A teacher gives a child a time-out for teasing a classmate, and then the time-out succeeds in making the child's future teasing behavior less likely in the future. This example illustrates that the time-out acts as a(n):
Consider two different ways of motivating others by using rewards. First way: "Good job, you improved your penmanship nicely."
Second way: "If you improve your penmanship today, then I'll give you a reward."
Why is the first way more effective and less harmful (in terms of side effects) than is the second way?
If a person takes an aspirin and the aspirin makes a headache go away, then the person becomes more likely to take an aspirin for a headache in the future. This example illustrates that the aspirin acts as a(n):