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Concepts of Genetics

Biology

Quiz 24 :

Neurogenetics

Quiz 24 :

Neurogenetics

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List at least three areas of research that deal with the genetics of behavior in humans.
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Huntington disease, fragile X syndrome, autism

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Briefly describe the mutant status of the HD gene.
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The HD gene encodes a 350 kd protein (huntingtin) in which mutant alleles have extra CAG trinucleotide repeats near the 5' end. Normal individuals have 7 to 34 repeats, whereas those with HD carry more than 40 repeats.

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Suggest two problems with determining the genetic basis of a behavioral trait in humans.
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influence of the environment and difficulty in conducting genetic studies on humans

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Determining the genetic influence on two fairly common human behavioral disorders has eluded researchers for many years. One involves passive deficits in thinking, language, feelings, and social skills; the other includes a variety of psychotic symptoms, perceptual disorders (hearing voices), and withdrawal from reality. Evidence from pedigrees and twins indicates that these two behaviors have a genetic component. Which behaviors are being described here?
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How would the use of a large series of monozygotic and dizygotic twins enhance studies on the genetic basis of human behavior?
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Huntington disease (HD) is a well-studied, autosomal dominant disorder that affects the nervous system. Symptoms usually appear after age 40, and victims usually die within 10 to 15 years after onset of the disease. It appears that at least in some cases of HD, "stutter" mutations occur. Such mutations are characterized by ________.
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What is the biochemical role of adenyl cyclase?
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Fragile X syndrome is a neurological disorder that is caused by a dominantly inherited mutant allele on the X chromosome?
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Humans are relatively unavailable as experimental subjects in genetic investigations, yet considerable interest surrounds intelligence, language, personality, and emotional behaviors. One difficulty in studying such behaviors is the high likelihood that they ________.
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How are electrical impulses propagated from neuron to neuron?
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What anatomical structure is responsible for the transfer of impulses between neurons?
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Present an overview of the research dealing with the genetics of behavior in small mammals (mice or rats) and Drosophila.
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Recent research using gene expression profiles indicates that schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders are ________.
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The HD gene, one of the first genes to be mapped in humans by RFLP, is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. It codes for ________.
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What is a major problem that arises in the study of the genetic basis of human behavior?
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Why is cyclic AMP considered important in behavioral studies?
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Much effort has been expended to understand genetic involvement in brain function in Drosophila. Why might this research be important in understanding the functioning of the human brain?
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Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders that appear to be ________.
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What conclusion has been reached regarding the genetic status of schizophrenia using genome-wide association studies?
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One of the oldest recorded behavior mutants is the waltzer mutation in the mouse. Mutant mice can be observed "dancing" and "head shaking"; some are also deaf. Mice must be homozygous for a mutation to express the trait. Based on this information, the genetic cause of this trait is most likely a(n) ________.
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