Questions refer to the passages below.
"What is tolerance? It is the natural attribute of humanity. We are all formed of weakness and error: let us pardon reciprocally each other's folly. That is the first law of nature. . . . Look at the Great Turk. He governs Guebres [Zoroastrians], Banians [Hindus], Greek Christians, Nestorians, Romans. The first who tried to stir up tumult would be impaled; and everyone is at peace. Of all the religions, the Christian is without doubt the one which should inspire tolerance most, although up to now the Christians have been the most intolerant of all men."
Voltaire, French philosophe, "What Is Tolerance?" in The Philosophical Dictionary, 1764
"Jews and the various Christian Groups-Greek Orthodox, Jacobites, Uniates, and Copts-formed their own distinct communities, talifa, and regulated them within the umma under the auspices of Ottoman officials. . . . [who] often assessed special ad-hoc taxes, and sometimes even the jizya, collectively on Christian and Jewish communities. . . . Heightened tension between Christians and Muslims emerged during periods when European powers threatened the empire or when the central Turkish government lost its grip over local areas. Whenever talk of crusading or holy war bubbled up and whenever power devolved to local officials, Christians came under closer scrutiny and became targets of vigilante aggression. These incidents, however, were extremely rare; the normal state of relations consisted largely of reciprocity in the market place, interaction in the neighborhood, and cooperation in the Empire."
Charles H. Parker, "Paying for the Privilege: The Management of Public Order and Religious Pluralism in Two Early Modern Societies," in Journal of World History, 2006
-According to Parker, what precipitated the rare cases of persecution of Christians in the Ottoman Empire?