# Quiz 17: Externalities and Public Goods

Business

Q 1Q 1

Recreation centers offer a place for young people to play sports and engage in other activities at a marginal cost of MC = 0.25Q. The inverse demand curve for recreation centers is given by P = 10 - 0.25Q, where P is the price of entry and Q measures hundreds of entrants. Recreation centers generate positive externalities because they help get young people off the street and engaged in productive activities. In this case, an action that the government could take to move toward the socially optimal outcome is to implement ____.
A) a per unit tax
B) a quantity restriction
C) an effective price floor
D) a consumption subsidy

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 2Q 2

(Table: Marginal Cost) According to the table, what is the socially optimal output level?
A) 0
B) 3
C) 4
D) 7

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 3Q 3

A small neighborhood is considering hiring a security firm to patrol the neighborhood. Ten families in the neighborhood would each get a marginal benefit of MB = 10 - h, where h is daily hours of patrol. The marginal cost of patrol is constant at $20 per hour. What is the socially optimal number of patrol hours?
A) 12
B) 16
C) 8
D) 20

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost, the total cost of cleanup, after the exchange of permits, is $____.
A) 0
B) 6,000
C) 7,000
D) 13,000

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

A good is rival if:
A) it is produced by more than one firm.
B) consuming an item means that no one else can consume that same exact item.
C) consumption of it causes negative externalities.
D) consumers can be restricted from buying it.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The market for toilet paper is characterized by the following inverse demand and supply equations:
P = 100 - Q
P = MC = 2Q - 197.3
Where P is the price per roll of toilet paper and Q measures millions of rolls of toilet paper. The external marginal cost is 30 cents for each roll of toilet paper produced. The socially optimal price of toilet paper is _____ cents higher than the price under perfect competition.
A) 40
B) 30
C) 20
D) 10

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

Assume the social marginal benefit of remote-control drone flights is given by SMB = 200 - 2Q and the marginal cost is given by MC = 3Q + 50. Assuming there are no external benefits and in a perfectly competitive environment, the equilibrium price per flight would be $_____ and the equilibrium number of flights would be _____.
A) 140; 30
B) 130; 40
C) 110; 20
D) 160; 20

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

(Figure: Output Levels I) The output level under perfect competition is _____, while the socially optimal output level is _____.
A) 4; 3
B) 4; 5
C) 5; 4
D) 4; 6

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

The marginal cost of pollution is MC = 2Q, while the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 12 - Q. Government regulators incorrectly estimate the marginal abatement cost at MAC

_{E}= 9 - Q. The level of pollution, measured in tons of glop, is Q. Based on the government's incorrect estimate of marginal abatement costs, the government thinks the socially optimal level of pollution is ____. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost, the number of permits traded would be ____.
A) 50
B) 100
C) 150
D) 200

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Suppose that, at the current level of pollution, the marginal abatement cost is $30,000 and the marginal cost of pollution is $80,000. This economy is producing:
A) an efficient level of pollution if the total cost of pollution is $50,000.
B) too little pollution and should increase its pollution level.
C) too much pollution and should reduce its pollution level.
D) an efficient level of pollution if the marginal cost of pollution is $110,000.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

(Table: Pollution from Firms) Suppose that each firm is emitting 10 units of pollution, for a total of 20 units. The government would like to decrease total pollution to 10 units by giving each firm five tradable pollution permits. Under the tradable permit system, Firm B will emit ____ units of pollution.
A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 7

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

The production of toilet paper in a perfectly competitive market is characterized by the inverse supply curve (marginal cost curve) P = 4Q, where Q is measured in millions of 4-roll packs per month. The inverse demand for toilet paper is P = 10 - 6Q.
The market equilibrium price of toilet paper is ____ and the market equilibrium quantity is ____ million packs.
A) 4; 1
B) 1; 4
C) 2; 2
D) 3; 2

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

(Table: Benefits and Costs of Lawn Mowing) Answer the following question. According to the figure above, a self-interested person will mow her lawn ____ times during the month and that ____ the socially optimal outcome.
A) 4; is
B) 4; is not
C) 5; is
D) 5; is not

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

The tragedy of the commons stems from a common resource that people can _____ acquire, the value of which _____ as more people use it.
A) freely; decreases
B) pay to; increases
C) freely; increases
D) pay to; decreases

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Which of the following factors could mitigate the tragedy of the commons?
I) Pigouvian taxes
II) government quotas
III) the elimination of private property rights in a common resource
A) II
B) I and II
C) III
D) I, II, and III

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Recreation centers offer a place for young people to play sports and engage in other activities at a marginal cost of MC = 0.25Q. The inverse demand curve for recreation centers is given by P = 10 - 0.25Q, where P is the price of entry and Q measures hundreds of entrants. Recreation centers generate positive externalities because they help get young people off the street and engaged in productive activities. The external marginal benefits are EMB = 1 + 0.06Q. The social demand curve for recreation centers can be expressed as ____.
A) P = 12 - 0.25Q
B) P = 11 - 0.25Q
C) P = 10 - 0.19Q
D) P = 11 - 0.19Q

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

(Table: Marginal Benefit) In an unregulated market, the quantity produced is _____, and a subsidy of _____ per unit will achieve the socially optimal quantity of _____.
A) 1; $150; 5
B) 3; $75; 6
C) 3; $150; 5
D) 2; $100; 3

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Sweet Steel and Molten Metal produce sulfur dioxide emissions during production. The total abatement cost (TAC) and marginal abatement cost (MAC) for each company:
Sweet Steel: TAC

_{S}= 100,000 + 1e_{S}^{2}; MAC_{S}= 2e_{S}Molten Metal: TAC_{M}= 100,000 + 1.5e_{M}^{2}; MAC_{M}= 3e_{M}Where e_{S}and e_{M}represent tons of sulfur dioxide emissions eliminated by each company. Suppose the government wants to eliminate 1,000 tons of sulfur dioxide emissions, so it mandates that each firm cut its emissions by 500 tons. What is the total cost (TAC_{S}+ TAC_{M}) of reducing emissions by 1,000 tons? A) $304,000 B) $670,550 C) $233,333 D) $825,000Free

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Mr. Leghorn lives next door to Mr. Fudd. During hunting season, Mr. Fudd likes to shoot rabbits in his backyard, an activity which he values at $900. The noise from the shooting disturbs Mr. Leghorn and prevents him from taking afternoon naps, which he values at $500. If Mr. Leghorn has the legal right to stop Mr. Fudd from hunting, the socially optimal outcome is for:
A) Mr. Fudd to stop hunting.
B) Mr. Fudd to pay Mr. Leghorn between $500 and $900 to continue hunting.
C) Mr. Leghorn to pay $500 or less to get Mr. Fudd to stop hunting.
D) Mr. Fudd to pay Mr. Leghorn less than $500 to continue hunting.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

The notion that market participants can negotiate an efficient market outcome, assuming negotiating is costless, is known as the:
A) Coase theorem.
B) blanket theorem.
C) acceptance principle.
D) Dranove principle.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
I) An inefficiency occurs if there is too much pollution.
II) An inefficiency occurs if there is too little pollution.
III) It can be efficient for there to be a positive level of pollution.
A) I and III
B) I, II, and III
C) III
D) II

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Suppose that dry cleaning 100 blouses carries a social marginal cost of $900 and an external marginal cost of $300. What is the private marginal cost of dry cleaning 100 blouses?
A) $1,200
B) $600
C) $3,000
D) $30

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A tradable permit system:
A) requires that each firm reduce its pollution by the same amount.
B) is difficult to implement because regulators do not know the marginal abatement costs of every company.
C) achieves a given amount of pollution reduction at the least cost because firms with lowest marginal abatement costs do most of the reduction.
D) increases pollution because the government gives firms permits that grant them the right to pollute.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Sweet Steel and Molten Metal produce sulfur dioxide emissions during production. The total abatement cost (TAC) and marginal abatement cost (MAC) for each company:
Sweet Steel: TAC

_{S}= 100,000 + 1e_{S}^{2}; MAC_{S}= 2e_{S}Molten Metal: TAC_{M}= 100,000 + 1.5e_{M}^{2}; MAC_{M}= 3e_{M}Where e_{S}and e_{M}represent tons of sulfur dioxide emissions eliminated by each company. Suppose the government wants to eliminate 1,000 tons of sulfur dioxide emissions by issuing tradable pollution permits to each firm. What is the total cost (TAC_{S}+ TAC_{M}) of reducing emissions by 1,000 tons? A) $800,000 B) $430,000 C) $280,000 D) $625,500Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer, the maximum amount that any of the firms would be willing to pay would be up to $_____.
A) 100
B) 70
C) 30
D) 0

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Bumper-to-bumper traffic on free public roads, a(n) _____ good, is an example of the _____.
A) nonexcludable; free-rider problem
B) excludable; free-rider problem
C) excludable; tragedy of the commons
D) nonexcludable; tragedy of the commons

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Government regulators want to limit pesticide runoff to its efficient level. Unfortunately, government regulators are uncertain how marginal abatement costs behave with changes in runoff; fortunately, they do know that marginal abatement costs are less sensitive to changes in runoff than marginal costs of pollution. In this situation, the use of a _____ leads to a smaller deadweight loss than a _____.
A) quota; Pigouvian tax
B) quota; quantity restriction
C) Pigouvian tax; quantity restriction
D) Pigouvian subsidy; Pigouvian tax

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

The marginal cost of pollution is MC = 2Q, while the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 12 - Q. Government regulators incorrectly estimate the marginal abatement cost at MAC

_{E}= 9 - Q. The level of pollution, measured in tons of glop, is Q. The socially optimal level of pollution using the actual MAC is ____. A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6Free

Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

There are no externalities in the market for brim hats; therefore, the:
A) external marginal cost equals the marginal cost.
B) social marginal cost equals the private marginal cost.
C) social benefit equals the external marginal benefit.
D) equilibrium level of output will be too low.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

(Figure: External Marginal Cost III) Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE? I. The socially optimal quantity is 3.
II) The deadweight loss associated with the perfectly competitive output level is $4.50.
III) The external marginal cost is $6.
A) I, II, and III
B) I
C) I and II
D) II and III

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Minnesota has two oil refineries that emit methane gas. The Bend refinery emits 300 units of methane, and the Park refinery emits 900 units. Government regulators would like to reduce total methane emissions from 1,200 to 900 units. Bend's total abatement and marginal abatement costs are TC

_{B}= 400Q_{B}+ 4Q_{B}^{2}and MAC_{B}= 400 + 8Q_{B}, where Q is units of methane. Park's total abatement cost and marginal abatement costs are TC_{P}= 40Q_{P}+ 2Q_{P}^{2}and MAC_{P}= 40 + 4Q_{P}. Suppose that government regulators require each refinery to remove 150 units of methane. The total cost of removing these 150 units for the Park refinery is $____. A) 201,000 B) 172,200 C) 150,000 D) 51,000Free

Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

The _____ problem occurs when consumers want to freely consume a public good that others have provided.
A) pull-your-own
B) rival-good
C) Coase
D) free-rider

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
I) A club good, such as golf, is nonexcludable and rival.
II) A private good is excludable and rival.
III) School is a public good.
IV) Common resources are excludable and nonrival.
A) I and II
B) II, III, and IV
C) II
D) II and IV

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

In the case of producing a good with a negative externality, a firm will likely consider only the _____ marginal costs of production, leading to production of _____.
A) external; more output than is socially optimal
B) private; more output than is socially optimal
C) private; less output than is socially optimal
D) external; less output than is socially optimal

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

(Table: Pollution from Firms) Suppose that each firm is emitting 10 units of pollution, for a total of 20 units. The government would like to decrease total pollution to 10 units by giving each firm five tradable pollution permits. The pollution permits will sell at a price of $____.
A) 70
B) 75
C) 80
D) 85

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

(Table: Benefits and Costs of Lawn Mowing) Answer the following question. Besides carrying external marginal costs, suppose that lawn cutting also generates an external marginal benefit of $10. Given this, the socially optimal number of times that a lawn should be mowed in a month is ____.
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

Recreation centers offer a place for young people to play sports and engage in other activities at a marginal cost of MC = 0.25Q. The inverse demand curve for recreation centers is given by P = 10 - 0.25Q, where P is the price of entry and Q measures hundreds of entrants. Recreation centers generate positive externalities because they help get young people off the street and engaged in productive activities. The external marginal benefits are EMB = 1 + 0.06Q. The socially optimal number of entrants is ____ entrants.
A) 2,000
B) 2,500
C) 3,000
D) 3,500

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

(Figure: Market Efficiency) If the socially optimal quantity of the good is 200 pounds, there is a _____ externality, so the government should enact a _____ per pound to increase market efficiency.
A) negative; $6 tax
B) negative; $1 tax
C) positive; $6 subsidy
D) positive; $1 subsidy

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

Manny Metal produces 300 tons of sulfur dioxide emissions, and Silk Steel produces 550 tons. The marginal abatement cost (MAC) of reducing sulfur dioxide:
Manny Metal: MAC

_{M}= 10 + 3e_{M}Silk Steel: MAC_{S}= 50 + e_{S}Government regulators want to reduce total sulfur dioxide emissions to 650 tons, a 200-ton reduction. If the government gives each firm 325 tradable pollution permits, Manny Metal emits _____ tons and Silk Steel emits _____ tons. A) 240; 410 B) 280; 370 C) 200; 450 D) 320; 330Free

Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

The marginal abatement costs (MAC) for Stark and York Paper are MAC

_{s}= 0.2e_{s}and MAC_{Y}= 0.25e_{Y}, where e_{s}and e_{Y}represent the amount of emissions cut by each company. The lowest cost approach to reducing 90 units of emission is for Stark to reduce its emissions by _____ units and York to reduce its emissions by _____ units. A) 45; 45 B) 50; 40 C) 30; 60 D) 60; 30Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good creates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. Assuming the government implements the appropriate per-unit tax to achieve the socially optimal outcome, sellers receive a price of $_____ net of the tax. A) 16.80 B) 14.80 C) 16.00 D) 14.00Free

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

The island nation of Maldives has 70,000 households. Each household receives a marginal benefit from Coast Guard security of MB = 60 - 0.30Q, where Q measures the number of patrolling Coast Guard ships. What is the total marginal benefit of the tenth patrolling ship?
A) $3.99 million
B) $1.5 million
C) $2.81 million
D) $775,000

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

The market for flu shots is given by the following inverse demand and supply equations:
P = 40 - 0.40Q
P = 0.40Q
Where P is the price per flu shot and Q measures the daily quantity of flu shots. The external marginal benefit of a flu shot is $8. The socially optimal number of daily flu shots is:
A) 60.
B) 50.
C) 140.
D) 35.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

The inverse demand for energy-efficient refrigerators is P = 2,000 - 10Q, where Q measures refrigerators per month. The inverse supply of energy-efficient refrigerators is P = 10Q. Suppose the use of an energy-efficient refrigerator reduces carbon dioxide emissions, generating an external marginal benefit of $100. The socially optimal quantity of energy-efficient refrigerators is ____.
A) 130
B) 115
C) 105
D) 95

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

What is the nature of the positive externality associated with research and development (R&D)?
A) Firms that engage in R&D may develop more profitable products.
B) Firms that engage in R&D may be able to lower their production costs.
C) R&D may lead to discoveries that make other firms more innovative.
D) Firms that engage in R&D tend to pay higher stock dividends.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
I) A quota can be used to address negative externalities only, not positive externalities.
II) Implementing pollution quotas is difficult because quotas must be implemented on a firm-by-firm basis.
III) The government could produce the good itself as a method of increasing the quantity of a good with a positive externality.
A) II
B) I and III
C) I, II, and III
D) II and III

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good creates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. To achieve the socially optimal output level, the government can implement a tax in the amount of $____. A) 3.00 B) 2.50 C) 2.00 D) 1.50Free

Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

(Figure: Perfect Competition I) Under perfect competition, the deadweight loss is given by area:
A) A + B.
B) C + E.
C) A + B + C.
D) E.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

(Table: Public Goods I) What is the efficient quantity of the public good?
A) 8 units
B) 3 units
C) 4 units
D) 5 units

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

If consuming a good with a positive externality, a person will likely consider only the _____ marginal benefits of consumption, which causes _____ consumption than is socially optimal.
A) external, not the private; more
B) private, not the external; more
C) private, not the external; less
D) external, not the private; less

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

Recreation centers offer a place for young people to play sports and engage in other activities at a marginal cost of MC = 0.25Q. The inverse demand curve for recreation centers is given by P = 10 - 0.25Q, where P is the price of entry and Q measures hundreds of entrants. Recreation centers generate positive externalities because they help get young people off the street and engaged in productive activities. The external marginal benefits are EMB = 1 + 0.06Q. Without government intervention, ____ people will use the recreation centers.
A) 2,000
B) 2,400
C) 2,800
D) 3,200

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

Competitive markets _____ goods with negative externalities and _____ provide goods with positive externalities.
A) overprovide; underprovide
B) underprovide; overprovide
C) overprovide; overprovide
D) underprovide; underprovide

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

The production of toilet paper in a perfectly competitive market is characterized by the inverse supply curve (marginal cost curve) P = 4Q, where Q is measured in millions of 4-roll packs per month. The inverse demand for toilet paper is P = 10 - 6Q. If the production of toilet paper causes an external marginal cost of 50 cents per 4-pack, the socially optimal price of toilet paper is $____ and the socially optimal quantity of toilet paper is ____ million.
A) 4; 1
B) 4.30; 0.95
C) 4.20; 1.05
D) 3; 2

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

(Figure: Benefits of Asparagus) Suppose that eating asparagus reduces the incidence of contagious disease. The external marginal benefit of asparagus is $3. To achieve the socially optimal quantity of asparagus, the government should:
A) subsidize the production of asparagus by $6 per pound, increasing output to 6,000 pounds.
B) tax the production of asparagus by $6 per pound, decreasing output to 6,000 pounds.
C) subsidize the production of asparagus by $3 per pound, increasing output to 4,000 pounds.
D) tax the production of asparagus by $3 per pound, decreasing output to 4,000 pounds.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

Minnesota has two oil refineries that emit methane gas. The Bend refinery emits 300 units of methane, and the Park refinery emits 900 units. Government regulators would like to reduce total methane emissions from 1,200 to 900 units. Bend's total abatement and marginal abatement costs are TC

_{B}= 400Q_{B}+ 4Q_{B}^{2}and MAC_{B}= 400 + 8Q_{B}, where Q is units of methane. Park's total abatement cost and marginal abatement costs are TC_{P}= 40Q_{P}+ 2Q_{P}^{2}and MAC_{P}= 40 + 4Q_{P}. Suppose that the government regulators evenly split 900 methane pollution permits between the two refineries. The total cost of removing 300 units of methane, using a tradable permit system is $____. A) 201,000 B) 172,200 C) 150,000 D) 187,000Free

Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
I) In the face of a positive externality, a perfectly competitive market produces less than the socially optimal quantity of output.
II) If vaccinations generate an external marginal benefit, their marginal social benefit will always exceed their private marginal benefit.
III) In unregulated markets, the presence of negative externalities-but not positive externalities-causes deadweight losses.
A) I and II
B) I, II, and III
C) III
D) I and III

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

Hamid and Lee are neighbors. Hamid has a barking dog that he keeps in his backyard for property protection; he values the dog at $600. Lee despises the constant barking, because it costs him $800 in lost sleep. Assume Hamid has a legal right to own a barking dog. Because Hamid speaks Farsi and Lee speaks Korean, they need an interpreter to handle negotiations regarding the dog. There ____ a Coase solution to this problem if the interpreter costs $250 and ____.
A) is; Hamid pays Lee
B) is; Lee pays Hamid
C) is not; neither person pays the other
D) is; neither person pays the other

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

The marginal cost of pollution is MC = 2Q, while the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 12 - Q. Government regulators incorrectly estimate the marginal abatement cost at MAC

_{E}= 9 - Q. The level of pollution, measured in tons of glop, is Q. If the government taxes each ton of glop based on the incorrect estimate of the marginal abatement cost, ____ units of pollution will be omitted. A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6Free

Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good creates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. Assuming the government implements the appropriate per-unit tax to achieve the socially optimal outcome, buyers pay a price of $_____. A) 16.80 B) 14.80 C) 16.00 D) 14.00Free

Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

(Figure: Output Levels II) The socially optimal output level could be achieved by a government quota of:
A) approximately 212 units of electricity.
B) 175 units of electricity.
C) 100 units of electricity.
D) 250 units of electricity.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

(Figure: External Marginal Cost I) The external marginal cost is:
A) $4.
B) $3.
C) $6.
D) $1.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

Assume the social marginal benefit of remote-control drone flights is given by SMB = 200 - 2Q and the marginal cost is given by MC = 3Q + 50. The government wants to correct the negative externality associated with remote-control drone flights by taxing operators $20 per flight. If the proposed tax accurately reflects their marginal external costs, the deadweight loss associated with unrestricted remote-control drone flights is _____.
A) 30
B) 35
C) 40
D) 45

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

(Table: Pollution from Firms) Suppose that each firm is emitting 10 units of pollution, for a total of 20 units. The government would like to decrease total pollution to 10 units by giving each firm five tradable pollution permits. Under the tradable permit system, Firm A will emit ____ units of pollution.
A) 3
B) 4
C) 5
D) 7

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
I) Public goods tend to be underprovided.
II) One person's consumption of a public good diminishes its use to another person.
III) The marginal cost of providing a public good to another consumer is infinite.
A) I and III
B) II and III
C) I
D) I, II, and III

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

(Figure: External Marginal Cost II) Suppose the external marginal cost is constant at $5 per unit. Price (demand) equals social marginal cost at _____ units of output.
A) 3
B) 7
C) 6
D) 4

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

Suppose the demand curve for steel is Q = 100 - P, where P is the price per unit of steel and Q measures millions of units of steel. The private marginal cost of producing steel is MC = 5Q + 40, while the external marginal cost of producing steel is $12. In a perfectly competitive steel industry, the deadweight loss is:
A) $12 million.
B) $2 million.
C) $750,000.
D) $200,000.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

In the age before free agency, the labor of Major League Baseball (MLB) players was the property of their team owners. The owners had complete control of whether to trade their players away or keep them on the roster. In the period of free agency, players had the right to sell their services to the highest-bidding team. The Coase theorem predicted that:
A) free agency would reduce the salaries of talented players.
B) free agency would allow a select group of teams to purchase all the talented players.
C) the distribution of players' talent in MLB would not be affected by free agency because talent would flow to where it was most valued.
D) the salaries of players would not be affected by free agency.

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good generates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. To achieve the socially optimal output level, the government wants to implement a quota. The size of the quota should be ____ units of the good. A) 24 B) 20 C) 16 D) 14Free

Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost, the total cost of cleanup for Really Dirty Industries, after the exchange of permits, is $____.
A) 0
B) 6,000
C) 7,000
D) 13,000

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

(Figure: Marginal Benefit I) Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE? I. The external marginal benefit is $7.
II) The socially optimal price is $5.
III) At an output level of 5 units, the deadweight loss is $6.
IV) At 8 units of output, there is no private marginal benefit and social marginal benefit is $4.
A) III
B) II, III, and IV
C) I, II, and III
D) IV

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

Hamid and Lee are neighbors. Hamid has a barking dog that he keeps in his backyard for property protection; he values the dog at $600. Lee despises the constant barking, because it costs him $800 in lost sleep. Assume Hamid has a legal right to own a barking dog. Because Hamid speaks Farsi and Lee speaks Korean, they need an interpreter to handle negotiations regarding the dog. There ____ a Coase solution to this problem if the interpreter costs $70 and ____.
A) is; Hamid pays Lee
B) is; Lee pays Hamid
C) is not; neither person pays the other
D) is; neither person pays the other

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

(Figure: Cost of Pollution) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) The efficient quantity of pollution occurs below 6,000 units.
B) At 2,000 units of pollution, the marginal benefit is less than the marginal cost, so there should be less pollution.
C) At 2,000 units of pollution, the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost, so there should be more pollution.
D) At 2,000 units of pollution, the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost, so there should be less pollution.

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

(Table: Benefits and Costs of Lawn Mowing) Answer the following question. According to the figure above, the socially optimal outcome is _____ mowing(s) per month.
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

Minnesota has two oil refineries that emit methane gas. The Bend refinery emits 300 units of methane, and the Park refinery emits 900 units. Government regulators would like to reduce total methane emissions from 1,200 to 900 units. Bend's total abatement and marginal abatement costs are TC

_{B}= 400Q_{B}+ 4Q_{B}^{2}and MAC_{B}= 400 + 8Q_{B}, where Q is units of methane. Park's total abatement cost and marginal abatement costs are TC_{P}= 40Q_{P}+ 2Q_{P}^{2}and MAC_{P}= 40 + 4Q_{P}. Suppose that government regulators require each refinery to remove 150 units of methane. The total cost of removing these 150 units for the Bend refinery is $____. A) 201,000 B) 172,200 C) 150,000 D) 51,000Free

Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

Suppose that Billy McGee owns the Internet domain www.ironmaiden.com. Iron Maiden, the legendary British heavy metal band, was given the rights to the name by the World Intellectual Property Organization. Iron Maiden values the domain name at $250,000 and Billy McGee values the domain name at $330,000. The Coase theorem suggests that:
A) Billy McGee will pay Iron Maiden between $250,000 and $330,000 to keep the domain name.
B) Billy McGee will pay Iron Maiden more than $330,000 to keep the domain name.
C) Iron Maiden will take the domain name.
D) Iron Maiden will buy the domain name from Billy McGee for less than $330,000.

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Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

Suppose the market for dry cleaning has an inverse demand of P = 12 - 0.10Q and an inverse supply curve (MC) of P = 0.10Q, where P is the price per article of clothing and Q is the quantity of clothing laundered. Suppose the external marginal cost of dry cleaning is 80 cents. To correct the market inefficiency, the government could set a quota on the number of laundered pieces of clothing equal to ____ articles of clothing.
A) 102
B) 88
C) 56
D) 22

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Multiple Choice

Q 78Q 78

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost, the total cost of cleanup for Smog Brothers, Inc., after the exchange of permits, is $____.
A) 0
B) 6,000
C) 7,000
D) 13,000

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air. The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. If the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost, the total cost of cleanup for Polluters-R-Us after the exchange of permits is $____.
A) 0
B) 6,000
C) 7,000
D) 13,000

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

There are three consumers of a public good; their marginal benefits are given by:
Consumer 1: MB = 400 - Q
Consumer 2: MB = 200 - 2Q
Consumer 3: MB = 600 - Q
Where Q is the quantity of the public good. The marginal cost of the public good is MC = 600 + 296Q. What is the socially optimal quantity?
A) 6
B) 2
C) 3
D) 1

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

Suppose the market for dry cleaning has an inverse demand of P = 10 - 0.15Q and an inverse supply curve (MC) of P = 0.05Q, where P is the price per article of clothing and Q is the quantity of clothing laundered. Suppose the external marginal cost of dry cleaning is $1. If the government tries to correct the negative externality by placing a $1 tax on each laundered piece of clothing, buyers will pay _____ and sellers will receive _____, net of the tax.
A) $3; $2
B) $4.75; $5.75
C) $5; $4
D) $3.25; $2.25

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Multiple Choice

Q 82Q 82

The marginal cost of pollution is MC = 2Q, while the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 12 - Q. Government regulators incorrectly estimate the marginal abatement cost at MAC

_{E}= 9 - Q. The level of pollution, measured in tons of glop, is Q. If the government uses a quota to intervene in the market based on the incorrect estimate of marginal abatement cost, ____ units of pollution will be omitted. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5Free

Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

Mushroom farms emit unpleasant odors that affect third parties. The marginal cost of the odors is MC = 4Q, where Q is the quantity of fumes emitted. Mushroom farmers can reduce odors by using various techniques and technologies; the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 1,200 - 36Q. The efficient quantity of odor emission is ____ fumes.
A) 20
B) 25
C) 30
D) 35

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Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

The market for wheat is characterized by the following inverse demand and supply equations:
P = 540 - 1.5Q
P = MC = 3Q
Where P is the price per metric ton of wheat and Q measures the daily quantity of wheat in metric tons. Because of fertilizer runoff, the external marginal cost is constant at $90 per metric ton of wheat. What is the socially optimal quantity of wheat?
A) 80 metric tons
B) 360 metric tons
C) 100 metric tons
D) 240 metric tons

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Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

(Figure 17.13) According to the graph, MCP is the marginal cost of pollution, MAC is the marginal abatement cost, and the government's erroneous estimate of the marginal abatement cost is estimated MAC. Answer the following questions.
a. What is the socially optimal level of pollution?
b. If the government uses a quantity restriction, how much pollution will be emitted?
c. If the government uses a price-based restriction, how much pollution will be emitted?
d. What is the deadweight loss from the quantity restriction and from the price-based restriction?

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Essay

Q 87Q 87

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good creates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. a. To achieve the socially optimal output level, what size tax should the government implement? b. Based on your answer to part a, what price will buyers pay and what price will sellers receive net of the tax?Free

Essay

Q 88Q 88

Hamid and Lee are neighbors. Hamid has a barking dog that he keeps in his backyard for property protection; he values the dog at $600. Lee despises the constant barking, because it costs him $800 in lost sleep.
a. If Hamid has a legal right to own a barking dog, is there a Coase solution to this problem?
b. Because Hamid speaks Farsi and Lee speaks Korean, they need an interpreter to handle negotiations regarding the dog. Is there a Coase solution to this problem if the interpreter costs $70? How about if the interpreter charges $210?

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Essay

Q 89Q 89

(Table: Benefits and Costs of Lawn Mowing) Answer the following questions.
a. How many times will a self-interested person cut her lawn during the month?
b. What is the socially optimal number of times to mow the lawn?
c. How might lawn cutting generate positive externalities?
d. Besides carrying external marginal costs, suppose that lawn cutting also generates an external marginal benefit of $10. What now is the socially optimal number of times that a lawn should be cut?

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Essay

Q 90Q 90

Consider three consumers of a public good with the following marginal benefit of consumption:
Consumer 1: MB

_{1}= 5 - 2Q Consumer 2: MB_{2}= 4 - Q Consumer 3: MB_{3}= 3 - Q a. If the marginal cost of producing the public good is MC = 8Q, what is the efficient quantity of it? b. If the marginal cost of producing the public good is constant at $4, what is the efficient quantity of it?Free

Essay

Q 91Q 91

(Figure: Public Goods) The graph shows the marginal benefit curves for two consumers of a public good.
a. Graph the total marginal benefit curve.
b. What is the total marginal benefit of 4 units of a public good?
c. What is the efficient quantity of the public good?

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Essay

Q 92Q 92

Many livestock farmers give antibiotics to their herds. The antibiotics help breed drug-resistant bacteria, making them less effective. This harms future users of antibiotics, who will be using less-effective drugs.
a. What is the nature of the market failure?
b. Explain whether livestock farmers are more likely to overuse or underuse antibiotics.
c. Using supply and demand curves, illustrate the equilibrium outcome and socially optimal equilibrium in the antibiotic market.

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Essay

Q 93Q 93

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air.
The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. Determine the maximum permit price (whole dollar amount), the number of permits traded, and the revenue and costs of trading permits if the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost.

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Essay

Q 94Q 94

For the following situations, use the Coase theorem to explain how a socially efficient solution may arise.
a. An adult bookstore, with a legal right to operate, causes psychic discomfort of $250,000 for a nearby church. The adult bookstore owner values his business at $200,000.
b. A church has purchased a building with storefronts leased to several businesses. The church must decide whether to allow the businesses to renew their leases. One of the businesses is an adult bookstore whose owner values the location at $450,000. The continued operation of the adult bookstore would generate $250,000 of psychic discomfort to the church.

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Essay

Q 95Q 95

Assume the social marginal benefit of remote-control drone flights is given by SMB = 200 - 2Q and the marginal cost is given by MC = 3Q + 50. Assuming there are no external benefits and in a perfectly competitive environment, the equilibrium price per flight would be _____ and the equilibrium number of flights would be _____.

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Essay

Q 96Q 96

Consider the vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease that causes cervical cancer and genital warts.
a. Why might an HPV vaccine generate positive externalities?
b. Draw a graph of the HPV vaccine market, illustrating the demand curve, social demand curve, and supply curve.
c. On your graph, indicate the perfectly competitive output of vaccines and the socially optimal output.

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Essay

Q 97Q 97

(Table: Pollution from Firms) Suppose that each firm is emitting 10 units of pollution, for a total of 20 units. The government would like to decrease total pollution to 10 units by giving each firm five tradable pollution permits.
a. How many units of pollution will each firm emit under the tradable permit system?
b. Which firm will sell unused pollution permits to the other firm?
c. How much will the pollution permits sell for?

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Essay

Q 98Q 98

Minnesota has two oil refineries that emit methane gas. The Bend refinery emits 300 units of methane, and the Park refinery emits 900 units. Government regulators would like to reduce total methane emissions from 1,200 to 900 units. Bend's total abatement and marginal abatement costs are TC

_{B}= 400Q_{B}+ 4Q_{B}^{2}and MAC_{B}= 400 + 8Q_{B}, where Q is units of methane. Park's total abatement cost and marginal abatement costs are TC_{P}= 40Q_{P}+ 2Q_{P}^{2}and MAC_{P}= 40 + 4Q_{P}. a. Suppose that government regulators require each refinery to remove 150 units of methane. What is the total cost of removing these 300 units (TC_{B}+ TC_{P})? b. Now suppose that the government regulators evenly split 900 methane pollution permits between the two refineries. What is the total cost of removing 300 units of methane, using a tradable permit system?Free

Essay

Q 99Q 99

Mushroom farms emit unpleasant odors that affect third parties. The marginal cost of the odors is MC = 4Q, where Q is the quantity of fumes emitted. Mushroom farmers can reduce odors by using various techniques and technologies; the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 1,200 - 36Q.
a. Suppose the quantity of odor emission is 33. Is that too much or too little?
b. Suppose the quantity of odor emission is 15. Is that too much or too little?
c. What is the efficient quantity of odor emission?

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Essay

Q 100Q 100

The production of toilet paper in a perfectly competitive market is characterized by the inverse supply curve (marginal cost curve) P = 4Q, where Q is measured in millions of 4-roll packs per month. The inverse demand for toilet paper is P = 10 - 6Q.
a. Solve for the market equilibrium price and quantity.
b. If the production of toilet paper causes an external marginal cost of 50 cents per 4-pack, what are the socially optimal price and quantity of toilet paper?

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Essay

Q 101Q 101

Chia, Inc. has a marginal abatement cost curve of MAC

_{C}= 115 - 5Q, where Q represents fertilizer runoff measured in parts per million (ppm) cleaned up; however, regulators incorrectly believe that it is actually MAC_{E}= 110 - 10Q. If the marginal cost of pollution is given by MCP = 15Q, illustrate the area of deadweight loss generated with a quantity restriction on pollution of 4.4 ppm, based on regulators' incorrect estimation of abatement costs.Free

Essay

Q 102Q 102

Inverse demand for a product is given by P = 1,500 - 0.5Q

_{d,}while inverse supply is given by P = 300 - Q. The product is generating external marginal benefits equal to $1,000 at every price level. Graph this information. Based on the information, does this product generate a negative or positive externality? Identify any deadweight loss.Free

Essay

Q 103Q 103

Recreation centers offer a place for young people to play sports and do other activities at a marginal cost of MC = 0.25Q. The inverse demand curve for recreation centers is given by P = 10 - 0.25Q, where P is the price of entry and Q measures hundreds of entrants. Recreation centers generate positive externalities because they help get young people off the street and engaged in productive activities. The external marginal benefits are EMB = 1 + 0.06Q.
a. Without government intervention, how many people use the recreation centers?
b. Derive the social demand curve for recreation centers.
c. What is the socially optimal number of entrants?
d. Explain how the government could use a price-based intervention to achieve the socially optimal number of entrants.

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Essay

Q 104Q 104

(Figure: Externalities) Answer the following questions.
a. Is there a positive or negative externality in the market?
b. What are the market equilibrium price and quantity?
c. What are the socially optimal equilibrium price and quantity?
d. What is the size of the external marginal benefit or external marginal cost?

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Essay

Q 105Q 105

(Figure: Efficient Quantities and Consumers) Suppose that the demand curves for two consumers of good X are presented in the graph. The marginal cost of producing good X is MC = $9.
a. If good X is rival and excludable, what is its efficient quantity?
b. If good X is nonrival and nonexcludable, what is its efficient quantity?

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Essay

Q 106Q 106

(Table: Neighborhood Playground) The willingness to pay for a new neighborhood playground is shown in the table. The marginal cost of providing the playground is MC = 300 + 0.5Q, where Q is square feet. What is the efficient quantity of the good?

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Essay

Q 107Q 107

Rosa and Tomas are neighbors. Rosa loves to barbeque, but Tomas is allergic to barbecue smoke. They have been neighbors for years and know each other well, often chatting across their picket fence. Tomas values clean air at $100. If Rosa has the right to barbecue, predict the outcome of the situation using the Coase theorem.

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Q 108Q 108

(Table: Whole Paycheck Externalities) A supermarket chain, Whole Paycheck, is planning on opening a store near a residential neighborhood. The neighbors are opposed to the construction, since they believe increased traffic and other nuisances will decrease their home values. According to the Coase theorem, what is the optimal store size?

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Essay

Q 109Q 109

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air.
The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company to clean it up. Determine the total cost of the cleanup if the government employs a uniform reduction scheme.

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Essay

Q 110Q 110

The inverse demand for energy-efficient refrigerators is P = 2,000 - 10Q, where Q measures refrigerators per month. The inverse supply of energy-efficient refrigerators is P = 10Q.
a. Solve for the market equilibrium price and quantity.
b. Suppose the use of an energy-efficient refrigerator reduces carbon dioxide emissions, generating an external marginal benefit of $100. What is the socially optimal quantity of energy-efficient refrigerators?

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Essay

Q 111Q 111

The following companies all manufacture widgets and dump tons of glop into the air.
The government wants to halve total pollution but does not know how much it will cost each company. Determine the total cost of the cleanup if the government employs a tradable permit scheme in which it gives the same number of permits to each manufacturer at no cost.

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Essay

Q 112Q 112

Assume the social marginal benefit of remote-control drone flights is given by SMB = 200 - 2Q and the marginal cost is given by MC = 3Q + 50. The government wants to correct the negative externality associated with remote-control drone flights by taxing operators $20 per flight. What deadweight loss is associated with unrestricted remote-control drone flights if the proposed tax accurately reflects their marginal external costs?

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Essay

Q 113Q 113

The marginal cost of pollution is MC = 2Q, while the marginal abatement cost is MAC = 12 - Q. Government regulators incorrectly estimate the marginal abatement cost at MAC

_{E}= 9 - Q. The level of pollution, measured in tons of glop, is Q. a. Solve for the socially optimal level of pollution by using MAC. b. Based on the government's incorrect estimate of marginal abatement costs, what does the government think is the socially optimal level of pollution? c. If the government uses a quota to intervene in the market, how much pollution will be omitted? d. If the government taxes each ton of glop, how much pollution will be omitted? e. Does quantity restriction or the price-based intervention get us closer to the socially optimal output level?Free

Essay

Q 114Q 114

The demand curve and supply curve for a good are given by Q

^{D}= 100 - 5P and Q^{S}= 1.25P - 2.5. Suppose the production of this good generates a negative externality, where the external marginal cost is constant at $2. To achieve the socially optimal output level, the government wants to implement a quota. What size should the quota be?Free

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