40 * 10^{-19}kgm/s C)3.76 * 10^{-19}kgm/s D)6.67 * 10^{-19}kgm/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

An electron of mass 9.11 * 10

^{-31}kg moves with a speed of 0.600 c.What is its momentum? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)1.34 * 10^{-22}kgm/s B)2.05 * 10^{-22}kgm/s C)4.12 * 10^{-22}kgm/s D)6.03 * 10^{-22}kgm/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Including relativistic effects, doubling the speed of a object:
A)doubles its momentum.
B)more than doubles its momentum.
C)less than doubles its momentum.
D)has no effect on its momentum.

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

As the speed of an object increases, its relativistic momentum:
A)stays the same as its classical momentum.
B)increases more than its classical momentum.
C)increases less than it classical momentum.
D)does not change since momentum is a conserved quantity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

An electron of mass 9.11 * 10

^{-31}kg has a momentum of 3.64 * 10^{-22}kg·m/s.What is its speed? A)0.467 c B)0.632 c C)0.800 c D)It cannot have this momentum since it would require a speed greater than c.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

At what speed is the momentum of an object double that found classically?
A)c/2
B)3c/4
C)0.866c
D)2c

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

An object moves by an observer at 0.500 c (1/2 the speed of light).The total energy of the object will be what factor times that of the rest energy?
A)0.600
B)0.970
C)1.15
D)1.67

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The total energy of a particle:
A)is not related to its relativistic momentum.
B)increases with increasing relativistic momentum.
C)decreases with increasing relativistic momentum.
D)is a constant.

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

What is the total energy of a proton moving at a speed of 2.00 * 10

^{8}m/s? (proton mass is 1.67 * 10^{-27 }kg and c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)1.11 * 10^{-27}J B)2.24 * 10^{-27}J C)2.02 * 10^{-10}J D)2.70 * 10^{-10}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

What is the relativistic kinetic energy of an electron moving at a speed of 1.50 * 10

^{8 }m/s? (electron mass is 9.11 * 10^{-31}kg and c = 3.00 * 10^{8 }m/s) A)1.27 * 10^{-14}J B)7.10 * 10^{-14}J C)9.47 * 10^{-14}J D)11.6 * 10^{-14}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

A nuclear reaction, which gives off a total of 1.0 * 10

^{17}J of energy, expends how much mass in the process? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)11 kg B)1.1 kg C)0.11 kg D)90 kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

A proton with mass 1.67 * 10

^{-27}kg moves with a speed of 0.600 c in an accelerator.What is its kinetic energy? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)7.52 * 10^{-11}J B)9.02 * 10^{-11 }J C)3.76 * 10^{-11}J D)1.88 * 10^{-10}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

If a proton with mass 1.67 * 10

^{-27}kg moves in an accelerator such that its total energy is three times its rest energy, what is its speed? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)2.83 * 10^{8}m/s B)1.41 * 10^{8}m/s C)2.12 * 10^{8}m/s D)1.00 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

An unknown particle in an accelerator moving at a speed of 2.00 * 10

^{8}m/s has a measured total energy of 1.80 * 10^{-9}J.What is its mass? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)0.650 * 10^{-26}kg B)0.810 * 10^{-26}kg C)1.01 * 10^{-26}kg D)1.49 * 10^{-26}kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

A proton with mass 1.67 * 10

^{-27}kg moves in an accelerator with a speed of 0.800 c.What is its total energy? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)0.540 * 10^{-10}J B)1.08 * 10^{-10}J C)2.51 * 10^{-10}J D)3.26 * 10^{-10 }JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

A proton with mass 1.67 * 10

^{-27}kg moves in an accelerator with speed of 0.850 c.What is its kinetic energy? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8 }m/s) A)1.00 * 10^{-10}J B)1.35 * 10^{-10}J C)2.51 * 10^{-10}J D)3.70 * 10^{-10}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

If the mass of a proton is 1.67 * 10

^{-27}kg, what is the rest energy of the proton? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s and 1 eV = 1.6 * 10^{-19}J) A)1.2 * 10^{8}eV B)3.7 * 10^{8}eV C)4.1 * 10^{8}eV D)9.4 * 10^{8}eVFree

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

When a one-megaton nuclear bomb is exploded, approximately 4.5 * 10

^{15}J of energy is released.How much mass would this represent in a mass-to-energy conversion? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)1.5 * 10^{6}kg B)0.050 kg C)5.3 * 10^{10 }kg D)1.7 * 10^{3 }kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

An electron of mass 9.11 * 10

^{-31}kg moves with a speed of 0.600 c.What is its total energy? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8 }m/s) A)4.80 * 10^{-14}J B)7.30 * 10^{-14}J C)9.20 * 10^{-14}J D)10.2 * 10^{-14}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

An electron of mass 9.11 * 10

^{-31 }kg moves with a speed of 0.600 c.What is its kinetic energy? (c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)2.05 * 10^{-14}J B)3.90 * 10^{-14}J C)4.74 * 10^{-14}J D)6.22 * 10^{-14}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

If the total energy of an electron in an accelerator is four times its rest energy, what is its speed? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)1.98 * 10^{8}m/s B)2.32 * 10^{8}m/s C)2.90 * 10^{8}m/s D)2.99 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

At what speed must an object be moving in order that it has a kinetic energy 1.50 times its rest energy? (c = 3.00 * 10

^{8}m/s) A)1.91 * 10^{8}m/s B)2.52 * 10^{8}m/s C)2.75 * 10^{8}m/s D)2.90 * 10^{8}m/sFree

Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

Suppose an object whose mass is m is moving with a speed of 0.8 c.Which is the correct expression for its kinetic energy?
A)K = mv

^{2}/2 B)K = gmc^{2}C)K = (g - 1)mc^{2}D)Answers a and c are both correct.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

The mass of a proton at rest is m

_{.}If the proton is moving so fast that its total energy is three times its rest energy, then what is the kinetic energy of the proton? A)mc^{2}B)2mc^{2}C)3mc^{2}D)4mc^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

A spaceship of mass 10

^{6}kg is to be accelerated to 0.80 c.How much energy does this require? A)2.5 * 10^{23}J B)1.5 * 10^{23}J C)7.2 * 10^{22}J D)6.0 * 10^{22}JFree

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

A satellite is powered by a small nuclear generator that puts out 15 W.How much matter is converted into energy over the 10 year life span of the generator?
A)53 µg
B)53 g
C)16 g
D)16 kg

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Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

A lump of uranium has a mass of 2.0 kg, and begins at rest.Half of the lump's mass is going to be totally converted into kinetic energy of the other half. After this is done, how fast is the remaining half going?
A)0.60 c
B)0.80 c
C)0.87 c
D)1.0 c

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

In an x-ray tube, high-speed electrons are slammed into a lead target, giving off x-rays. If the electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 50 000 volts, what speed do they have when they strike the target? (q

_{e}= 1.6 * 10^{-19}C, m_{e}= 9.11 * 10^{-31}kg, and c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s) A)0.17 c B)0.41 c C)0.83 c D)0.91 cFree

Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

Through what potential difference would an electron initially at rest need to be accelerated to have its total energy be double its rest energy? (m

_{e}= 9.11 * 10^{-31}kg, c = 3.00 * 10^{8}m/s, and q_{e}= 1.6 * 10^{-19}C) A)1.6 * 10^{-19}V B)2.6 * 10^{5}V C)5.1 * 10^{5}V D)1.0 * 10^{6}VFree

Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

Relativity dealing with gravitation is known as:
A)inertial relativity.
B)gravitational relativity.
C)Galilean relativity.
D)general relativity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

The gravitational field is equivalent to:
A)the inertial mass.
B)an accelerated frame of reference.
C)an event horizon.
D)a clock running slowly.

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

A spaceship is moving away from an observer at relativistic speed.Its length at rest is 100 m, but the observer measures its length as 50 m.A time interval of 100 s on the spaceship would be measured by the observer to be which of the following?
A)50 s
B)100 s
C)150 s
D)200 s

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

A spaceship, which has length 50 m and width 10 m when at rest, is moving in a direction along its length at a speed where its length contraction results in a 40-m length measured by a stationary observer.What would the measured width be in this case?
A)between 12 and 13 m
B)10 m
C)8 m
D)less than 8 m

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

When one compares the relativistic kinetic energy to the classically calculated kinetic energy for a moving object, at which of the speeds listed below does the classical calculation give a greater value than the relativistic calculation?
A)0.2 c
B)0.5 c
C)0.707 c
D)None of the above values will give such a result.

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

If the nonzero momentum of a particle with mass is doubled, what happens to its total energy?
A)It also doubles.
B)It increases, more than doubling.
C)It stays the same since total energy is a constant for a given particle.
D)It increases, but less than doubling.

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Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

Which form of relativity applies for observers who are accelerating?
A)Special relativity applies.
B)General relativity applies.
C)Both special relativity and general relativity apply.
D)Neither applies since the observer must be in an inertial frame to use either one.

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Multiple Choice