# Quiz 7: Correlational Research

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

The formula for the correlation coefficient, as we know it today, was devised by
A)Gibson.
B)Edgeworth.
C)Pearson.
D)Galton.

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

A researcher obtained a correlation of +.52 between Variable A and Variable B. What is the best interpretation of this correlation?
A)As scores on A increase, scores on B tend to increase.
B)Scores on A can be perfectly predicted from scores on B.
C)As scores on A decrease, scores on B tend to increase.
D)As scores of A increase, scores on B tend to decrease.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

Which of the following correlation coefficients reflects the strongest relationship between two variables?
A)+)41
B)-)55
C)+)50
D)- .30

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

The correlation between people's height and weight is
A)positive.
B)negative.
C)zero.
D)perfect.

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Multiple Choice

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

When plotted on x- and y-axes, a correlation coefficient of .00 appears as a
A)line that slopes upward to the right.
B)horizontal line.
C)random array of scattered points.
D)vertical line.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

On a scatterplot, a correlation coefficient of +1.00 appears as a
A)line that slopes upward to the right.
B)horizontal line.
C)random array of scattered points.
D)vertical line.

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

On a scatterplot, a correlation of -1.00 appears as a
A)straight line that slopes upward to the right.
B)horizontal straight line.
C)curved line.
D)straight line that slopes downward to the right.

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

A correlation of +.90 is _________ times as strong as a correlation of +.30.
A)3
B)9
C)30
D)60

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

The coefficient of determination is
A)the amount of error variance in a correlation coefficient.
B)the square root of the correlation coefficient.
C)the proportion of variance in one variable that is accounted for by another.
D)an index of negative correlation.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

If the correlation between two variables is .00, we should conclude that
A)the variables are unrelated.
B)the error variance is excessive.
C)one variable can be predicted from the other.
D)no linear relationship exists between the variables.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

When a correlation is statistically significant, we know that it
A)is large.
B)accounts for more than 90% of the variance.
C)is very unlikely to be zero.
D)is important.

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

A correlation coefficient of a given magnitude is more likely to be statistically significant when
A)the sample size is small rather than large.
B)the error variance is large rather than small.
C)the coefficient of determination is near zero.
D)it is based on a large rather than a small number of scores.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Why should a researcher not interpret a correlation that is not statistically significant?
A)It is based on too few participants.
B)The correlation in the population is likely to be zero.
C)Correlation does not imply causality.
D)The data are likely to contain outliers.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following can artificially deflate the magnitude of a correlation coefficient?
A)Having a large number of participants
B)On-line outliers
C)Restricted range of scores
D)High reliability of the measures

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

As the reliability of a measure decreases, the magnitude of the correlations between that measure and other measures
A)decreases.
B)increases.
C)remains the same.
D)approaches 1.00.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Most correlational research satisfies which of the following criteria for determining whether one variable causes another?
A)Directionality
B)Covariation
C)Determination
D)Elimination of extraneous variables

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Having found that people from similar socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to become friends than people from different backgrounds, a researcher wanted to test the hypothesis that this effect is due to the fact that people from the same socioeconomic background are more likely to share similar attitudes. What could the researcher use to examine this hypothesis?
A)Coefficient of determination
B)Partial correlation
C)A scatterplot
D)Pearson correlation

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A partial correlation is
A)based on only a portion of a sample.
B)generally larger than the Pearson correlation.
C)the correlation between two variables with the influence of other variables removed.
D)a correlation in which the influence of error variance has been eliminated.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

If the partial correlation between Variables X and Y is equal to the Pearson correlation between X and Y,
A)the correlation between X and Y is statistically significant.
B)X and Y are probably causally related.
C)the range of scores on X and Y is probably restricted.
D)the variable that was partialed out does not account for the correlation between X and Y.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

When one's data are on an ordinal scale of measurement, a _________ correlation should be used.
A)rank-order
B)point biserial
C)phi
D)partial

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

A researcher is correlating gender (male/female)with whether adolescents have had sexual intercourse (no/yes). What kind of correlation should he use?
A)Rank-order
B)Partial
C)Phi
D)Point biserial

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

If a significant correlation is found between X and Y, that means
A)X may cause Y.
B)Y may cause X.
C)a third variable may cause both X and Y.
D)that all of these answers are correct.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A researcher predicts that variable X has a positive relationship with variable Y. This is a
A)directional hypothesis.
B)nondirectional hypothesis.
C)positive hypothesis.
D)negative hypothesis.

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Multiple Choice

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Q 26Q 26

Distinguish between a positive and a negative correlation. Draw what a positive versus a negative correlation might look like on a scatterplot.

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Q 28Q 28

Why is it important to examine the scatterplot of the relationship between two variables when doing correlational research?

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Q 30Q 30

If the correlation between two variables is .40, what is the coefficient of determination? What does the coefficient of determination indicate in this case?

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Q 32Q 32

Imagine you obtain a correlation coefficient of -.45 between two variables but find the correlation is not statistically significant. How would you interpret this correlation?

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Q 37Q 37

Research shows people tend to like attractive individuals more than unattractive ones. Imagine you think this effect occurs because people assume attractive people are friendlier than unattractive people. Explain how you would use partial correlation to test whether inferred friendliness mediates the relationship between physical attractiveness and liking.

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