# Quiz 19: Inferential Statistics

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Q 4Q 4

Recognize the symbols used for the mean, variance, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, proportion, and regression coefficient.

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Q 22Q 22

Which of the following is a directional alternative hypothesis?
A) m

_{1}=m_{2}B) 0_{2}≠ 0_{2}C) m_{1}> m_{2}D) m_{1}≠ m_{2}Free

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Q 23Q 23

An index (e.g., a mean or a correlation) calculated with sample data is called a ______ whereas an index calculated with the complete set of population data (i.e., everyone in the population) is called a _______.
A) Statistic, Parameter
B) Parameter, Statistic
C) Sample, Population
D) Population, Sample

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Q 24Q 24

If you drew all possible samples from some population, calculated the mean for each of the samples, and constructed a line graph (showing the shape of the distribution) based on all of those means, what would you have?
A) A population distribution
B) A sample distribution
C) A sampling distribution
D) A parameter distribution

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Q 25Q 25

Which of the following best characterizes a sampling distribution?
A) The average value is equal to the true population parameter
B) The standard error is always less than 1
C) It is based on 50 samples
D) The sampling error is the same as the standard error

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Q 26Q 26

What is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution called?
A) Sampling deviation
B) Standard deviation
C) Standard error
D) Standard variance

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Q 27Q 27

Which of the following is not true?
A) You can use the "sampling distribution of the mean" in significance testing
B) You can use the "sampling distribution of the difference between two means" in significance testing
C) You can use the "sampling distribution of the correlation coefficient" in significance testing
D) Large sampling error is associated with a small sampling error in a sampling distribution

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Q 28Q 28

In what type of statistics do you use the value of your sample statistic as your best guess of the unknown population parameter?
A) Descriptive statistics
B) Hypothesis testing
C) Point estimation
D) Interval estimation

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Q 29Q 29

What is the difference between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter called?
A) Sampling error
B) Sampling deviation
C) Standard error
D) Confidence error

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Q 30Q 30

Which hypothesis is viewed as the "status quo" or the "nothing new" hypothesis?
A) Null hypothesis
B) Inferential hypothesis
C) Alternative hypothesis
D) Research hypothesis

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Q 31Q 31

A researcher has calculated the 95% confidence interval. What does that mean?
A) The process she used captures the true population statistic 95% of the time in the long run
B) She can be "95% confident" that her interval will include the population parameter
C) She can be "5% confident" that her interval will includes the population parameter
D) She can reject the null hypothesis.

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Q 32Q 32

What would happen (all other things being equal) to a confidence interval if you were able to increase the sample size?
A) It will become narrower
B) It will not change
C) It will become wider
D) The sample size has no effect of the width of a confidence interval

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Q 33Q 33

Compared to a 95% confidence interval, a 99% confidence interval is:
A) Narrower
B) The same
C) Something that cannot be calculated
D) Wider

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Q 34Q 34

If a researcher concludes that the confidence interval is 55% plus or minus 5%, then which of the following is true?
A) The level of confidence is 5%
B) The margin of error is 5%
C) The margin of error is 10%
D) The level of confidence is 10%

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Q 35Q 35

In statistical hypothesis testing, the hypothesis that is tested is the:
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Research hypothesis
D) Probability hypothesis

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Q 36Q 36

Which of the following statements is a null hypothesis?
A) The coin is not fair
B) There is a correlation in the population
C) There is no difference between the incomes of men and women in the population
D) The defendant is guilty

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Q 37Q 37

The "probability of the result of your research study, or a more extreme result, assuming that the null hypothesis is true" is known as the:
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Research hypothesis
C) Null hypothesis
D) Probability value

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Q 39Q 39

A researcher does a study and reports that the statistic she calculated has a p <.05. What does this statement mean?
A) Her outcome was very likely assuming the null is true
B) The probability of this outcome was high
C) The probability of this outcome or one more extreme was .95
D) The probability of this outcome or one more extreme is less than .05 if the null hypothesis is true

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Q 40Q 40

A researcher reports in a mainstream educational research journal that the statistic she calculated had a p >.05. What does this statement mean?
A) The outcome was very unlikely assuming the null is true
B) The research finding is statistically significant
C) The research finding is not statistically significant
D) The probability of this outcome or one more extreme is less than .05

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Q 41Q 41

What does the researcher usually hope to do in hypothesis testing?
A) Retain the null hypothesis
B) Reject the null hypothesis
C) The researcher usually does not care which hypothesis is supported
D) The researcher hopes not to obtain statistical significance

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Q 42Q 42

Which of the following steps occurs first in hypothesis testing?
A) Obtain the probability value
B) Determine practical significance
C) Set the significance level
D) Compare the probability value with the significance level

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Q 43Q 43

If you reject the null hypothesis, which of the following should you avoid?
A) Tentatively accepting the alternative hypothesis
B) Claiming that your finding is statistically significant
C) Claiming that you have proven the alternative hypothesis to be true
D) Making sure that your result also is practically significant

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Q 44Q 44

Which of the following significance levels provides the greatest protection against making a Type I error?
A) .5
B) .1
C) .01
D) .05

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Q 45Q 45

Which of the following is based on your empirical data and is obtained from the computer printout?
A) Significance level
B) Alpha level
C) Probability value
D) Beta level

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Q 46Q 46

If you claim that your evidence suggests that the observed result was not due to chance, what are you doing?
A) You are claiming that your finding is practically significant
B) You are claiming that your finding must be theoretically important
C) You are claiming that finding was due to sampling error
D) You are claiming that your finding is statistically significant

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Q 47Q 47

If you failed to reject a false null hypothesis (i.e., a false negative), you are making a:
A) Type I error
B) Type II error
C) Type III error
D) Type IV error

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Q 48Q 48

What type of error would you make if you rejected a true null hypothesis (i.e., a false positive)?
A) Type I
B) Type II
C) Type III
D) Type IV

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Q 49Q 49

Assume that the null hypothesis says a person is "innocent." What is the problem when a guilty person is found to be innocent?
A) A Type I error was made
B) A Type II error was made
C) A Type III error was made
D) A Type IV error was made

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Q 50Q 50

Assume that the null hypothesis says a person is "innocent." What is the problem when an innocent person is found guilty?
A) A Type I error was made
B) A Type II error was made
C) A Type III error was made
D) A Type IV error was made

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Q 51Q 51

How can you minimize the risk of both Type I and Type II errors?
A) Use a smaller alpha level
B) Use a smaller relationship
C) Decrease the sample size
D) Increase the sample size

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Q 52Q 52

When should you set the significance level for your research study?
A) Before the research data have been analyzed
B) After the research data have been analyzed
C) After looking at the probability values
D) The computer sets the significance level

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Q 53Q 53

If you use a significance level of .01 rather than a significance level of .05 then which of the following will be true (assuming other things equal, such as sample size)?
A) You are more likely to fail to reject your null hypothesis
B) You are more likely to reject your null hypothesis
C) You are more likely to reject a true null hypothesis
D) You are more likely to retain your alternative hypothesis

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Q 54Q 54

Which of the following is not an effect size indicator?
A) Probability value
B) Eta squared
C) Omega squared
D) Correlation coefficient squared

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Q 55Q 55

Which of the following is the null hypothesis for testing a correlation coefficient for statistical significance?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 476 B) H_{0}: µ_{M}= µ_{F}C) H_{0}: β_{YX1.X2}_{ }= 0 D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 56Q 56

Which of the following is the null hypothesis for testing a regression coefficient for statistical significance?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 476 B) H_{0}: µ_{M}= µ_{F}C) H_{0}: β_{YX1.X2}_{ }= 0 D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 57Q 57

Which of the following is the null hypothesis for testing the difference between two means for statistical significance?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 476 B) H_{0}: µ_{M}= µ_{F}C) H_{0}: β_{YX1X2}= 0 D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 58Q 58

An effect size indicator tells the researcher:
A) How big of an effect is present
B) If a result is statistically significant
C) about the strength of statistical significance
D) about the strength of the null hypothesis

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Q 59Q 59

You can use the analysis of variance test for statistical significance when you have how many means to compare?
A) 1 mean
B) 2 or more means
C) 3 or more means
D) 4 or more means

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Q 60Q 60

Post hoc tests in the analysis of variance are generally required when the independent variable:
A) Has one level
B) Has two levels
C) Has three or more levels
D) Is quantitative

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Q 61Q 61

If a research finding is statistically significant, what else should you determine?
A) The strength of significance
B) The practical significance
C) The probability value
D) The alpha level

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Q 62Q 62

A researcher is interested in doing a study comparing the effectiveness of two different approaches to teaching spelling. One approach is phonics-based, and the other is not. She randomly assigns 30 first grade children to the phonics-based approach and 30 children to the other approach. Her dependent variable is the number of words the children spell correctly on a 100-word spelling test. In order to compare the groups, what inferential test should she use?
A) Chi-square test for contingency tables
B) Partial correlation coefficient
C) t test for independent groups
D) Post hoc analysis of variance

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Q 63Q 63

What sampling distribution is used for the t test for correlation coefficients?
A) The t distribution
B) The F distribution
C) The chi-square distribution
D) The Z distribution

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Q 64Q 64

What sampling distribution is used for one-way analysis of variance?
A) The t distribution
B) The F distribution
C) The chi-square distribution
D) The Z distribution

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Q 65Q 65

The _____ is defined as the probability or your finding or a more extreme finding under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Probability value
D) Significance level

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Q 66Q 66

The cut-off that a researcher uses to decide when to reject a null hypothesis is the:
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Probability value
D) Significance level

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Q 67Q 67

A statement that there is no difference between population means or no relationship between variables in the population is known as the:
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Probability value
D) Significance level

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Q 68Q 68

The _____ is a statement that the population parameter is some value other than the value stated by the null hypothesis.
A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Probability value
D) Significance level

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Q 69Q 69

The likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false is known as:
A) Power
B) Strength
C) Direction
D) Force

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Q 70Q 70

What hypothesis do we directly test in statistical hypothesis testing?
A) The null hypothesis
B) The alternative hypothesis
C) The primary hypothesis
D) The directional hypothesis

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Q 71Q 71

As shown in your book, what kind of test is used to determine whether a correlation coefficient is statistically significant?
A) It is a type of t test because it is based on the t probability distribution
B) It is a normality test because it uses the normal distribution
C) Beta test because it uses the beta distribution
D) Alpha test because it uses the alpha distribution

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Q 72Q 72

When a researcher wants to investigate the differences between two independent groups he can analyze the data using techniques. He can use the t Test for independent samples and:
a. One-way analysis of variance
b. t test for correlation coefficients
c. Chi-square test for a contingency table
d. t test for regression coefficients

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Q 73Q 73

If one has two categorical variables and constructs a contingency table, then what statistical test would be appropriate?
A) t test
B) Normality test
C) Omega-square test
D) Chi-square test

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Q 74Q 74

Roger's hypothesis states that the two groups are not equal. He has a:
A) Directional null hypothesis
B) Null hypothesis
C) Directional alternative hypothesis
D) nondirectional alternative hypothesis

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Q 75Q 75

In a directional alternative hypothesis,
A) the two groups are equal on the dependent variable.
B) one group scores higher or lower on the dependent variable than the other.
C) the two groups do not differ on the dependent variable.
D) the two groups' scores on the dependent variable are not equal.

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Q 76Q 76

Bree hypothesized that members of the experimental group would score differently than the control group. Her hypothesis was a:
A) Nondirectional alternative hypothesis
B) Directional alternative hypothesis
C) Null hypothesis
D) Type 1 hypothesis

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Q 77Q 77

In his research, William proposed that his treatment would be so effective that the experimental group would have a higher mean than the control group. He has made a:
A) Nondirectional alternative hypothesis
B) Directional alternative hypothesis
C) Null hypothesis
D) Type 1 hypothesis

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Q 78Q 78

During significance testing, Dr. Gray looked at his data to see if the relationship between his independent and dependent variables was large enough to be meaningful. In doing so, he was investigating:
A) Statistical significance
B) Practical significance
C) Probability significance
D) Effect size significance

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Q 79Q 79

If we drew all possible samples from a population, calculated the correlation coefficient for each of the samples, and constructed a line graph (showing the shape of the distribution) based on all of those sample correlation coefficients, what would we have?
A) The population distribution
B) A sample distribution
C) A sampling distribution
D) A parameter distribution

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Q 80Q 80

Jean has conducted a study with an experimental and control group. She conducted an analysis of variance and found that there was a significant difference between the groups. How will she conduct post hoc tests?
A) She will use the Bonferroni procedure
B) She will look at the two group means and see which group scored higher
C) She will calculate a correlation coefficient between the two groups
D) She will conduct a independent samples t test

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Q 81Q 81

When analyzing her data, Janie found that her sample statistic differed from the population parameter. This is an example of:
A) Sampling error
B) Standard error
C) Distribution error
D) Sample error

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Q 82Q 82

Because a point estimate is limited by being only a single numerical value, what do researchers often use instead?
A) Repeated sampling when estimating parameters from the sample data
B) An interval estimate
C) Population and parameter estimation
D) Hypothesis testing

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Q 83Q 83

An experimental researcher usually begins with the null hypothesis of no treatment effect. What does this researcher do when he finds that the probability level is less than the significance level?
A) The null hypothesis is retained and tested one more time before a determination can be made about the effectiveness of the treatment
B) The alternative hypothesis (that there is a treatment effect) is said to be true and the null hypothesis is discarded
C) The null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (that there is a treatment effect) is tentatively accepted
D) The researcher designs another study to prove the null hypothesis

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Q 84Q 84

Dr. Callahan wrote in her report that the findings for her study were statistically significant. What did she mean?
A) The results she observed from her research were most likely not due to chance
B) The results of her research indicated that the alternate hypothesis was proven in this case
C) The statistical analysis indicated that the null hypothesis will be completely inappropriate in all future studies
D) The results she observed from her research were most likely due to chance

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Q 85Q 85

After analyzing her empirical data, Susan was able to reject her original hull hypothesis but later she found out that it had been true. What type of mistake had she made when she rejected her null hypothesis?
A) Alpha level error
B) Type II error
C) Type I error
D) Effect size error

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Q 86Q 86

"Significance testing" is another way of saying:
A) "Effect size testing"
B) "Hypothesis testing"
C) t test
D) One-way analysis of variance

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Q 87Q 87

Which of the following is the alternative hypothesis for the significance test for a correlation coefficient?
A) H

_{1}: ρ_{XY }= 0 B) H_{1}: µ_{M}≠µ_{F}C) H_{1}: β_{YX1.X2}_{ }≠ 0 D) H_{1}: ρ_{XY}_{ }≠ 0Free

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Q 88Q 88

Which of the following is the alternative hypothesis for testing the difference between two means for statistical significance?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}= 476 B) H_{0}: µ_{M}= µ_{F}C) H_{1}: µ_{M}≠µ_{F}_{ }D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 89Q 89

Walt's directional alternative hypothesis was that male students would score better on the GRE verbal test than female students. This hypothesis would be written as:
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 500 B) H_{1}: µ_{M}> µ_{F}C) H_{1}: β_{YX1.X2}_{ }= 0 D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 90Q 90

How would you write a nondirectional alternative hypothesis for the following research question: Do education, arts and sciences, and business students have different starting incomes?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 500 B) H_{1}: µ_{E}≠ µ_{A&S }≠ µ_{B}C) H_{0}: µ_{E}= µ_{A&S }= µ_{B}D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 91Q 91

What null hypothesis would be tested for this research question: Is there a correlation between GPA and starting salary?
A) H

_{0}: µ_{GRE-V}_{ }= 500 B) H_{0}: µ_{E}= µ_{A&S}_{ }= µ_{B}C) H_{0}: β_{YX1.X2}_{ }= 0 D) H_{0}: ρ_{XY}_{ }= 0Free

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Q 92Q 92

To draw conclusions about a population based upon data obtained from a sample, a researcher would use:
A) Descriptive statistics
B) Inferential statistics
C) Population statistics
D) Parameter statistics

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Q 93Q 93

A range of numbers inferred from the sample that has a certain probability or chance of including the population parameter is known as the:
A) Confidence interval
B) Confidence limits
C) Confidence range
D) Point estimate

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Q 94Q 94

Dr. Jones conducted a study and found that the 95% confidence interval for the data in his sample was 42-64. Based upon this information we know that the margin of error is:
A) 11
B) 20
C) 22
D) 47

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Q 95Q 95

Dr. White is planning a study of the effectiveness of different memory strategies. When should he set the alpha level to be used in his study?
A) Before she analyzes the data
B) After she has analyzed the data
C) After looking at the probability values from the analyses
D) The computer will set the alpha level when it analyzes the data

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Q 96Q 96

Increasing the sample size in a research study will _________ the study's power.
A) decrease
B) not impact
C) increase
D) be unrelated to

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Q 97Q 97

The strength or magnitude of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable is known as the:
A) Power of the study
B) Effect size indicator
C) Type of error
D) Alternative hypothesis

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Q 98Q 98

A numeric characteristic of a sample is a ______________ whereas a numerical characteristic of a population is a _______________.
A) Parameter, Coefficient
B) Parameter, Statistic
C) Statistic, Parameter
D) Statistic, Coefficient

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Q 99Q 99

The first step in hypothesis testing is:
A) To analyze data and obtain the probability level
B) To set the alpha level for the study
C) To compute effect size, interpret result, and judge practical significance
D) To develop null and alternative hypotheses

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Q 100Q 100

The third step in hypothesis testing is:
A) To analyze data and obtain the probability level
B) To set the alpha level for the study
C) To compute effect size, interpret result, and judge practical significance
D) To develop null and alternative hypotheses

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Q 101Q 101

The fifth step in hypothesis testing is:
A) To analyze data and obtain the probability level
B) To set the alpha level for the study
C) To compute effect size, interpret result, and judge practical significance
D) To develop null and alternative hypotheses

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Q 102Q 102

The second step in hypothesis testing is:
A) To analyze data and obtain the probability level
B) To set the alpha level for the study
C) To compute effect size, interpret result, and judge practical significance
D) To develop null and alternative hypotheses

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Q 103Q 103

In hypothesis testing, the step that involves the comparison of the probability value to the significance level is:
A) Step 1
B) Step 2
C) Step 3
D) Step 4

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Q 104Q 104

In hypothesis testing, the step that involves making the statistical decision is:
A) Step 1
B) Step 2
C) Step 3
D) Step 4

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Q 105Q 105

In hypothesis testing, if the probability value is greater than the significance level, the researcher should:
A) Accept the alternative hypothesis
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis
C) Conclude that the study's result is statistically significant
D) Reanalyze the data because the probability level must equal the significance level.

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Q 106Q 106

Denise has just completed analyzing the data for her study. She set her alpha level at .05. On her computer printout it said "r = .01." What decision should Denise make based on this information?
A) Accept the alternative hypothesis that there was a relationship between the two variables
B) Fail to reject the null hypothesis that the variables were not related
C) Conclude that there was a real difference in the means of the three groups in her study
D) Reanalyze the data because the probability level must equal the significance level

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Q 107Q 107

The calculation of effect size indicators is not very important because all that is really important is whether a finding is statistically significant.

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Q 108Q 108

If a finding is statistically significant, we should also examine it for practical significance.

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Q 109Q 109

When we calculate a single 99% confidence interval, we know that 99% of the time, this interval will capture the true population parameter.

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Q 114Q 114

A one-way analysis of variance on two independent groups generally requires follow-up (i.e., post hoc) tests.

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True False

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Q 116Q 116

A Chi-square test is used for contingency tables to determine if there is a relationship between the categorical variables.

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Q 117Q 117

A researcher will usually test his or her regression coefficients for statistical significance in order to ensure that the observed coefficient is not due simply to chance.

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Q 118Q 118

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is appropriate when you have one or more categorical independent variables and a quantitative dependent variable.

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Q 119Q 119

A one-way ANOVA would be appropriate if a researcher were comparing two or more groups (a categorical independent variable) on one quantitative dependent variable.

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Q 120Q 120

Most researchers consider an observed significance level of .05 or less to be small enough to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the finding is statistically significant.

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True False

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Q 122Q 122

Nora's results were statistically significant so they must also be practically significant.

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Q 123Q 123

David has calculated the regression coefficient for his sample. In his write-up of his research he will use β to symbolize the regression coefficient.

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Q 127Q 127

Delores calculated the mean IQ score for the participants in her sample. This average IQ score is a point estimate.

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Q 128Q 128

Dr. Harris' hypothesis was that students attending an urban school would have higher achievement test scores than children attending suburban or rural schools. This is an example of a nondirectional alternative hypothesis.

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Q 130Q 130

Educational researchers work to avoid making a Type II error by decreasing the significance level they use in their studies.

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Q 131Q 131

Hypothesis testing involves investigating how well the data collected from a sample fit with the null hypothesis and whether the null hypothesis should be rejected or retained.

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Q 132Q 132

Hypothesis testing and significance testing are two separate, unrelated procedures that are used in inferential statistics.

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Q 133Q 133

When using inferential statistics, researchers go beyond their data to make statements about the population from which the sample was chosen.

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Q 136Q 136

In hypothesis testing, the significance level is set just after the null and alternative hypotheses are developed.

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Q 137Q 137

Choose two of the different significant tests discussed in the chapter and describe what it is and when it is used.

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Q 138Q 138

Discuss the similarities and differences between point estimation and interval estimation.

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Q 140Q 140

Compare and contrast Type I and Type II errors and ways to prevent making each type of error.

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