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Concepts of Genetics

Biology

Quiz 22 :

Applications and Ethics of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Quiz 22 :

Applications and Ethics of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

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A DNA microarray (also called a DNA chip) can be used to ________.
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E

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Name at least three applications for examining sequence variants such as RFLPs.
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forensic applications, paternity testing, archeology, conservation biology, public health, evolutionary biology

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Describe the structure of a DNA microarray and its use.
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A DNA microarray is a glass plate divided into fields containing a specific DNA probe of about 20 nucleotides. The sequence of the probe differs by one nucleotide from field to field. A chip can hold more than 500,000 fields. DNA is extracted from cells and cut with one or more restriction enzymes. The fragments are fluorescence tagged, denatured, and annealed to the DNA in the array. Massive amounts of DNA can be screened for sequence changes in a relatively short period of time.

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How are gene therapy and recombinant DNA technology related?
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How is a microarray used to scan for mutations in a genome?
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RFLPs are commonly used in recombinant DNA technology to ________.
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Under strictly controlled conditions, a probe can be used that will hybridize only with its complementary sequence and not with other sequences that may vary by as little as one nucleotide. What are such probes called?
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What is an allele-specific oligonucleotide?
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A term often used to describe an organism that is a genetic mosaic, resulting from the introduction of DNA from another organism, is ________.
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What method have farmers used for millennia to enhance food production in plants and animals?
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Once DNA is separated on a gel, it is often desirable to gain some idea of its informational content. How might this be done?
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Briefly describe what is meant by gene therapy.
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What process is effectively the true test of the functionally synthetic genome?
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Briefly describe what is meant by the term edible vaccine.
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Prenatal detection of human diseases has been greatly enhanced by two procedures. Name and briefly describe each.
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Which of the following characteristics do SNPs have?
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What term is used to describe the new field engaged to producing more specific, effective and personally customized drugs?
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Many instances involving genetically modified organisms, especially food crops, will be entering the human food chain in the years to come. On what basis are genetically modified foods considered safe to eat?
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Which term is commonly used to describe the production of valuable proteins in genetically modified plants and animals?
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Generally, vaccines are used to stimulate the immune system by providing antigens of potential pathogens. What is the typical composition of a vaccine?
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