# Quiz 22: Structural Equation Modeling

Business

Q 1Q 1

Dependence relationships are represented with in a path model.
A) boxes
B) two- headed straight arrows
C) ovals
D) two- headed curved arrows
E) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

E

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Multiple Choice

E

Q 3Q 3

Model fit includes the following step(s):
A) Model fit is determined by comparing how closely the estimated covariance matrix matches the observed covariance matrix.
B) Produce correlations or covariances among the items.
C) Estimate the covariance matrix between the observed variables based on the proposed measurement and structural models.
D) Examine the residuals.
E) All of the above.

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Multiple Choice

E

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

are the actual items that are measured using a survey questionnaire.
A) Measured variables or indicators
B) Estimated Parameters
C) Constructs
D) Latent factors
E) Observed factors

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

In moving from the measurement model to the structural model, .
A) the exogenous constructs each become endogenous
B) the emphasis shifts from the relationships between latent constructs and measured variables to the nature and magnitude of the relationships between constructs
C) the error terms are correlated with each other
D) the endogenous constructs become exogenous
E) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

In SEM, the posited relationships between constructs are tested similarly to the way they are tested using _ .
A) MDS
B) multiple regression
C) Discriminant analysis
D) cluster analysis
E) Analysis of Covariance

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

SEM models are estimated so as to .
A) maximize the likelihood function
B) minimize the difference between the observed and estimated covariance matrices
C) minimize the least squared difference
D) minimize the sum of squares between constructs
E) A and C

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

The validity of the measurement model depends on .
A) discriminant validity
B) convergent validity
C) composite reliability
D) goodness- of- fit results
E) All of the above

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

is established when the measured items are conceptually consistent with a construct definition.
A) Composite reliability
B) Nomological validity
C) Discriminant validity
D) Convergent validity
E) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

SEM can be thought of as a combination of which two techniques?
A) MANOVA and Exploratory factor analysis
B) Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis
C) Discriminant analysis and cluster analysis
D) MANOVA and multiple regression analysis
E) MANOVA and ANOVA

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

Which of the following is true about the relationship of SEM to factor analysis?
A) SEM, we have to specify which variables are associated with each construct based on theory.
B) Concepts such as correlations and covariances are common to both the techniques.
C) The measurement model in SEM is similar to factor analysis in that both techniques have variables with loadings on factors.
D) A and C are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

SEM has the following characteristics:
A) estimation of multiple and interrelated dependence relationships incorporated in an integrated model.
B) incorporation of measurement error in an explicit manner.
C) explanation of covariance among the observed variables.
D) representation of constructs as unobservable or latent factors in dependence relationships.
E) All of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following is true about the relationship of SEM to multiple regression techniques?
A) It is different from multiple regression because the all of the equation are estimated simultaneously.
B) It is different from multiple regression because the dependent construct in one relationship may become the independent construct.
C) SEM is similar to multiple regression when exogenous constructs are used to predict endogenous constructs.
D) A and C are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Which of the following steps are involved in conducting SEM?
A) Specify the measurement model.
B) Define the individual constructs.
C) Assess measurement model reliability and validity.
D) Specify the structural model if the measurement model is valid.
E) All of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Which of the following values for RMSEA is (are) considered conservative?
A) 0.04
B) 0.06
C) 0.90
D) 0.99
E) A and B

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Which of the following is true about Structural Equation Modeling?
A) In SEM, the constructs are unobservable or latent factors that are representative by multiple variables.
B) SEM explicitly takes into account the measurement error.
C) SEM is mainly used as an exploratory technique.
D) A and B are true
E) A, B, and C are true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Which of the following are true regarding SEM models?
A) A structural model shows how the constructs are interrelated to each other, often with multiple dependence relationships.
B) A SEM model consists of two models: the measurement model and the structural model.
C) The measurement model depicts how the observed variable represent constructs.
D) The observed variables are measured by researcher.
E) All of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

The diagnostic cues that can be used to make appropriate modifications include _ .
A) standardized residual
B) modification indices
C) specification search
D) the path estimates or loadings
E) All of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

When two constructs are theoretically unrelated to each other, the path between those two constructs should be _ .
A) fixed
B) free
C) estimated
D) assigned a value of 1
E) none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Which of the following is a difference contrasting EFA with CFA?
A) one technique is exploratory and the other is confirmatory
B) the specification of which variables load on which factors
C) the size of the loading estimates considered significant
D) A and B
E) A, B, and C

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of SEM?
A) the estimation of multiple and interrelated dependence relationships simultaneously in a single analysis
B) the explaining of the covariance among the measured items or observed variables
C) the ability to discriminate multiple groups in a single analysis
D) A and B.
E) A, B, and C.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A proposed structural model involves four constructs, two of which are exogenous. X1 and X2 together cause Y1, which in turn causes Y2. What term describes this model?
A) recursive
B) nonrecursive
C) descriptive
D) empirical
E) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Which is a way to help make sure that the model is identified?
A) a large sample size
B) a GFI of .95 or higher
C) have all formative indicators
D) have at least three observed variables for each latent construct
E) none of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Which of the following are true regarding exogenous constructs?
A) Graphically, an exogenous construct does not have any paths coming to it.
B) An exogenous construct is determined by factors outside of the model.
C) An exogenous construct is the latent, multi- item equivalent of an independent variable in traditional multivariate analysis.
D) A and C are correct.
E) A, B, and C are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

How is an exogenous construct represented in an structural path model?
A) It is represented by an oval with no arrows.
B) It is represented by a box with one- headed arrows going into it.
C) It is represented by a box with one- headed arrows going into it and two headed arrows.
D) The construct is represented by an oval with no one- headed arrows going into it.
E) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

When two constructs are theoretically unrelated to each other, the path between those two constructs should be "free."

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True False

Q 29Q 29

It is recommended that each construct be measured by using at least three observed variables.

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True False

Q 30Q 30

When two constructs are theoretically unrelated to each other, the path between those two constructs should be be assigned a value of 1.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 34Q 34

In moving from the measurement model to the structural model, the exogenous constructs each become endogenous.

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True False

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True False

Q 36Q 36

A proposed structural model involves four constructs, two of which are exogenous. X1 and X2 together cause Y1, which in turn causes Y2. This model is recursive.

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True False

Q 37Q 37

Once the validity of the measurement model has been established, you can proceed with the specification of structural model.

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True False

Q 38Q 38

The baseline model that is commonly used is the null model that is based on the assumption that the observed variables are uncorrelated.

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True False

Q 39Q 39

SEM models are estimated so as to minimize the difference between the observed and estimated covariance matrices.

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True False

Q 40Q 40

When two constructs are theoretically unrelated to each other, the path between those two constructs should be "fixed."

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True False

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True False

Q 42Q 42

A construct is an unobservable or latent variable that can be defined in conceptual terms that can be measured directly.

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True False

Q 43Q 43

Measured variables or indicators are the actual items that are measured using a survey questionnaire.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 46Q 46

The confirmatory factor analysis is used to verify the factor structure of a set of observed variables.

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True False

Q 47Q 47

SEM is distinguished by the explaining of the covariance among the measured items or observed variables.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 50Q 50

Construct validity is established when the measured items are conceptually consistent with a construct definition.

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True False

Q 51Q 51

The impact of the average error variance of indicators can be understood in terms of communality.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 55Q 55

Having at least three observed variables for each latent construct is a way to help make sure that the model is identified.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 58Q 58

The size of the loading estimates considered significant is a difference contrasting EFA with CFA.

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True False

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True False

Q 60Q 60

In SEM, the posited relationships between constructs are tested similarly to the way they are tested using cluster analysis.

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True False

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True False

Q 62Q 62

A proposed structural model involves three constructs, one of which are exogenous. X1 causes Y1, which in turn causes Y2. This model is nonrecursive.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 65Q 65

In moving from the measurement model to the structural model the error terms are correlated with each other.

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True False

Q 66Q 66

An exogenous construct is represented in an structural path model as a an oval with no one- headed arrows going into it.

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True False

Q 67Q 67

A sample size of 1000 is used to test a structural model of advertising effectiveness for the
Coca- Cola company. The results show that a significant relationship exists between advertising effectiveness and sales. The estimated value of the standardized path estimate is .035. The
Coca- Cola management dismisses the finding because the relationship is trivial.

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True False

Q 68Q 68

An exogenous construct is represented in an structural path model as a box with one- headed arrows going into it.

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True False

Q 69Q 69

In moving from the measurement model to the structural model, the endogenous constructs become exogenous.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 74Q 74

Convergent validity is established when the measured items are conceptually consistent with a construct definition.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 78Q 78

The specification of which variables load on which factors is a difference contrasting EFA with CFA.

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True False

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True False

Q 80Q 80

In moving from the measurement model to the structural model, the emphasis shifts from the relationships between latent constructs and measured variables to the nature and magnitude of the relationships between constructs.

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True False

Q 81Q 81

SEM is a procedure for estimating a series of dependence relationships among a set of concepts or constructs represented by multiple measured variables and incorporated in to an integrated model.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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