# Quiz 10: Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research

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Q 2Q 2

Define the key terms used in sampling (representative sample, generalize, element, statistic, parameter, and so forth).

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Q 11Q 11

List the factors that you should consider when determining the appropriate sample size to be selected when using random sampling.

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Q 12Q 12

Discuss sampling in qualitative research and compare and contrast the different sampling techniques used in qualitative research.

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Q 13Q 13

Explain the two criteria that produce the eight methods of sampling in mixed research.
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Q 14Q 14

A study that examines the whole population is called:
A) A parametric study
B) A census
C) A cluster sample
D) A two-stage sample

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Q 15Q 15

Sample is to population as:
A) Statistic is to element
B) Population is to element
C) Statistic is to parameter
D) Random is to convenience

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Q 16Q 16

When elements are not allowed to be selected more than once, this is called:
A) Sampling without replacement
B) Sampling with replacement
C) Unrestricted sampling
D) Sampling Error

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Q 17Q 17

Harold is drawing a sample so that each member of a population has an equally likely chance of being selected, this is called:
A) A nonrandom sampling method
B) A quota sample
C) A snowball sample
D) An equal probability of selection method

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Q 18Q 18

A sampling frame is:
A) A type of statistic derived from sampling
B) A random sample
C) A nonrandom sample
D) A list of all the elements in a population

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Q 19Q 19

Which of the following techniques yields a simple random sample?
A) Choosing volunteers from an introductory psychology class to participate
B) Listing the individuals by ethnic group and choosing a proportion from within each ethnic group at random
C) Numbering all the elements of a sampling frame and then using a random number table to pick cases from the table
D) Randomly selecting schools, and then sampling everyone within the school

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Q 20Q 20

Systematic sampling yields a representative sample when:
A) There is periodicity in the list
B) There is a random start point and periodicity is not present
C) The interval you choose is close to 10
D) There are identified clusters in the population

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Q 21Q 21

Carly drew a sample by first identifying a comprehensive set of subgroups based on one or more variables, and then individuals were randomly selected from each of those subgroups. Carly used the technique known as:
A) Stratified random sampling
B) Cluster sampling
C) Simple random sampling
D) Convenience sampling

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Q 22Q 22

Which of the following is not true about stratified random sampling?
A) It involves a random selection process from identified subgroups
B) Proportions of groups in the sample must always match their population proportions
C) Disproportional stratified random sampling is especially helpful for getting large enough subgroup samples when subgroup comparisons are to be done
D) Proportional stratified random sampling yields a representative sample

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Q 23Q 23

Disproportionate stratified random sampling:
A) Produces stratified samples that are not random
B) Helps increase the ability of the researcher to make meaningful statistical comparisons between groups, especially when one of the groups is relatively small in the population
C) Is easier to do than proportionate random sampling
D) Involves more cluster units

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Q 24Q 24

In one-stage cluster sampling, the random selection is done at the level of the:
A) Individual subject
B) Cluster unit
C) Both individual and cluster unit
D) Neither the individual or cluster unit

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Q 25Q 25

One advantage of cluster sampling is that:
A) It does not require randomization
B) It can be done from the phone book
C) It makes it easier to compare groups
D) It can be done without a listing of all population members

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Q 26Q 26

In two-stage cluster sampling, random selection is done:
A) In the first stage only
B) In the second stage only
C) In the first and second stages
D) In neither stage

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Q 27Q 27

"Probability proportional to size" means:
A) A cluster's probability of selection is independent of size
B) All members of a cluster are chosen
C) Sample size depends upon the proportion of the population chosen
D) The probability of a cluster's selection is dependent upon its size

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Q 28Q 28

For her thesis, Kathryn recruited individuals who were easily available. This is known as:
A) Convenience sampling
B) Cluster sampling
C) Stratified random sampling
D) Two-stage sampling

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Q 29Q 29

When a researcher looks for a certain number of people with a particular characteristic to serve in her sample, and she recruits such individuals until she has the number she wants, this is known as:
A) Quota sampling
B) Cluster sampling
C) Stratified random sampling
D) Snowball sampling

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Q 30Q 30

Snowball sampling occurs when:
A) The researcher does two-stage cluster sampling
B) The researcher uses probability proportionate to size
C) Members of a sample recommend other members to participate in the research
D) There are no clusters in the population

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Q 31Q 31

Snowball sampling is advantageous when one is:
A) Sampling from a hard to locate population
B) Doing an experiment
C) Looking for a useful random sampling technique
D) Working with clusters

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Q 32Q 32

When a researcher uses a participant group primarily because of availability, this is called:
A) Proportional stratified sampling
B) Purposive sampling
C) Convenience sampling
D) Quota sampling

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Q 33Q 33

A major disadvantage of convenience sampling is that:
A) It is difficult, if not impossible to determine the sampling bias
B) It is difficult to find convenience samples
C) Statistics cannot be calculated on convenience samples
D) They cannot be used in experimental research

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Q 34Q 34

When people with specific characteristics are recruited into a sample so that particular groups can be studied, this is called:
A) Random sampling
B) Sampling with replacement
C) Proportional stratified random sampling
D) Purposive sample

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Q 35Q 35

An environmental action group is interested in how many people will participate in a recycling program in a particular town. They obtain the entire list of households in the town, and they assign each household a number from 1 to 3000 (the number of households in the town). They then use a computer to generate a list of 500 random numbers ranging from 1 to 3000. Using the list of random numbers, they draw a sample of 500 people to question about their use of the recycling program. What sampling method did this group use?
A) Quota sample
B) Simple random
C) Systematic
D) Stratified random

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Q 36Q 36

An educational psychologist is interested in the effects of mnemonics on learning words lists. He asks for volunteers from a Psychology-101 class to find 50 volunteers to participate in his study. What sampling method did this researcher use?
A) Convenience sample
B) Snowball sampling
C) Quota sample
D) Simple random

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Q 37Q 37

A researcher is interested in studying a nationwide representative sample of the United States. She randomly chooses places to study using census tracts. She then randomly samples within each census tract from among the households within those tracts. What sampling method did this researcher use?
A) Stratified random
B) One-stage cluster
C) Two-stage cluster
D) Purposive

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Q 38Q 38

A researcher is interested in surveying physicians from a local medical society to examine their continuing education needs. He decides that she will draw a sample that contains physicians from a variety of different subspecialties. He divides the list of the population up by specialty, and then he randomly selects the number of physicians within each specialty in proportion to their percentage in the population. What is this type of sampling?
A) Simple random
B) Systematic
C) Stratified random
D) One-stage cluster

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Q 39Q 39

A researcher wants to study adolescents who are homeless. He builds his sample by searching the streets, identifying an adolescent to interview, and then, asks the adolescent where the researcher can find another homeless adolescent to interview. What sampling method did this researcher use?
A) Convenience sample
B) Snowball sampling
C) Quota sample
D) Simple random

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Q 40Q 40

A researcher wants to study how children acquire a particular strategy to solve word problems. He chooses participants by screening children to determine if they already know the strategy. He chooses only those who have not learned the strategy yet. What sampling method did this researcher use?
A) Stratified random
B) Random sample
C) Convenience
D) Purposive

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Q 41Q 41

In general, as sample size increases, sampling error does what?
A) Increases
B) Decreases
C) Stays the same
D) You cannot tell because they are not related

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Q 42Q 42

Random assignment refers to:
A) The same thing as random sampling because it is a synonym.
B) Using a randomization technique to place participants into experimental and control conditions.
C) Randomly choosing the stratification involved in the study.
D) The same thing as randomized stratified sampling.

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Q 43Q 43

When looking at a fairly homogeneous population, the sample size required is usually ________ than the sample size needed in a fairly heterogeneous one.
A) Somewhat greater
B) About the same
C) Somewhat smaller
D) Much greater

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Q 44Q 44

When looking at a fairly heterogeneous population, the sample size required is usually _______ than the sample size needed in a fairly homogeneous one.
A) Somewhat greater
B) About the same
C) Somewhat smaller
D) Much smaller

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Q 45Q 45

Which of the following statements is true?
A) The larger the sample size, the greater the sampling error
B) The more categories or breakdowns you want to make in your data analysis, the larger the sample needed
C) The fewer categories or breakdowns you want to make in your data analysis, the larger the sample needed
D) As sample size decreases, so does the width of the confidence interval

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Q 46Q 46

A sample is:
A) A subset of the larger population
B) Systematically different from the population
C) A study based on the population
D) A numerical characteristic of a population

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Q 47Q 47

Which of the following statements is true?
A) To find large differences between groups or strong correlations the sample size required is smaller than if you want to find small differences or weak correlations
B) Sample size that is required is unrelated to the size of correlations or the strength of differences
C) As sample size increases, the size of the confidence interval increases
D) Small differences or correlations are likely to be found with small samples

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Q 48Q 48

In comparison to simple random sampling, proportional stratified random sampling tends to be:
A) A little more efficient
B) A little less efficient
C) Just as efficient
D) Efficiency is unrelated to sampling techniques

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Q 49Q 49

Which of the following formulae is used (because not all who are sampled will agree to participate) to determine how many people to include in your original sample?
A) Desired sample size/Desired sample size + 1
B) Proportion likely to respond/desired sample size
C) Proportion likely to respond/population size
D) Desired sample size/Proportion likely to respond

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Q 50Q 50

Another term for criterion-based selection is:
A) Random sampling
B) Response rate sampling
C) Purposive sampling
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 51Q 51

Comprehensive sampling in qualitative research involves:
A) Sampling with maximum variation among the cases
B) Sampling a homogeneous group
C) Sampling typical cases
D) Sampling all the cases, groups, settings, or other phenomena (much like a census)

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Q 52Q 52

For her qualitative research study, Polly selected a small group of people who were very similar. This is called:
A) Maximum-variation sampling
B) Extreme-case sampling
C) Homogeneous sample selection
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 53Q 53

When one selects a wide range of cases in a qualitative study, this is called:
A) Maximum-variation sampling
B) Extreme-case sampling
C) Homogeneous sample selection
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 54Q 54

A researcher is studying underachievement of gifted children in a qualitative study. She samples two children who are achieving beyond expectations and two children who are achieving well below expectations in her sample. What sampling technique did she use?
A) Maximum-variation sampling
B) Extreme-case sampling
C) Homogeneous sample selection
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 55Q 55

A researcher has developed a new mathematics program and wants to study how it is implemented. She is particularly interested in how those most resistant to change will use the program. Hence, she selects two teachers who are known to have very little interest in changing their mathematics teaching. In this case, the researcher has used:
A) Negative-case sampling
B) Opportunistic sampling
C) Typical-case sampling
D) Critical-case sampling

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Q 56Q 56

When cases are chosen because they represent the average individual in a context, this is called:
A) Maximum variation sampling
B) Extreme-case sampling
C) Homogeneous sampling selection
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 57Q 57

Picking a case to study that can falsify a theory or hypothesis is called:
A) Negative-case sampling
B) Opportunistic sampling
C) Typical-case sampling
D) Critical-case sampling

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Q 58Q 58

When a researcher decides to include someone in a study, even though he or she had not planned to do so, this is called:
A) Negative-case sampling
B) Opportunistic sampling
C) Typical-case sampling
D) Critical-case sampling

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Q 59Q 59

When a qualitative researcher uses more than one sampling technique, this is called:
A) Typical-case sampling
B) Critical-case sampling
C) Mixed purposeful sampling
D) Random sampling

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Q 60Q 60

Paul is conducting a mixed research study. He will interact with the participants on two occasions. During the first interaction, participants will complete a questionnaire. During the second, Paul will interview them about the topic he is studying. This study uses:
A) Identical sequential sampling design.
B) Identical concurrent sampling design.
C) parallel sequential sampling design
D) parallel sequential sampling design

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Q 61Q 61

Which of the following is a type of mixed research sampling?
A) Typical-case sampling
B) Maximum variation sampling
C) Nested sequential sampling
D) Mixed purposeful sampling

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Q 62Q 62

In which type of mixed research sampling is this true: "quantitative and qualitative data are collected one after the other on different participants who are selected to represent the same population under investigation".
A) Identical concurrent
B) Parallel concurrent
C) Parallel sequential
D) Nested sequential

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Q 63Q 63

The book crossed the time orientation criterion with the sample relationship criterion in mixed research. How many mixed sampling designs results?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10

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Q 64Q 64

Which of the following is an equal probability of selection method of sampling?
A) Snowball sampling
B) Convenience sampling
C) Quota sampling
D) Cluster sampling

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Q 65Q 65

Which of the following is NOT an equal probability of selection method of sampling:
A) Systematic sampling
B) Proportional stratified sampling
C) Cluster random sampling
D) Convenience sampling

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Q 66Q 66

In comparison to national statistics, the sample in a researcher's study was composed of twice as many Hispanic students as in the population. This sample is considered to be a:
A) Biased sample.
B) Representative sample.
C) Proportional stratified sample
D) Stratified sample

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Q 67Q 67

An example of an element is a:
A) Population from which a sample is drawn
B) Sample participating in the study
C) Lapse in time between completing two measures
D) Participant in the sample

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Q 68Q 68

Determining the sample interval (represented by k), randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and then including every k

^{th}element in your sample are the steps for which type of sampling? A) Simple random sampling B) Three-stage cluster sampling C) Stratified sampling D) Systematic samplingFree

Multiple Choice

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Q 70Q 70

In what type of sampling does the researcher divide the population into mutually exclusive groups and then select a random sample of individuals from each group?
A) Stratified sampling
B) Systematic sampling
C) Simple random sampling
D) Quota sampling

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Q 71Q 71

Which type of stratified sampling is an equal probability of selection method?
A) Proportional
B) Disproportional
C) Cluster
D) Systematic

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Q 72Q 72

The population size divided by the desired sample size is known as the:
A) Starting point
B) Sample size
C) Sampling interval
D) Sample relationship criterion

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Q 73Q 73

The purpose of _____ is to generate a set of groups that are similar on all possible factors at the beginning of an experiment.
A) Random sampling
B) Random assignment
C) Cluster sampling
D) Typical-case sampling

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Q 74Q 74

Luke was looking at his sampling frame. He noticed that every 8

^{th}element in the sampling frame was in a particular income group. This finding is evidence of: A) Random sampling B) Periodicity C) Generalization D) StratificationFree

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Q 75Q 75

Dr. Berry wanted to draw a sample of 20 students from the 200 graduate students in education at his university. He developed a list of the graduate students who were education majors and beginning at the sixth student on the list he selects every tenth student from the list to be in the sample. Dr. Berry has created a:
A) Proportional stratified sample
B) Cluster sample
C) Systematic sample
D) Convenience sample

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Q 76Q 76

A research team is conducting a national study of the percentage of household income that is spent on health care. Using national data, they divide the population based on household income data. In this example, household income is a:
A) Stratification variable
B) Cluster variable
C) Quota variable
D) Grouping variable

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Q 77Q 77

If you wanted an equal number of African-Americans, European Americans, and Hispanics, which sampling method would be superior?
A) Disproportional stratified
B) Quota sampling
C) Convenience sampling
D) Snowball sampling

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Q 78Q 78

Extreme-case sampling and maximum variation sampling are more likely to be used in what kind of research?
A) Quantitative
B) Qualitative
C) Confirmatory
D) Close-ended questionnaires

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Q 79Q 79

A principal was interested in how the paraeducators in her school thought the school year had gone. As a result, he interviewed all of them to find out their perceptions. She used
A) Convenience sampling
B) Comprehensive sampling
C) Purposive sampling
D) Snowball sampling

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Q 80Q 80

A type of sampling in which the researcher determines the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important and takes convenience samples from those groups.
A) Convenience sampling
B) Quota sampling
C) Purposive sampling
D) Snowball sampling

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Q 81Q 81

What procedure is used to form groups that are similar on all possible dimensions at the beginning of an experiment?
A) Random selection
B) Random assignment
C) Purposive sampling
D) Stratified sampling

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Q 82Q 82

Derek wants to make generalizations from the sample in his research study to a representative population. In order to do this he should use:
A) Random selection
B) Random assignment
C) Purposive sampling
D) Stratified sampling

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Q 84Q 84

The process of drawing a group of participants from a population:
A) Sampling
B) Surveying
C) Locating
D) Participant inclusion

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Q 85Q 85

If a sample looks just like the population it came from, which would it be?
A) Representative sample
B) Biased sample
C) Convenience sample
D) Snowball sample

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Q 86Q 86

What is the definition of a sampling error?
A) A sample that is mostly similar to the correct population
B) The percentage of participants who drop out of a research study
C) The difference between the value of the sample statistic and the population parameter
D) The use of biased samples when representative samples should be used

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Q 87Q 87

Which of the following types of sampling requires the largest sample size?
A) Cluster sampling
B) Simple Random sampling
C) Stratified sampling
D) Systematic sampling

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Q 88Q 88

Even though most researchers would much prefer to be able to do a census of their study population, sampling is necessary because:
A) Samples allow for greater participation by all members of the community to be studied
B) A census is generally too expensive and time consuming
C) There are too many uncontrolled variables in a census that can be controlled for in a sample
D) When using a census there is no way to generalize the results of the study

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Q 89Q 89

When planning a study, Dr. Doe developed a participant pool that contained the same percentages of minorities, same gender make-up, and same socioeconomic make-up as the general population he planned to study. In fact, this sample has a similar makeup as the population on all variables. Dr. Doe's sample was a:
A) Critical-case sample
B) Biased sample
C) Representative sample
D) Homogeneous sample

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Q 90Q 90

Although it would be good to have everyone she asked participate in the study, Dr. Smith knows that some people will refuse to participate. The percentage of sampled members who actually participate in the study known as the _______________________.
A) Response rate
B) Parameter rate
C) Sampling ratio
D) Population rate

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Q 91Q 91

A table of random numbers or a random number generator should be used when:
A) Using quota sampling.
B) Using opportunistic sampling
C) Randomly assigning participants
D) Randomly selecting participants

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Q 92Q 92

A researcher would like to understand why some young people begin taking drugs and eventually drop out of school while others from the same neighborhood stay in school, go on to college, and do very well in college. A study of these two groups would likely be based on what type of sampling?
A) Homogeneous sample
B) Typical-case
C) Maximum variation
D) Extreme-case

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Q 93Q 93

Which of the following are not likely to be true of a study using opportunistic sampling?
A) Some of the cases might be similar to those used in critical-case, negative-case, and extreme-case sampling
B) The cases that are studied might alter the focus of the study
C) The researcher has a firm research plan that is clearly stated before the research starts
D) The researcher is able to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves during the research process

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Q 94Q 94

A sample that is systematically different from the population is called:
A) Biased
B) Representative
C) Qualitative
D) Sampling error

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Q 95Q 95

A __________ is a numerical characteristic of a sample and a ____________ is a numerical characteristic of a population.
A) Sampling error, response rate
B) Response rate, error
C) Statistic, parameter
D) Parameter, statistic

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Q 96Q 96

Dr. Dewey used systematic sampling for his current research study. This sampling strategy:
A) May lead to a biased sample if there is periodicity
B) Was more difficult to complete than simple random sampling
C) Was used for random assignment
D) Is appropriate for use with qualitative data

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True False

Q 98Q 98

You can create a stratified sample by dividing the population into mutually exclusive groups and then choosing a random sample from each group.

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True False

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True False

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Q 101Q 101

The response rate is the "number of people in the original sample who participate" divided by the "total number of people in the original sample."

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True False

Q 102Q 102

If the clusters are of equal sizes, then cluster sampling is an equal probability selection method.

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True False

Q 103Q 103

If an experimental researcher wants to obtain a sample of students with a learning disability, he or she will probably use purposive sampling.

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True False

Q 104Q 104

The use of critical-case sampling and negative-case sampling would be an example of mixed purposeful sampling.

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True False

Q 105Q 105

If you see evidence of periodicity you should either reorganize the sampling frame or discontinue the use of systematic sampling.

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True False

Q 106Q 106

When using a random number generator, you will occasionally get strings of non-random numbers and should discard those numbers and move on to other numbers.

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True False

Q 107Q 107

If you are studying a population of 200 students and you want a sample size of 25, then the sampling interval (k) in systematic sampling would be equal to 8.

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True False

Q 108Q 108

If you have a representative sample, then you can make statements about the general population based on your sample data.

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True False

Q 109Q 109

A researcher asked each study participant to identify two other potential participants. This is an example of snowball sampling.

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True False

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True False

Q 111Q 111

Proportional stratified sampling is preferred when the researcher's goal is to compare groups.

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True False

Q 112Q 112

The sampling methods used in mixed research vary in terms of the times at which the data are collected and whether the same participants supply quantitative and qualitative data.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 115Q 115

A general rule of thumb is that your sample should always be 10% of the size of the population

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True False

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True False

Q 117Q 117

Describe equal probability of selection methods of sampling and give examples of equal probability of selection methods.

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Q 118Q 118

Compare and contrast proportional and disproportional stratified sampling procedures and outcomes.

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Q 120Q 120

The purposes of sampling differ in quantitative and qualitative studies. Describe the different purposes of sampling in quantitative and qualitative research studies.

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