# Quiz 18: A Macroscopic Description of Matter

Physics & Astronomy

Q 1Q 1

If the temperature of an iron sphere is increased,
A) its density will increase.
B) its volume will decrease.
C) its density will decrease.
D) its mass will decrease.
E) its density will remain unchanged.

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

A machinist needs to remove a tight fitting pin of material A from a hole in a block made of material B. The machinist heats both the pin and the block to the same high temperature and removes the pin easily. What statement relates the coefficient of thermal expansion of material A to that of material B?
A) Material B has a greater coefficient of expansion than does material A.
B) The situation is not possible because heating block B will shrink the hole in the material as the material expands with increasing temperature.
C) Material B has the same coefficient of expansion as does material A.
D) Material A has a greater coefficient of expansion than does material B.

Free

Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

Two steel spheres are made of the same material and have the same diameter, but one is solid and the other is hollow. If their temperature is increased by the same amount,
A) the solid sphere becomes bigger than the hollow one.
B) the hollow sphere becomes bigger than the solid one.
C) the two spheres remain of equal size.
D) the solid sphere becomes heavier and the hollow one becomes lighter.
E) the solid sphere becomes lighter and the hollow one becomes heavier.

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

When a solid melts,
A) the temperature of the substance increases.
B) the temperature of the substance decreases.
C) heat energy leaves the substance.
D) heat energy enters the substance.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

When a vapor condenses,
A) the temperature of the substance increases.
B) the temperature of the substance decreases.
C) heat energy leaves the substance.
D) heat energy enters the substance.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

A fixed amount of ideal gas is held in a rigid container that expands negligibly when heated. At 20°C the gas pressure is p. If we add enough heat to increase the temperature from 20°C to 40°C, the pressure will be
A) impossible to determine since we do not know the number of moles of gas in the container.
B) greater than 2p.
C) less than 2p.
D) equal to 2p.
E) impossible to determine since we do not know the volume of gas in the container.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

For a fixed amount of gas, if the absolute temperature of the gas is doubled, what happens to the pressure of the gas?
A) The answer cannot be determined without volume information.
B) The pressure of the gas becomes double the original pressure.
C) The pressure of the gas becomes eight times the original pressure.
D) The pressure of the gas becomes one half the original pressure.
E) The pressure of the gas becomes four times the original pressure.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

The number of molecules in one mole of a substance
A) depends on the molecular weight of the substance.
B) depends on the atomic weight of the substance.
C) depends on the density of the substance.
D) depends on the temperature of the substance.
E) is the same for all substances.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Which contains more moles of material: 80 grams of helium gas (He, having atomic weight 4.0 g/mol) or 400 grams of argon gas (Ar, having atomic weight 40 g/mol)?
A) helium
B) argon
C) Both contain the same number of moles.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

(a) Internal human body temperature is often stated to be normal at 98.6°F. What is this temperature on the Celsius and Kelvin scales?
(b) Gallium boils at 2205°C. What is the corresponding temperature in the Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales?
(c) The boiling point of liquid nitrogen is 77.0 K. What is the corresponding temperature in the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales?

Free

Essay

Q 11Q 11

A rod has a length 2.00000 m at 10.0°C. The length of the rod increases to 2.00060 m when the temperature increases to 30.0°C. What is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material from which the rod is made?
A) 2.0 × 10

^{-5}/K B) 2.5 × 10^{-5}/K C) 1.5 × 10^{-5}/K D) 1.0 × 10^{-3}/K E) 1.0 × 10^{-5}/KFree

Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Suppose that a steel bridge, 1000 m long, was built without any expansion joints and that only one end of the bridge was held fixed. What would the difference in the length of the bridge be between winter and summer, taking a typical winter temperature as 0.00°C, and a typical summer temperature as 40°C? The coefficient of thermal expansion of steel is 10.5 × 10

^{-6}K^{-1}. A) 0.42 m B) 0.11 mm C) 0.11 m D) 0.42 mm E) 0.37 cmFree

Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

The exterior of a supersonic airplane is made of aluminum, which has a coefficient of linear expansion of 24 × 10

^{-6 }K^{-1}. At 15°C, the plane measures 62.1 m in length. When the plane is in flight, friction with the air increases the temperature of the exterior skin to 200°C. What is the change in the length of the outer skin of the plane? A) 20 cm B) 24 cm C) 28 cm D) 32 cm E) 36 cmFree

Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Two identical concrete slabs lie flat and in contact with each other as shown in the figure. If the temperature increases by 40°C, the lower edges opposite the contact edges remained fixed in position, and the lower edges of the contact side remain in contact, at what angle will the slabs be tilted? The coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete is 10 × 10

^{-6}/K. A) 19° B) 0.028° C) 15° D) 1.6° E) The answer depends on the length of the slabs.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

A brass rod is 40.1 cm long and an aluminum rod is 79.3 cm long when both rods are at an initial temperature of 0°C. The rods are placed in line with a gap of 0.60 cm between them, as shown in the figure. The distance between the far ends of the rods is maintained at 120.0 cm throughout. The temperature of both rods is raised until the two rods are barely in contact. The coefficients of linear expansion of brass and aluminum are 2.0 × 10

^{-5}K^{-1}and 2.4 × 10^{-5}K^{-1}, respectively. The temperature at which contact of the rods barely occurs is closest to A) 220°C. B) 210°C. C) 200°C. D) 230°C. E) 240°C.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

You want to insert an aluminum rod, which at 20°C has a radius of 1.000200 cm into a copper tube which has a radius of 1.000100 cm at the same temperature. You decide to put both of them in the refrigerator. At what temperature will the rod just fit if both are cooled to the same temperature? The coefficient of thermal expansion for aluminum is 2.4 × 10

^{-5 }K^{-1}, and that of copper is 1.7 × 10^{-5}K^{-1}. A) 7.8°C B) 6.3°C C) 9.2°C D) 15°C E) 5.7°CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

The hole for a bolt in a brass plate has a diameter of 1.200 cm at 20°C. What is the diameter of the hole when the plate is heated to 220°C? The coefficient of linear thermal expansion for brass is 19 × 10

^{-6}/°C. (Express your answer to 4 significant figures.) A) 1.205 cm B) 1.125 cm C) 1.195 cm D) 1.200 cm E) 1.210 cmFree

Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

1.000 L of water at 20.00°C will occupy what volume if it is heated to 80.00°C? Water has a volume expansion coefficient of 210 × 10

^{-6}/°C. (Express your answer to 4 significant figures.) A) 1.600 L B) 1.326 L C) 1.013 L D) 0.9870 L E) 0.9987 LFree

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A glass flask has a volume of 500 mL at a temperature of 20°C. The flask contains of mercury at The temperature of the mercury and flask is raised until the mercury reaches the reference mark. The coefficients of volume expansion of mercury and glass are 18 × 10

^{-5}K^{-1}and 2.0 × 10^{-5}K^{-1}, respectively. The temperature at which this occurs is closest to A) 122°C. B) 112°C. C) 102°C. D) 110°C. E) 132°C.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

The coefficient of linear expansion of aluminum is 24 × 10

^{-6}K^{-1}and the coefficient of volume expansion of olive oil is 0.68 × 10^{-3 }K^{-1}. A novice cook, in preparation for deep-frying some potatoes, fills a 1.00-L aluminum pot to the brim and heats the oil and the pot from an initial temperature of 15°C to 190°C. To his consternation some olive oil spills over the top. How much? A) 0.11 L B) 0.12 L C) 0.13 L D) 0.14 L E) 0.15 LFree

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

The coefficient of volume expansion of olive oil is 0.68 × 10

^{-3 }K^{-1}. A 1.00-L glass beaker is filled to the brim with olive oil at room temperature. The beaker is placed on a range and the temperature of the oil and beaker increases by 25°C. As a result, 0.0167 L of olive oil spill over the top of the beaker. What is the coefficient of linear expansion of the glass? A) 1.0 × 10^{-6 }K^{-1}B) 4.0 × 10^{-6 }K^{-1}C) 1.0 × 10^{-5 }K^{-1}D) 2.0 × 10^{-5 }K^{-1}E) 3.0 × 10^{-5 }K^{-1}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A certain metal has a coefficient of linear expansion of 2.00 × 10

^{-5}K^{-1}. It has been kept in a laboratory oven at 325°C for a long time. It is now removed from the oven and placed in a freezer at -145°C. After it has reached freezer temperature, the percent change in its density during this process is closest to A) +2.90%. B) -2.90%. C) +2.74%. D) -2.74%. E) It is not possible to tell without knowing the mass and original volume of the metal.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

2.0 L of an ideal nitrogen gas (N

_{2}) are at 0.00°C and 1.0 atm. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K, Avogadro's number is 6.022 × 10^{23}molecules/mol, and the ATOMIC mass of nitrogen is 14 g/mol. (a) Determine the number of moles of N_{2}. (b) How many molecules of N_{2}are present? (c) What is the mass of this gas?Free

Essay

Q 24Q 24

If a certain sample of an ideal gas has a temperature of 109°C and exerts a pressure of on the walls of its container, how many gas molecules are present in each cubic centimeter of volume? The ideal gas constant is 8.314 J/mol · K and Avogadro's number is
6.022 × 10

^{23}molecules/mol.Free

Short Answer

Q 25Q 25

A vertical tube that is closed at the upper end and open at the lower end contains an air pocket. The open end of the tube is under the water of a lake, as shown in the figure. When the lower end of the tube is just under the surface of the lake, where the temperature is 37°C and the pressure is 1.0 × 10

^{5}Pa, the air pocket occupies a volume of . Suppose now that the lower end of the tube is at a depth of 86 m in the lake, where the temperature is 7.0°C. What is the volume of the air pocket under these conditions? The density of the water in the lake is 1000 kg/m^{3}.Free

Essay

Q 26Q 26

A sealed 89- tank is filled with 6000 moles of oxygen gas (O

_{2}) at an initial temperature of 270 K. The gas is heated to a final temperature of 350 K. The ATOMIC mass of oxygen is 16.0 g/mol, and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol · K = 0.0821 L · atm/mol · K. The initial pressure of the gas is closest to A) 0.15 MPa. B) 0.17 MPa. C) 0.19 MPa. D) 0.13 MPa. E) 0.11 MPa.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

A sealed 26- tank is filled with 2000 moles of oxygen gas (O

_{2}) at an initial temperature of 270 K. The gas is heated to a final temperature of 460 K. The ATOMIC mass of oxygen is 16.0 g/mol, and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol · K = 0.0821 L · atm/mol · K. The final pressure of the gas is closest to A) 0.29 MPa. B) 0.31 MPa. C) 0.33 MPa. D) 0.34 MPa. E) 0.36 MPa.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

A 3.2-L volume of neon gas (Ne) is at a pressure of 3.3 atm and a temperature of 330 K. The atomic mass of neon is 20.2 g/mol, Avogadro's number is 6.022 × 10

^{23}molecules/mol, and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol · K = 0.0821 L · atm/mol · K. The mass of the neon gas is closest to A) 7.9 × 10^{-3}kg. B) 4.6 × 10^{-3}kg. C) 3.8 kg. D) 7.8 kg. E) 7.8 × 10^{2}kg.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

A weather balloon contains 12.0 m

^{3}of hydrogen gas when the balloon is released from a location at which the temperature is 22.0°C and the pressure is 101 kPa. The balloon rises to a location where the temperature is -30.0°C and the pressure is 20.0 kPa. If the balloon is free to expand so that the pressure of the gas inside is equal to the ambient pressure, what is the new volume of the balloon? Assume that in both cases the hydrogen gas is in thermal equilibrium with the outside air. A) 14.0 m^{3}B) 2.38 m^{3}C) 49.9 m^{3}D) 82.6 m^{3}E) 4.16 m^{3}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A sealed container holds 0.020 moles of nitrogen (N

_{2}) gas, at a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres and a temperature of 290 K. The atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.0 g/mol. The Boltzmann constant is 1.38 × 10^{-23}J/K and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol · K = 0.0821 L · atm/mol · K. The mass density of the gas is closest to A) 0.90 kg/m^{3}. B) 1.3 kg/m^{3}. C) 1.8 kg/m^{3}. D) 2.2 kg/m^{3}. E) 2.6 kg/m^{3}.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

An ideal gas is at a pressure 1.00 × 10

^{5}N/m^{2}and occupies a volume 2.00 m^{3}. If the gas is compressed to a volume 1.00 m^{3}while the temperature remains constant, what will be the new pressure in the gas? A) 0.500 × 10^{5}N/m^{2}B) 4.00 × 10^{5}N/m^{2}C) 1.00 × 10^{5}N/m^{2}D) 2.00 × 10^{5}N/m^{2}E) The answer depends on the mass of the gas particles.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Sometimes an experiment requires a certain pure gas to be used at reduced pressure. One way to achieve this is to purchase a sealed glass container filled with the gas, and to introduce the gas into a vacuum by attaching the glass container to the vacuum chamber and breaking the tip of the glass container using a metallic bean and a magnet. If the volume of the glass container is 1.0 L and it is at a pressure of 1.0 × 10

^{5}Pa and if the vacuum chamber has a volume of 2.0 L, what will the pressure be after the gas, which is to be assumed to be an ideal gas, is released into the vacuum chamber and the temperature has returned to its original value? (Note that the glass container remains part of the system.) A) 33 kPa B) 50 kPa C) 300 kPa D) 200 kPaFree

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

A bag of potato chips contains 2.00 L of air when it is sealed at sea level at a pressure of 1.00 atm and a temperature of 20.0°C. What will be the volume of the air in the bag if you take it with you, still sealed, to the mountains where the temperature is 7.00°C and atmospheric pressure is 70.0 kPa? Assume that the bag behaves like a balloon and that the air in the bag is in thermal equilibrium with the outside air. (1 atm = 1.01 × 10

^{5}Pa) A) 4.13 L B) 1.01 L C) 1.38 L D) 2.76 LFree

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

A cold trap is set up to cause molecules to linger near the suction in a vacuum system. If the cold trap has an effective volume of 0.200 L and is maintained at how many molecules are in it at 10.0 Pa of pressure? (Avogadro's number is 6.022 × 10

^{23}molecules/mol, and the universal gas constant is 8.314 J/mol ∙ K. Assume the behavior of an ideal gas.) A) 1.11 × 10^{19}molecules B) 1.10 × 10^{22}molecules C) 7.71 × 10^{20}molecules D) 7.71 × 10^{23}moleculesFree

Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

A hot air balloon has a volume of 2.00 × 10

^{3}m^{3}when fully inflated, and the air inside the balloon is always at atmospheric pressure of 1.01 × 10^{5}Pa because of the large opening used to fill the balloon and heat the air inside it. What is the mass of hot air inside the balloon if its temperature is 120°C? The universal gas constant is 8.314 J/mol ∙ K. (Assume a molecular weight of 28.8 g/mol for air.) A) 1780 kg B) 5850 kg C) 203 kg D) 62.0 kgFree

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

The figure shows a 50-kg frictionless cylindrical piston that floats on 0.68 mol of compressed air at 30°C. How far does the piston move if the temperature is increased to 300°C?
A) 120 cm
B) 250 cm
C) 130 cm
D) 1300 cm

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

3.00 moles of an ideal gas at a pressure of 250 kPa are held in a container of volume of 25.0 L. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K, and
1 atm = 1.01 × 10

^{5}Pa. The temperature of this gas is closest to A) 240°C. B) -180°C. C) 480°C. D) -1.0°C. E) -22°C.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

How many moles of water (H

_{2}O) molecules are in a 4.00 m^{3}container at a pressure 8.00 × 10^{5}N/m^{2}and temperature 600°C? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0)0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K. A) 7.72 × 10^{26}mol B) 641 mol C) 441 mol D) 3.86 × 10^{26}mol E) 2.65 × 10^{26}molFree

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

The interior of a refrigerator has a volume of 0.600 m

^{3}. The temperature inside the refrigerator in 282 K, and the pressure is 101 kPa. If the molecular weight of air is 29 g/mol, what is the mass of air inside the refrigerator? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K. A) 500 g B) 560 g C) 140 g D) 270 g E) 750 gFree

Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

What is the mass density of argon gas at pressure 1.00 × 10

^{5}N/m^{2}and at temperature 300 K? The mean atomic mass of argon is 39.948 g/mol and the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = . A) 1.40 kg/m^{3}B) 1.00 kg/m^{3}C) 1.20 kg/m^{3}D) 1.60 kg/m^{3}E) 1.80 kg/m^{3}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

A 25-L container holds ideal hydrogen (H

_{2}) gas at a gauge pressure of 0.25 atm and a temperature of 0°C. What mass of hydrogen gas is in this container? The ATOMIC mass of hydrogen is 1.0 g/mol, the ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K, and 1.00 atm = 101 kPa. A) 1.4 g B) 2.8 g C) 4.2 g D) 5.6 g E) 6.3 gFree

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

The figure (not to scale) shows a pV diagram for 1.8 g of helium gas (He) that undergoes the process 1 → 2 → 3. Find the value of V

_{3}. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K, and the atomic weight of helium is 4.0 g/mol. A) 17 L B) 69 L C) 34 L D) 8.6 LFree

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

The figure shows a pV diagram for 8.3 g of nitrogen gas (N

_{2}) in a sealed container. The temperature T_{1}of the gas in state 1 is 79°C. What are (a) the pressure p_{1}of the gas in state 1 and (b) the temperature T_{2}of the gas in state 2? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = , and the ATOMIC weight of nitrogen is 14 g/mol. A) (a) 86 atm, (b) 700°C. B) (a) 19 atm, (b) 700°C. C) (a) 86 atm, (b) 160°C. D) (a) 19 atm, (b) 160°C.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

The figure shows a pV diagram for 4.3 g of oxygen gas (O

_{2}) in a sealed container. The temperature T_{1}of the gas in state 1 is 21°C. What are the temperatures T_{3}and T_{4}of the gas in states 3 and 4? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K, and the ATOMIC weight of oxygen is 16 g/mol. A) -52°C, 390°C B) 16°C, 47°C C) 220°C, 660°C D) 11°C, 32°CFree

Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

The figure shows a pV diagram for 0.95 mol of gas that undergoes the process 1 → 2. The gas then undergoes an isochoric heating from point 2 until the pressure is restored to the value it had at point 1. What is the final temperature of the gas? The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = .
A) -160°C
B) 15°C
C) 390°C
D) 120°C

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

The figure shows a pV diagram for 0.0066 mol of gas that undergoes the process 1 → 2 → 3. What is the pressure p

_{2}. The ideal gas constant is R = 8.314 J/mol ∙ K = 0.0821 L ∙ atm/mol ∙ K. A) 5.3 atm B) 5.3 × 10^{5}_{ }_{atm}C) 16 atm D) 1.6 × 10^{6}_{ atm}Free

Multiple Choice