# Quiz 18: Descriptive Statistics

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Q 14Q 14

Explain the difference between the y-intercept and the regression coefficient.
Multiple Choice

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Q 15Q 15

The purpose of descriptive statistics is to:
A) Make inferences about a population from a sample
B) Test hypotheses
C) Make interval estimates
D) Summarize and explain a set of data

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Q 16Q 16

A table listing the values of a variable and their frequencies of occurrence is called:
A) The standard deviation
B) A point estimate
C) A frequency distribution
D) A scatter plot

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Q 17Q 17

Examine the frequency distribution listed below. The variable is the number of in-service training classes teachers have attended over a two-year period. What is the mode for the number of in-service classes taken by the teachers?
A) 50
B) 0
C) 3
D) 10

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Q 18Q 18

Examine the frequency distribution listed below. The variable is the number of in-service training classes teachers have attended over a two-year period. This frequency distribution is an example of:
A) descriptive statistics.
B) inferential statistics
C) measures of central tendency
D) a contingency table

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Q 19Q 19

In a grouped frequency distribution, it is important that the intervals be:
A) Overlapping
B) No greater than 10 units
C) Mutually exclusive
D) No greater than 5 units

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Q 20Q 20

In a grouped frequency distribution, it is important that the intervals:
A) Are overlapping
B) Do not include extreme scores
C) Are no greater than 5 units
D) Are exhaustive

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Q 21Q 21

Below are four sets of intervals for grouped frequency distributions. The data that they are based on has scores that range from 0 to 49. Only one set of intervals meets the necessary criteria for groupings. Pick the one that meets the criteria:
A) 40-49 30-39
20-29
10-19
0-9
B) 40-49 30-39
20-29
10-19
1-9
C) 40-49 30-40
20-30
10-20
0-9
D) 30-40 20-30
10-20
0-10

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Q 22Q 22

In graphing the frequencies of a single variable (e.g., in a bar graph, histogram, or line graph), the frequencies are put on which axis:
A) X or abscissa
B) Y or ordinate

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Q 23Q 23

In graphing the relationship between two variables in a scatter plot, which axes contain the independent and dependent variable?
A) X contains the independent variable and Y contains the dependent variable
B) X contains the dependent variable and Y contains the independent variable

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Q 24Q 24

The relationship between two quantitative variables is typically represented with a:
A) Line graph
B) Scatter plot
C) Bar graph
D) Frequency distribution

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Q 25Q 25

Measures of central tendency provide a:
A) single value that tells you how variable scores are
B) frequency distribution of values
C) single value that tells you about the range of scores
D) single value that is considered most typical of the values of a variable

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Q 26Q 26

The median is:
A) The most frequent score
B) The middle score
C) The highest score
D) The average

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Q 27Q 27

A problem with the mode is that:
A) Its value is affected by extreme scores
B) There might be more than one mode
C) It is always the same as the median.
D) Calculating its value is complex.

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Q 28Q 28

What is the median of the following set of scores: 18, 6, 12, 10, 14?
A) 10
B) 14
C) 18
D) 12

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Q 29Q 29

The mean is:
A) The score value that divides the distribution in half
B) The average score
C) The most frequent score
D) A measure of variability

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Q 30Q 30

When is the median the best measure of central tendency?
A) The data are in a symmetrical distribution
B) When there are a large number of cases
C) There is a great deal of variability in the scores
D) The data are highly skewed

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Q 31Q 31

The mode is:
A) The arithmetic average
B) The middle score
C) The most frequent score
D) A measure of variability

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Q 32Q 32

What is an advantage of the mean as a measure of central tendency?
A) It is not influenced by extreme scores
B) It is representative even when there is extreme skewness
C) It is very stable from sample to sample
D) It can be used with nominal variables

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Q 33Q 33

What is an advantage of the mean as a measure of central tendency?
A) It is not influenced by extreme scores
B) It is representative even when there is extreme skewness
C) It is the most precise measure of central tendency
D) It can be used with nominal variables

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Q 34Q 34

What is a disadvantage of the mode as a measure of central tendency?
A) It is influenced by extreme scores
B) It is imprecise
C) It cannot be easily interpreted
D) It does not take into account the magnitude of all the scores

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Q 35Q 35

What kind of skew is there in the below distribution?
A) Positive skew
B) Negative skew
C) Symmetrical
D) No skew

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Q 36Q 36

Which will have the highest score value in the distribution?
A) The mode
B) The median
C) The mean
D) The variance

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Q 37Q 37

Which will be the best measure of central tendency for these data?
A) The mode
B) The median
C) The mean
D) The variance

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Q 39Q 39

Which will have the highest score value in the distribution?
A) The mode
B) The median
C) The mean

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Q 40Q 40

Which will be the best measure of central tendency for these data?
A) The mode
B) The median
C) The mean

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Q 44Q 44

A data point that is very atypical of the scores in a distribution is called:
A) The mode
B) The median
C) An outlier
D) A variance

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Q 45Q 45

Which of the data points in the following distribution seems to be an outlier: 8, 10, 12, 14, 12, 15, 2000?
A) 8
B) 10
C) 14
D) 2000

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Q 46Q 46

Measures of variability indicate:
A) Where the modal score lies
B) The median score value
C) The degree of skewness in the distribution
D) How spread out scores are in a distribution

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Q 47Q 47

If a set of scores is very variable, they are said to be __________, whereas when they do not vary a great deal they are said to be___________.
A) Homogeneous, Heterogeneous
B) Heterogeneous, Homogeneous
C) Modal, Median
D) Positively skewed, Negatively skewed

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Q 48Q 48

The range refers to:
A) The difference between the lowest and highest score.
B) The difference between the mean and the median.
C) The mode in a bimodal distribution.
D) The difference between a score and the mean.

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Q 49Q 49

What is the range of the following set of data: 10, 20, 40, 50, 70, 100, 110?
A) 90
B) 80
C) 10
D) 100

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Q 50Q 50

What is the variance?
A) The difference between the lowest and highest score
B) The difference between a score and the mean
C) The average squared distance from the mean
D) A measure of central tendency

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Q 51Q 51

The standard deviation is:
A) The square root of the variance
B) A measure of central tendency
C) A theoretical construct
D) An inferential statistic

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Q 52Q 52

If your grade on a test was determined by your standing relative to others in a class and you had a score of 90, what class should you most like to be in (hint: which one has the largest z score)?
A) Mean grade = 85, SD = 10
B) Mean grade = 83, SD = 5
C) Mean grade = 80, SD = 20
D) Mean grade = 90, SD = 5

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Q 53Q 53

Approximately what percentage of scores falls within one standard deviation of the mean in a normal distribution?
A) 34%
B) 95%
C) 99%
D) 68%

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Q 54Q 54

Approximately what percentage of scores falls within two standard deviations of the mean in a normal distribution?
A) 34%
B) 95%
C) 99%
D) 68%

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Q 55Q 55

A percentile rank tells you:
A) The percent correct on a test
B) The percent of people who scored better than you
C) The percent of people in a particular group who score below your score value
D) How far above or below the mean you are in percentages

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Q 56Q 56

Joe had a percentile rank of 70 on a standardized math test. What does that mean?
A) He did poorly, since he only correctly answered 70% of the questions
B) He did well in that he scored higher than 70% of the people that took the test
C) He did well, in that he answered 70% of the items correctly
D) He did poorly since he only answered 70% of the items that an average individual would answer correctly

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Q 57Q 57

A z score transforms a raw score into:
A) Percent correct
B) A ratio of right to wrong answers
C) A range
D) Standard deviation units

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Q 58Q 58

The plus or minus sign before a z score tells you:
A) If a score is above or below the mean
B) The magnitude of the score
C) The correlation
D) The variability

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Q 59Q 59

The denominator (bottom) of the z score formula is:
A) The standard deviation
B) The difference between a score and the mean
C) The range
D) The mean

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Q 60Q 60

The numerator of the z score formula is:
A) The standard deviation
B) The difference between a score and the mean
C) The range
D) The mean

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Q 61Q 61

A z score of 0.00 means that:
A) A person had zero points on a test
B) A person scored at the mean
C) A person scored below the mean
D) A person scored in the bottom percentile

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Q 62Q 62

In a normal distribution, 95% of the scores fall between z scores of:
A) -1 thru +1
B) -2 thru +2
C) -3 thru +3
D) 0 thru + 3

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Q 63Q 63

On an IQ test with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what is the z score for someone with an IQ of 70?
A) -1.30
B) -2.00
C) -1.00
D) -13

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Q 64Q 64

Below are z scores for four people who took a test. Which one scored the highest? John -2.9, Samantha +2.1, Sally +0.1, and Joshua +1.0
A) John
B) Samantha
C) Sally
D) Joshua

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Q 65Q 65

A contingency table is:
A) A frequency distribution for a single variable
B) A table displaying information in cells formed by the intersection of two or more categorical variables
C) A table containing correlation coefficients
D) A normal curve representation of two variables

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Q 66Q 66

Below is a contingency table containing frequencies and column percentages that looks at the relationship between handedness and majoring in science versus the humanities. Is there a likely relationship between handedness and major?
A) Yes
B) No

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Q 67Q 67

Which statement best captures the relationship between handedness and major?
A) Major is unrelated to handedness
B) Left-handed people are more likely to major in humanities than right-handed people
C) Right-handed people are more likely to major in science than left-handed people
D) Left-handed people are more likely to major in science than right-handed people

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Q 68Q 68

Examine the following table. A researcher is interested in whether learning from instruction that includes video will be more likely to transfer (be applicable in new contexts) than learning that takes place with still photos or a written document. Is there a likely relationship between instructional group and transfer of learning?
A) Yes
B) No

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Q 69Q 69

Which statement below is true?
A) Instructional group is unrelated to transfer of learning
B) The video group was three times more likely to transfer than the text group
C) The video group was less likely to transfer than the picture group
D) The text group was more likely to transfer than the picture group

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Q 70Q 70

Examine the following table. A researcher is interested in whether learning from instruction that includes video will be more likely to transfer (be applicable in new contexts) than learning that takes place with still photos or a written document. Which statement below is true?
A) The video group was less likely to transfer than the picture group
B) The picture group had the largest number of participants show transfer
C) The picture group was more likely to transfer than the written text group
D) All groups were equally likely to show transfer of learning

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Q 71Q 71

Regression analysis involves:
A) Creating a graph that shows changes across time
B) Creating a test where people do not regress toward the mean
C) A statistical procedure used to predict or explain the values of a dependent variable based on the values of one or more independent variables
D) A statistical procedure for analyzing contingency table

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Q 72Q 72

A simple regression examines:
A) How two or more independent variables predict or explain the scores on a dependent variable
B) How to create a graph that shows changes across time
C) How one independent variable is confounded with another independent variable
D) The prediction or explanation of scores on one dependent variable based on the scores from one independent variable

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Q 73Q 73

Multiple regression examines:
A) How two or more independent variables predict or explain the scores on a single dependent variable
B) How to create a graph that shows changes across time
C) How one independent variable is confounded with another independent variable
D) The prediction of one dependent variable from one independent variable

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Q 74Q 74

In a regression equation, the Y-intercept defines:
A) The point where the regression line crosses the y-axis
B) The point where the regression line crosses the x-axis
C) The amount of change in the dependent variable per one unit change in the independent variable
D) The amount of change in the independent variable per one unit change in the dependent variable

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Q 75Q 75

In a simple regression, the regression coefficient tells you:
A) The mean of the variable.
B) The point where the regression line crosses the x-axis.
C) The amount of change in the dependent variable per unit change in the independent variable.
D) The amount of change in the independent variable per one unit change in the dependent variable.

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Q 76Q 76

Below is a regression equation predicting children's math achievement from their parents' education level (years of education). Y = 1 + 2x,
Where x is the number of years of parental education.
What would be the predicted score for a child whose parents had 12 years of education?
A) 15
B) 24
C) 25
D) 3

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Q 77Q 77

What is the difference between the regression coefficient in a simple regression and the regression coefficients in a multiple regression?
A) The simple regression coefficient is always less than one
B) The multiple regression coefficients do not control for other independent variables
C) The simple regression coefficient does not control for other independent variables
D) There are no differences between simple and multiple regression

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Q 78Q 78

Let us suppose we are predicting the score on a training posttest from the number of years of education and the score on an aptitude test given before training. Here is the regression equation: Y = 25 + .5X

_{1}+10X_{2}, Where X_{1 }= years of education and X_{2}= aptitude test score. What is the predicted score for someone with 10 years of education and an aptitude test score of 5? A) 25 B) 50 C) 35 D) 80Free

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Q 79Q 79

Let us suppose we are predicting the score on a training posttest from the number of years of education and the score on an aptitude test given before training. Here is the regression equation: Y = 25 + .5X

_{1}+10X_{2}, Where X_{1 }= years of education and X_{2}= aptitude test score. What does the .5 in front of X_{1 }tell us? A) Where the equation crosses the y-axis B) How much change in posttest score you get per unit change in aptitude test score C) How much change in the posttest score you get per unit change in years of education D) How much change in the years of education you get per unit change in posttest scoreFree

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Q 80Q 80

Let us suppose we are predicting the score on a training posttest from the number of years of education and the score on an aptitude test given before training. Here is the regression equation: Y = 25 + .5X

_{1}+10X_{2}, Where X_{1 }= years of education and X_{2}= aptitude test score. Which of the following are true about this equation? A) The equation is a simple regression analysis B) The regression coefficient for aptitude test controls for years of education C) The equation is in standard score form D) For every unit change in X_{1}, there is a 10 unit change in YFree

Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

In simple regression, the _____ is defined as the predicted change in Y given a one-unit change in X.
A) Y intercept
B) Regression coefficient
C) Error term
D) X intercept

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Q 82Q 82

If one wishes to visualize the relationship between two quantitative variables, which of the following should be used?
A) A contingency table
B) A bar graph
C) A scatter plot
D) A frequency distribution

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Q 83Q 83

When the points in a scatter plot clearly move in a bottom-left to top-right direction, one has a _______ relationship.
A) Positive
B) Negative
C) Causative
D) None of the above

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Q 84Q 84

When the points in a scatter plot clearly move in a top-left to bottom-right direction, one has a _______ relationship.
A) Positive
B) Negative
C) Causative
D) None of the above

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Q 85Q 85

If you sum your scores for a variable and divide that sum by the number of scores in the variable, what do you obtain?
A) Mode
B) Median
C) Mean
D) Variance

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Q 86Q 86

If you square the standard deviation, what do you obtain?
A) Range
B) Variance
C) Percentile rank
D) Median

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Q 87Q 87

If the owner of Microsoft moved into your neighborhood, which of the following statistical indexes for the income in your neighborhood would become radically larger?
A) Mean
B) Median
C) Mode
D) Percentile rank

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Q 89Q 89

If you want to determine the relationship between two or more categorical variables, what should you do?
A) Calculate the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
B) Construct a contingency table
C) Conduct a regression analysis
D) Conduct an analysis of variance

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Q 90Q 90

Below is a regression equation predicting children's math achievement from their parents' education level (years of education). Y = 1 + 2x, where x is the number of years of parental education.
What would be the predicted score for a child whose parents had 10 years of education?
A) 21
B) 20
C) 12
D) 11

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Q 91Q 91

Sally wants to graphically represent her data from her study. She collected data on the number of hours her students spent on homework every day of the week. What pictorial representation should she use for her study?
A) A bar graph.
B) A histogram
C) A contingency table
D) A scatter plot

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Q 92Q 92

In a scatter plot, when the dots are close together and fall in a relatively straight slanted line, what does this suggest?
A) A strong positive or negative relationship
B) A curvilinear relationship
C) A dispersal of data that should be discarded
D) A weak positive or negative relationship

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Q 93Q 93

While studying families living in an inner city neighborhood (where most of the residents have incomes well below the poverty level), Dr. Westbrook found that one resident was actually a very wealthy individual. In terms of income level this person would be considered:
A) A variance
B) A standard deviation
C) An outlier
D) A mode

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Q 94Q 94

A measure of variability is a numerical index:
A) of the central tendency of the data values in a set of data
B) that indicates how spread out the data values are in a set of data
C) that indicates the level of skewness of the data
D) that indicates if two variables vary together

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Q 95Q 95

A researcher gathered the following set of data: 54, 56, 56, 56, 57, 57, 58, 58, 59, 59. Which term would best describe these data?
A) Homogeneous
B) Heterogeneous
C) Skewed
D) Homoscedastic

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Q 96Q 96

A researcher is planning a study that has one dependent variable and two independent variables. Which data analysis procedure would she use?
A) Simple regression analysis
B) Standard deviation analysis
C) Multiple regression analysis
D) z score analysis

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Q 97Q 97

Joe wants to make assumptions about characteristics of a population based upon his sample. In order to do this he must use:
A) Descriptive statistics
B) Inferential statistics
C) Multiple regression
D) Point estimates

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Q 98Q 98

If you wanted to characterize, summarize, and/or explain data you had collected you would use:
A) Descriptive statistics
B) Inferential statistics
C) Multiple regression
D) Hypothesis testing

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Q 99Q 99

Helen has used vertical bars to represent her categorical data. She has created a:
A) Frequency distribution
B) Histogram
C) Scatterplot
D) Bar graph

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Q 100Q 100

Line graphs should used to depict:
A) Nominal variables only
B) Categorical variables only
C) Trends over time
D) Percentile ranks

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Q 101Q 101

Which measure of variability is used the least by researchers?
A) Average
B) Range
C) Standard deviation
D) Variance

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Q 102Q 102

With IQ scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what is the range of scores between which 95% of people should score?
A) 100 and 130
B) 85 and 115
C) 70 and 100
D) 70 and 130

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Q 103Q 103

Scores that have been converted from one scale to another to have a particular mean and standard deviation are called:
A) Percentile ranks
B) Deviation scores
C) Change scores
D) Standard scores

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Q 104Q 104

The regression line is:
A) The line that splits the distribution in half
B) The line that best fits a pattern of observations
C) A line between the median and the mean
D) A line between the median and the mode

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Q 105Q 105

For the following set of scores: 100, 150, 200, 250, 275, 300, 500. What is the median?
A) 221
B) 250
C) 200
D) 500

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Q 106Q 106

Harold needs to calculate a median. The scores he has are: 10, 1, 9, 3, 4, 8, 6, 5, 2, and 7. The median is:
A) 4.5
B) 5
C) 5.5
D) 6

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Q 107Q 107

On his statistics test, Tom has to calculate a mean on the following scores: 5, 5, 10, 15, and 15. What answer should he come up with?
A) 5
B) 9
C) 10
D) 15

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Q 108Q 108

Claudia calculated the standard deviation for her data. The value she came up with was 9. What is the variance for her data?
A) 3
B) 9
C) 10
D) 81

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Q 109Q 109

Charlie was looking at the variability of his data. The range for his sample was 150. The variance for his sample was 49. What is the standard deviation for the sample?
A) 7
B) 9
C) 101
D) There is not enough information to tell.

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Q 110Q 110

In regression, the slope of the regression line is indicated by the:
A) range
B) y intercept
C) regression coefficient
D) partial regression coefficient

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Q 111Q 111

In a grouped frequency distribution, each row represents a unique value of the variable, the second column is the frequency of that value in the population, and the third column is the percentage of all responses at that value of the variable.

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Q 115Q 115

A histogram is a graphic that shows the frequencies and shape that characterize a quantitative variable.

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Q 116Q 116

If the owner of Microsoft moved into your neighborhood, the distribution of incomes in your neighborhood would become highly skewed to the right.

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Q 117Q 117

When a distribution of data is perfectly symmetrical, the mean, median, and mode will have the same value.

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True False

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Q 120Q 120

If everyone in your neighborhood had exactly the same income, the variance would be equal to zero.

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Q 121Q 121

You take the ACT and have a percentile rank of 34. Your percentile rank shows your standing relative to a reference or norming group.

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Q 122Q 122

A contingency table is a matrix based on two or more categorical variables used in a research study.

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Q 124Q 124

A partial regression coefficient shows the relationship between one IV in the multiple regression equation and the DV, controlling for the other IVs in the regression equation.

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Q 125Q 125

A partial regression coefficient is provided in simple regression but not in multiple regression.

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Q 127Q 127

When the data tend to be homogeneous, the variance and standard deviation will tend to be larger.

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Q 128Q 128

A multiple regression equation based on one dependent variable and four independent variables will have two partial regression coefficients.

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Q 132Q 132

A grouped frequency distribution contains each unique data value in the rows of the table.

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Q 133Q 133

In a frequency distribution, data values are put into intervals and the frequencies of the intervals are reported.

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Q 135Q 135

A measure of central tendency provides information about the variability within a distribution.

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Q 138Q 138

Percentile ranks and z scores describe where a score falls in relation to other scores in the distribution of data.

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Q 139Q 139

To calculate a mean, you add up the scores and then divide the sum by the number of scores that you have.

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Q 142Q 142

Describe the similarities of and differences between frequency distributions and grouped frequency distributions.

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