# Quiz 9: Hypotheses and Sampling Distributions

Criminal Justice

Q 1Q 1

A hypothesis is a
A)speculative guess with no true foundation in reality
B)statement of a relationship between two or more concepts
C)statement of a relationship between two or more variables
D)all of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

A null hypothesis is:
A)a statement of no difference
B)related to the scientific preference for conservative decisions
C)the concept behind inferential statistics (measures of significance)
D)all of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

D

Q 3Q 3

Hypotheses,as used in statistics,are
A)different from those used in theory testing
B)measurable statements
C)most commonly composed of general statements
D)all of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

An alternative hypothesis represents an attempt to
A)point out the way in which a dependent variable affects an independent variable
B)explain real differences
C)create another hypothesis to test if our primary hypothesis proves to be false
D)locate a set of alternative variables that are different from those used in the null hypothesis

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

If you know which of two variables is the independent variable and which one is the dependent variable,you can propose
A)a null hypothesis
B)a one-tailed hypothesis
C)a two-tailed hypothesis
D)all of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The statement "Younger defendants are more likely to be sentenced to longer prison sentences than older defendants" is an example of a
A)null hypothesis
B)positive one-tailed hypothesis
C)positive two-tailed negative hypothesis (there are two variables included)
D)negative one-tailed hypothesis

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

A two-tailed hypothesis is the same thing as a
A)nondirectional hypothesis
B)hypothesis that is concerned only with the central part of a distribution
C)specifying two one-tailed hypotheses
D)more powerful than a one-tailed hypothesis

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

A nondirectional hypothesis is called that because
A)no tails in a curve are used
B)both tails in a curve are used
C)only one tail in a curve is used
D)none of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

If you hypothesize that higher levels of education will increase success on parole and in testing it turns out that lower levels of education decrease success on parole
A)you have to reject the hypothesis
B)you need to rephrase the hypothesis
C)you can't test this because it requires a corresponding null hypothesis that was not stated
D)you accept the hypothesis

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Random samples are used to estimate error in statistical sampling distributions because
A)of the systematic nature of random error
B)of the probability that random error is less likely to occur
C)of our ability to reproduce that type of error
D)random samples cannot be used to estimate error because "random" means the error would be unknown

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

The further out on the tails a difference is found
A)the less likely it is to be an accidental difference
B)the greater the probability the difference is not due to random error
C)the bigger the difference is from the mean of the sampling distribution
D)all of the above

Free

Multiple Choice

Free

True False

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True False

Q 14Q 14

Statistical error distributions are used to determine if alternative hypotheses should be rejected or accepted.

Free

True False

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True False

Q 16Q 16

One-tailed hypotheses provide the direction of the independent variable but do not require stating the direction of the dependent variable.

Free

True False

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True False

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True False

Q 19Q 19

If you propose a one-tailed hypothesis and have to reject it with the true results being the opposite one-tailed hypothesis,you are not just wrong,you are significantly wrong.

Free

True False

Q 20Q 20

Random error is important because estimating its size and amount gives us a way to determine whether an observed difference is real.

Free

True False

Q 21Q 21

The null hypothesis really means that the likelihood of a result being due to random error can be rejected at the moment.

Free

True False