# Quiz 2: Behavioral Variability and Research

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

Psychologists study behavioral variability
A)among individuals.
B)across situations.
C)over time.
D)All of these answers are correct

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Multiple Choice

D

Q 2Q 2

Behavioral research should be designed so that
A)variability in the dependent variable is eliminated.
B)factors that are related to variability in behavior can be identified.
C)behavior varies randomly.
D)participants' behavior does not vary across conditions.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 3Q 3

When measuring behavior, researchers want the variability in participants' scores on the variable being measured to
A)be as large as possible.
B)be unaffected by their manipulation of the independent variable.
C)correspond to the variability in participants' actual behavior.
D)be random.

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

Statistics that are used to draw conclusions about the reliability and generalizability of one's findings are called
A)the range and variance.
B)descriptive statistics.
C)effect sizes.
D)inferential statistics.

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

The variance expresses
A)the degree to which participants' scores vary from the mean of the scores.
B)the degree to which the data are skewed.
C)the range of the scores.
D)the mean of the scores.

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Q 6Q 6

What is the range of these scores: 2, 4, 9, 4, 7, 6, 11, 3, 5, 9?
A)7
B)9
C)10
D)Cannot determine from the information given

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Q 8Q 8

Which of the following is the statistical formula for the mean?
A)y

_{i}-ӯ B)∑(y_{i}- ӯ)^{2}C)∑y_{i}/ n D)∑(y_{i}- ӯ)^{2}/ n-lFree

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

If we calculate the deviation scores (y

_{i}- ӯ)for all of the observations in a set of data and add them, what will the sum be? A)The mean B)Zero C)The sum of squares D)1Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

The total sum of squares is the
A)sum of the squared deviations of participants' scores from the mean.
B)standard deviation.
C)sum of the scores divided by the number of scores.
D)variance divided by the mean.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

In statistical notation, s

^{2}is the symbol for the A)sample size. B)mean. C)variance. D)range.Free

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Q 12Q 12

Variance in a behavior that is related to variables that an investigator is investigating is
A)systematic variance.
B)standard variance.
C)error variance.
D)total variance.

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Q 13Q 13

Variance in a behavior that is not related to the variables that an investigator is investigating is
A)systematic variance.
B)standard variance.
C)error variance.
D)total variance.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

In an experiment that examined the effects of room temperature on aggression, systematic variance would be caused by
A)error variance.
B)participants' personalities.
C)aggression.
D)differences in temperature.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

In an experiment, which of the following does not contribute to error variance?
A)The personalities of the participants
B)The independent variable
C)The weather
D)Random equipment malfunctions

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Error variance
A)reflects that researchers were not sufficiently careful in designing a study.
B)equals the sum of the systematic and total variance.
C)must be eliminated entirely for the results of a study to be valid.
D)can obscure the effects of the variables of interest to a researcher.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

When the relationship between two variables is "perfect,"
A)one variable causes the other.
B)the effect size is zero.
C)all of the variability is systematic variance.
D)the hypothesis is confirmed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Which of the following is used to integrate results across a set of individual studies?
A)Meta-analysis
B)Effect size analysis
C)Cumulative analysis
D)Descriptive analysis

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Effect size indicates
A)the amount of variance in a set of scores.
B)the strength of the relationship between variables.
C)whether one variable causes another.
D)whether an obtained research finding is valid.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Compared to the effect sizes found in other sciences, including the biomedical sciences, the effect sizes in psychology are
A)smaller.
B)larger.
C)about the same size.
D)more variable.

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Multiple Choice

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Q 26Q 26

Tell what each of the following statistical symbols represents:
a. ӯ
b.∑(y

_{i}- ӯ)^{2}/n - l c.s^{2}d. n e.∑Free

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Q 28Q 28

Would researchers like their data to contain more systematic variance or more error variance? Explain.

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Q 31Q 31

What does it mean if one variable accounts for 20% of the variance in another variable? 0%? 100%?

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