# Quiz 15: Frequency Distribution, Crosstabulation, and Hypothesis

Business

Q 1Q 1

Which statement is not related to statistics associated with cross- tabulation?
A) The t test could be conducted on the mean of one sample or two samples of observations.
B) Generally, the strength of association is of interest only if the association is statistically significant.
C) The strength of association can be measured by the phi correlation coefficient, the contingency coefficient, Cramer's V, and the lambda coefficient.
D) The statistical significance of the observed association is commonly measured by the chi- square statistic.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 2Q 2

The degrees of freedom for the t statistic to test hypotheses about one mean are .
A) n - 1
B) n

_{1}_{ }+ n_{2}_{ }C) n D) n_{1 }+n_{2 }- 2Free

Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

Which statement is not correct about cross- tabulations?
A) Cross- tabulation tables are also called contingency tables.
B) Cross- tabulations provide inferences for making statements about the means of parent populations.
C) The margins of a cross- tabulation show the same information as the frequency tables for each of the variables.
D) The data are considered to be qualitative or categorical data.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

The alternative hypothesis: the percentage of Internet users who use the Internet for shopping is greater than .40, is a .
A) two- tailed test
B) Type II error
C) Type I error
D) one- tailed test

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

A statistic that describes a location within a data set is a .
A) measure of occasion
B) measure of variability
C) measure of location
D) measure of shapes

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The introduction of a third variable in cross- tabulation can result in which of the following possibilities?
A) no change in the initial pattern
B) refined association between the two original variables
C) no association between the two original variables
D) All of the above are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

occurs when the sample results lead to the rejection of a null hypothesis that is in fact true.
A) Two- tailed error
B) Type I error
C) Type II error
D) One- tailed error

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

If the probability of F is greater than the significance level a, and should be used.
A) H

_{0 }is rejected; t based on "equal variances assumed" B) H_{0 }is not rejected; t based on "equal variances not assumed" C) H_{0}_{ }is rejected; t based on "equal variances not assumed" D) H_{0}_{ }is not rejected; t based on "equal variances assumed"Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

is a measure of the strength of association used in tables larger than 2 × 2.
A) Cramer's V
B) Coefficient of variation
C) Chi- square coefficient
D) Phi coefficient

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Which of the following statements is not true concerning cross- tabulation?
A) Cross- tabulation examines association between variables, not causation.
B) No more than three variables can be cross- tabulated.
C) As a general rule, there should be at least five expected observations in each cell for the statistics computed to be reliable.
D) None of the above statements is untrue.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Which of the following statements is not true about parametric tests?
A) The t statistic assumes that the variable is normally distributed and the mean is known (or assumed to be known) and the population variance is estimated from the sample.
B) Parametric tests are used when the independent variables are non- metric.
C) The t test is a commonly used parametric test.
D) B and C are not correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

is a modified version of the phi correlation coefficient, 0.
A) Cramer's V
B) Chi- square statistic
C) Asymmetric lambda
D) Coefficient of variation

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

are hypothesis testing procedures that assume that the variables are measured on a nominal or ordinal scale.
A) Nonparametric tests
B) Parametric tests
C) Parameter tests
D) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following statements is true concerning cross- tabulations with two variables?
A) Because two variables have been cross- classified, percentages could be computed either column- wise, based on column totals, or row- wise, based on row totals.
B) Cross- tabulation with two variables is also known as bivariate cross- tabulation.
C) The general rule is to compute the percentages in the direction of the independent variable, across the dependent variable.
D) All of the above statements are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

is a measure of the relative peakedness or flatness of the curve defined by the frequency distribution.
A) Type II error
B) Type I error
C) Kurtosis
D) Skewness

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

A frequency distribution helps determine .
A) the extent of illegitimate responses
B) the presence of outliers or cases with extreme values
C) the extent of nonresponse
D) all of the above

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Q 18Q 18

include the range, interquartile range, variance or standard deviation, and coefficient of variation.
A) Measures of location
B) Measures of shape
C) Measures of occasion
D) Measures of variability

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

The square root of the variance is the .
A) standard deviation
B) coefficient of variation
C) variance
D) interquartile range

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Q 20Q 20

The test is a nonparametric test for examining differences in the location of two populations, based on paired observations, that compares only the signs of the differences between pairs of variables without taking into account the magnitude of the differences.
A) runs test
B) sign test
C) binomial test
D) Mann- Whitney U test

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

Which of the following statements is not correct about the alternative hypothesis?
A) The alternative hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis.
B) There is no way to determine whether the alternative hypothesis is true.
C) The alternative hypothesis represents the conclusion for which evidence is sought.
D) None of the statements is correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

is a measure of the percentage improvement in predicting the value of the dependent variable, given the value of the independent variable in contingency table analysis.
A) Tau b
B) Tau c
C) Asymmetric lambda
D) Symmetric lambda

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

The can be used to assess the strength of association in a table of any size.
A) contingency coefficient
B) chi- square coefficient
C) coefficient of variation
D) phi coefficient

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A statistical technique that describes two or more variables simultaneously and results in tables that reflect the joint distribution of two or more variables that have a limited number of categories or distinct values is a .
A) parametric test
B) cross- tabulation
C) non- parametric test
D) t test

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

In the context of the Internet usage example, suppose we wanted to test whether the probability of observing a K value of .222, as determined by the normalized z statistic, is 0.103. Because this is more than the significance level of 0.05, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. What do the results mean?
A) The distribution of the Internet usage does deviate significantly from the normal distribution.
B) The proportion of users for males and for females is significantly different for the two samples.
C) The distribution of the Internet usage does not deviate significantly from the normal distribution.
D) The proportion of users for males and for females is not significantly different for the two samples.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

is a test statistic that measures the association between two ordinal- level variables. It makes an adjustment for ties and is most appropriate when the table of variables is not square but a rectangle.
A) Gamma
B) Symmetric lambda
C) Tau c
D) Tau b

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Q 27Q 27

Which program or function listed below is not useful for conducting nonparametric tests?
A) NPAR TESTS
B) Stat>Time Series
C) NPAR1WAY
D) none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

is a test statistic that measures the association between two ordinal- level variables. It does not make an adjustment for ties.
A) Tau b
B) Gamma
C) Tau c
D) Symmetric lambda

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

The difference between the smallest and the largest values in a distribution is the .
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) range

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

When the difference in the location of two populations is to be compared based on observations from two independent samples, and the variable is measured on an ordinal scale, the can be used.
A) binomial test
B) Mann- Whitney U test
C) Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test
D) runs test

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

To balance the two types of errors, alpha (a), also known as _ , is often set at .01 or .05.
A) level of significance
B) Type I error
C) Type II error
D) A and B are correct

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

A statistic that indicates the distribution's dispersion is a .
A) measure of shape
B) measure of occasion
C) measure of variability
D) measure of location

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using hypothesis testing?
A) Is familiarity with a new product related to age and education levels after controlling for income?
B) One hotel has a more upscale image than its close competitor.
C) The department store is being patronized by more than 10 percent of households.
D) Both B and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

A frequency distribution helps .
A) determine the shape of the empirical distribution of the variable
B) us to understand how one variable, X, relates to another variable, Y
C) determine how close a sample comes to the null hypothesis
D) determine if a systematic association exists between two variables

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

The F test of sample variance may be performed if it is not known whether the two populations have equal variance. In this case the hypotheses are .
A) H

_{0}: µ_{1 }= µ_{2}H_{1}: µ_{1 }× µ_{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

Which statement is not correct about the null hypothesis?
A) Accepting the null hypothesis will lead to some changes in opinions or action.
B) In marketing research, the null hypothesis is formulated in such a way that rejection leads to the acceptance of the desired conclusion.
C) It is always the hypothesis tested.
D) It can never be accepted based on a single statistical test.

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross- tabulations?
A) The department store is being patronized by more than 10 percent of households.
B) Is familiarity with a new product related to age and education levels?
C) One hotel has a more upscale image than its close competitor.
D) Both B and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

For the parametric case involving the means of paired samples, the null and alternative hypotheses are .
A) H

_{0}: a_{1}^{2 }= a_{2}^{2 }H_{1}: a_{1}^{2 }× a_{2}^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

If the population standard deviation was assumed to be known, rather than estimated from the sample, a would be appropriate rather than a(n) .
A) z test; F test
B) t test; F test
C) z test; t test
D) t test; z test

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Q 40Q 40

The is a symmetric bell- shaped distribution that is useful for small sample (n < 30) testing.
A) t distribution
B) F distribution
C) chi- square distribution
D) frequency distribution

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Q 41Q 41

The degrees of freedom for the t statistic to test the hypothesis about two independent samples is .
A) n
B) n

_{1 }+n_{2}_{ }- 2 C) n - 1 D) n_{1 }+ n_{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

As a general rule to follow to determine which of the different measures of location to use, if the variable is measured on a nominal scale, is the appropriate measure of central tendency that should be used.
A) range
B) median
C) mean
D) mode

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Which test is not an independent samples test?
A) Kolmogorov- Smirnov two- sample test
B) two- sample median test
C) Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed- ranks test
D) Mann- Whitney U test

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

If the samples used in the Mann- Whitney U test are from the same population, the distribution of scores from the two groups in the rank list should be .
A) random
B) uniform
C) u- shaped
D) normal

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Which of the following tests is not a non- parametric one- sample test?
A) Mann- Whitney U test
B) runs test
C) binomial test
D) Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

The is the difference between the 75th and 25th percentile.
A) standard deviation
B) coefficient of variation
C) variance
D) interquartile range

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Q 47Q 47

The is a frequency distribution that depends upon two sets of degrees of freedom, the degrees of freedom in the numerator and the degrees of freedom in the denominator.
A) t distribution
B) chi- square distribution
C) Z statistic
D) none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The test statistic used in the Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test is .
A) K = Max lA

_{i }- O_{i}_{ }l B) K = Min lA_{i }- O_{i}_{ }l C) K = Max l O_{i}, A_{i}l D) K = Min l O_{i }, A_{i}_{ }lFree

Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

The mean squared deviation of all the values from the mean is the .
A) standard deviation
B) coefficient of variation
C) variance
D) interquartile range

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

Tau b, tau c, and gamma are available to measure association between two _ variables. - level
A) ordinal
B) interval
C) ratio
D) nominal

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Q 51Q 51

Mean, median, variance, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and range are some of the statistics that can be calculated via _, , and in SPSS.
A) FREQUENCIES; EXPLORE; DESCRIPTIVES
B) EXPLORE; DESCRIPTIVES; COUNTS
C) COUNTS; FREQUENCIES; DESCRIPTIVES
D) DESCRIPTIVES; COUNTS; EXPLORE

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Q 52Q 52

The test statistic used in the Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed- ranks test is .
A) z
B) chi- square
C) t
D) alpha

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Q 53Q 53

A measure of central tendency given as the value above which half of the values fall and below which half of the values fall is the .
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) range

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Q 54Q 54

The is used to test the statistical significance of the observed association in cross- tabulation.
A) Cramer's V
B) chi- square statistic
C) contingency coefficient
D) phi coefficient

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Q 55Q 55

Hypothesis tests can be related to _.
A) tests of strength
B) tests of association
C) tests of differences
D) B and C are correct

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Q 56Q 56

The is a statistical test of the equality of the variances of two populations.
A) F test
B) z test
C) paired samples test
D) t test

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Q 57Q 57

are hypothesis testing procedures that assume that the variables of interest are measured on at least an interval scale.
A) Parametric tests
B) Parameter tests
C) Nonparametric tests
D) None of the above

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Q 58Q 58

Suppose we wanted to test the hypothesis that the mean familiarity rating exceeds 4.0, the neutral value on a seven- point scale. The hypotheses may be formulated as _ .
A) H

_{0}: µ c 4.0 H_{1}: µ > 4.0Free

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using frequency distribution?
A) What is the income distribution of brand users? Is this distribution skewed toward low income brackets?
B) The heavy and light users of a brand differ in terms of psychographic characteristics.
C) What percentage of the market consists of heavy users, medium users, light users, and nonusers?
D) Both A and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

A one- sample nonparametric goodness- of- fit test to determine whether the observations for a particular variable could reasonably have come from a particular distribution is the .
A) Mann- Whitney U test
B) Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test
C) binomial test
D) runs test

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

The is a statistic that assumes that the variable has a symmetric bell- shaped distribution and the mean is known (or assumed to be known) and the population variance is estimated from the sample.
A) z statistic
B) t statistic
C) F statistic
D) none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

The is a univariate hypothesis test using the t distribution, which is used when the standard deviation is unknown and the sample size is small.
A) t test
B) paired samples test
C) F test
D) z test

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Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

The is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, expressed as a percentage, and it is a unitless measure of relative variability.
A) standard deviation
B) coefficient of variation
C) variance
D) interquartile range

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

Also known as beta error, occurs when the sample results lead to the nonrejection of a null hypothesis that is in fact false.
A) Type II error
B) two- tailed error
C) one- tailed error
D) Type I error

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Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

For the parametric case, involving proportions for two independent samples, the null and alternative hypotheses are .
A) H

_{0}: a_{1}^{2 }= a_{2}^{2 }H_{1}: a_{1}^{2 }× a_{2}^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

The median is an appropriate measure of central tendency for data.
A) ratio
B) ordinal
C) nominal
D) interval

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Q 67Q 67

The value obtained by summing all elements in a set and dividing by the number of elements is the .
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) range

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Q 68Q 68

The is a skewed distribution whose shape depends solely on the number of degrees of freedom. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the distribution becomes more symmetrical.
A) t distribution
B) chi- square distribution
C) frequency distribution
D) F distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

A nonparametric test that analyzes the differences between the paired observations, taking into account the magnitude of the differences is the .
A) McNemar test
B) sign test
C) Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed- ranks test
D) runs test

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

is a test statistic that measures the association between two ordinal- level variables. It makes an adjustment for ties and is most appropriate when the table of variable is square.
A) Symmetric lambda
B) Tau c
C) Tau b
D) Gamma

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

Which statement is not true concerning the t distribution?
A) Compared to the normal distribution, the t distribution has more area in the tails and less in the center.
B) As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the t distribution approaches the normal distribution.
C) The population variance is unknown and is estimated by the sample variance s

^{2}. D) The t distributions are skewed to the left.Free

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Q 72Q 72

is an average of the two asymmetric lambda values. It does not make an assumption about which variable is dependent.
A) Tau b
B) Tau c
C) Symmetric lambda
D) Gamma

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Q 73Q 73

The tests the goodness of fit of the observed number of observations in each category to the number expected under a specified binomial distribution.
A) binomial test
B) sign test
C) Mann- Whitney U test
D) runs test

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

A Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test was conducted. The largest absolute difference between the observed and normal distribution was K = 0.222. The sample size was only 30 therefore, the approximate formula was used and the critical value for K was 0.248. Because the calculated value of K is than the critical value, the null hypothesis be rejected.
A) larger; can
B) larger; cannot
C) smaller; cannot
D) smaller; can

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Q 76Q 76

In the parametric case of means for two independent samples, the hypotheses take which form?
A) H

_{0}: a_{1}^{2 }= a_{2}^{2 }H_{1}: a_{1}^{2 }× a_{2}^{2}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

The tendency of the deviations from the mean to be larger in one direction than in the other is called .
A) Type I error
B) skewness
C) Type II error
D) kurtosis

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Q 78Q 78

In cross- tabs, the introduction of a third variable can .
A) indicate no change in the initial association
B) refine the association observed between the two original variables
C) indicate no association between the two variables, although an association was initially observed
D) All of the above are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

The is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact false, and should be rejected.
A) level of significance
B) power of a test
C) Type II error
D) Type I error

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Q 80Q 80

The is used as a measure of the strength of association in the special case of a table with two rows and two columns (a 2 × 2 table).
A) Cramer's V
B) chi- square coefficient
C) contingency coefficient
D) phi coefficient

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

What is the correct expression of the null hypothesis for the alternative hypothesis: the percentage of Internet users who use the Internet for shopping is greater than .40?
A) H

_{1}: n × .40 B) H_{0}: n = .40 C) H_{0}: n < .40 D) H_{1}: n > .40Free

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Q 82Q 82

A mathematical distribution whose objective is to obtain a count of the number of responses associated with different values of one variable and to express these counts in percentage terms is a .
A) frequency distribution
B) chi- square distribution
C) t distribution
D) distribution

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Q 83Q 83

The is the most appropriate measure of central tendency for interval or ratio data.
A) mean
B) median
C) mode
D) range

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Q 84Q 84

The last step involved in hypothesis testing is .
A) compare the probability with level of significance alpha (a)
B) determine the probability associated with the test statistic under the null hypothesis
C) draw a marketing research conclusion
D) reject or do not reject the null hypothesis

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Q 85Q 85

A _ is a test conducted by determining whether the order or sequence in which observations are obtained is random.
A) binomial test
B) runs test
C) Mann- Whitney U test
D) sign test

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Q 86Q 86

The degrees of freedom for the t statistic to test hypotheses about paired samples are .
A) n
B) n

_{1}_{ }+ n_{2}_{ }C) n_{1 }+ n_{2}_{ }- 2 D) n - 1Free

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Q 87Q 87

In SPSS, if the data are interval scaled and only the summary statistics are desired, the DESCRIPTIVES procedure can be used.

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True False

Q 88Q 88

In tests of associations, the null hypothesis is that there is no association between the variables (H

_{0}:......is NOT related to. ).Free

True False

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True False

Q 90Q 90

Type I error occurs when the sample results lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis when it is in fact true.

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True False

Q 91Q 91

In commercial marketing research, the one- tailed test is used more often than a two- tailed test.

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True False

Q 92Q 92

In the Mann- Whitney U test, two samples are combined and the cases are ranked in order of increasing size. The test statistic, U, is computed as the number of times a score from sample 1 or group 1 follows a score from group 2.

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True False

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True False

Q 94Q 94

The most commonly used statistics associated with frequencies are measures of location, measures of variability, and measures of occasion.

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True False

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True False

Q 96Q 96

The valid percentage column in a frequency distribution represents percentages calculated by excluding the cases with missing values.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 102Q 102

An asymmetrical lambda value of 1 happens when each independent variable category is associated with a single category of the dependent variable.

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True False

Q 103Q 103

The null hypothesis, H

_{0}, when using the chi- square statistic, is that there is no association between the variables.Free

True False

Q 104Q 104

When conducting cross- tabulation analysis in practice, if H

_{0}_{ }is rejected, the pattern of the relationship should be interpreted by computing an appropriate statistic (phi coefficient, contingency, Cramer's V, lambda coefficient, or other statistics).Free

True False

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True False

Q 106Q 106

The first step in hypothesis testing is to select an appropriate statistical technique and the corresponding test statistic.

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True False

Q 107Q 107

The tendency of the deviations from the mean to be larger in one direction than in the other is called skewness.

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True False

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True False

Q 109Q 109

When using the chi- square statistic in cross- tabulation, the null hypothesis (H

_{0}) will be rejected only when the calculated value of the test statistic is greater than the critical value of the chi- square distribution with the appropriate degrees of freedom.Free

True False

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True False

Q 111Q 111

The difference between the mean and an observed value is called the deviation from the mean.

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True False

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True False

Q 113Q 113

When calculating the standard deviation, we divide by n- 1 because the sample is drawn from a population, and we are trying to determine how much the responses vary from the mean of the entire population.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 117Q 117

In hypothesis testing, the observations are paired so that the two sets of observations relate to the same respondents.

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True False

Q 118Q 118

If the calculated value of the test statistic is less than the critical value of the test statistic (TS

_{CR}), the null hypothesis is rejected.Free

True False

Q 119Q 119

If the probability associated with the calculated or observed value of the test statistic (TS

_{CAL}) is greater than the level of significance (a), the null hypothesis is rejected.Free

True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 123Q 123

The McNemar test is another paired sample nonparametric test that is used in the special case of a binary variable where the researcher wishes to test differences in proportions.

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True False

Q 124Q 124

The runs test tests the goodness of fit of the observed number of observations in each category to the number expected under specified binomial distribution.

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True False

Q 125Q 125

If all the data points are multiplied by a constant, the interquartile range is multiplied by the same constant.

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True False

Q 126Q 126

The measures of location are also known as measures of central tendency because they tend to describe the center of the distribution.

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True False

Q 127Q 127

In cross- tabulation, the introduction of a third variable clarifies the initial association (or lack of it) observed between two variables and can result in six possibilities.

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True False

Q 128Q 128

A cross- tabulation is the merging of the frequency distribution of two or more variables in a single table to help us to understand how one variable relates to another variable.

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True False

Q 129Q 129

In determining the critical value of the test statistic, the area to the right of the critical value is either
a or a/2. It is a for a one- tailed test and a/2 for a two- tailed test.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 135Q 135

The critical value of the F distribution depends upon two sets of degrees of freedom-those in the numerator and those in the denominator.

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True False

Q 136Q 136

The null hypothesis refers to a specified value of the population parameter, not a sample statistic.

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True False

Q 137Q 137

In a symmetric distribution, the values on either side of the center of the distribution are the same, and the mean, mode, and median are equal.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 140Q 140

The Kolmogorov- Smirnov one- sample test is a goodness of fit test that compares the cumulative distribution function for a variable with a specified distribution.

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True False

Q 141Q 141

For a given level of α, increasing the sample size will decrease fi, thereby increasing the power of the test.

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True False

Q 142Q 142

When measuring the strength of association with the contingency coefficient, the maximum value of 1 is achieved when the variables are perfectly associated.

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True False

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True False

Q 144Q 144

In tests of differences, the null hypothesis is that there is a difference (H

_{0}:.....is different than ).Free

True False

Q 145Q 145

If the entire sample is changed by adding a fixed constant to each observation, then the mean, variance, and median change by the same fixed amount.

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True False

Q 146Q 146

The test statistic measures how close the sample has come to the null hypothesis and often follows a well- known distribution, such as the normal, t, or chi- square distribution.

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True False

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True False

Q 148Q 148

The Mann- Whitney U test is a statistical test for a variable measured on an ordinal scale, comparing the difference in the location of two populations based on observations from two independent samples.

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True False

Q 149Q 149

Hypothesis- testing procedures can be broadly classified as parameter or nonparameter based on the measurement scale of the variables involved.

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Q 150Q 150

When conducting marketing research, what general rules should be followed to determine when the different measures of location should be used?

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Q 151Q 151

Define the null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss the relationship between the two hypotheses.

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