# Quiz 5: Project Scheduling Models

Business

Q 1Q 1

A disadvantage of Gantt chart methodology is that an earliest possible completion date for the project cannot be determined.

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True False

False

Q 2Q 2

Using the Critical Path Method, the normal time to complete activity D is 10 weeks, and its normal cost is $500.Under maximum crashing, activity D can be completed is 4 weeks for $2,300.Therefore, if $1,100 is spent on activity D, its completion time will be 6 weeks.

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True False

False

Q 3Q 3

The earliest start (ES) time for an activity is the latest earliest finish (EF) time of all its immediate predecessors.

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True False

True

Q 4Q 4

The "forward pass" determines the earliest start and finish times for activities in a project.The "backward pass" establishes latest start and finish times.

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True False

Q 5Q 5

The critical path shows the earliest project completion date by finding the shortest path through the directed network.

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True False

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True False

Q 7Q 7

Any attempt at resource leveling always will involve lengthening the project completion time beyond its "non-leveled" minimum.

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True False

Q 8Q 8

In PERT, the acceptance of a Beta distribution for activity completion times and the presence of a sufficient number of activities, lead to the assumption of a normal distribution of possible completion times for the overall project.

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True False

Q 9Q 9

Overall project completion time will not be affected if an activity possessing slack time is started at any time between its earliest and latest start time.

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True False

Q 10Q 10

Since PERT allows randomness, it is not necessary to know the precise activity precedence relations to use PERT.

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True False

Q 11Q 11

A PERT/CPM network can be represented as a linear programming model by letting the decision variables be the activity start times.

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True False

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True False

Q 13Q 13

A Gantt chart, by definition, does not show precedence relations.However, you could add precedence relations by drawing arrows on the Gantt chart.

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True False

Q 14Q 14

Resource leveling can apply to either costs or to the time of people working on the project.

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True False

Q 15Q 15

If a critical task is delayed, we either must add resources, miss the project deadline, or sacrifice quality.

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True False

Q 16Q 16

In project scheduling, activities:
A)must be completed sequentially.
B)are the tasks of a project.
C)are work packages.
D)are not represented on Gantt charts.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Typically, the first step in project scheduling is the construction of a:
A)Gantt chart.
B)Critical path chart.
C)PERT chart.
D)set of precedence relationships between the activities.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) generally treats activity completion times as probabilistic and:
A)is used to construct a Gantt chart.
B)is used to determine the probability that a project will be complete within a given time frame.
C)can be used to determine the exact completion time of an activity.
D)can be used to determine the exact completion time of a project.

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

The earliest start time (ES) of an activity:
A)equals its earliest finish time (EF) minus task time.
B)equals the minimum earliest finish time (EF) of all immediate predecessors.
C)equals the latest start time (LS) for non-critical activities.
D)may not be the same for two or more activities.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

The critical path:
A)is the shortest path through the network.
B)is necessarily unique.
C)Is defined by activities with zero slack.
D)Shows, by elimination, which activities management can safely ignore.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

In the PERT probabilistic approach, statisticians have found which distribution most helpful in describing possible activity times?
A)Beta
B)Gamma
C)normal
D)uniform

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Which of the following is not a fundamental, inherent weakness in the probabilistic approach to PERT?
A)One may have difficulty in obtaining three reliable time estimates for each activity.
B)There is the possibility of large variances for non-critical activities.
C)The assumption that activity times are independent of each other.
D)The assumption that possible overall project completion times are Beta-distributed.

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

In the critical path method (CPM), crashing does not:
A)deal with accelerating a project's overall completion time.
B)assume that every activity completion time can be crashed.
C)require two time estimates for each activity's duration time.
D)take into account the possibility of creating multiple critical paths.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Which of the following is true?
A)Slack = (LF - LS)
B)(LF - LS) > (EF - ES)
C)Slack is never "shared."
D)(LS - ES) 0

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

A "forward pass" in network analysis of a project, determines:
A)earliest times.
B)latest times.
C)slack times.
D)most likely times.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

PERT/Cost is a cost-center based system, where the "centers" are:
A)locations.
B)work packages of groups of related activities.
C)activities.
D)departments.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

PERT/Cost:
A)allows for activity interruption.
B)assumes costs are evenly spread over time.
C)monitors project performance relation to cost, not time.
D)cannot help identify cost under-runs.

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

The probabilistic approach characterized by PERT does not use:
A)optimistic activity times.
B)median activity times.
C)pessimistic activity times.
D)most likely activity times.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

Activity C is an immediate predecessor of activity G.Both activities have 4 hours of slack time.If both activities are delayed 3 hours, and these are the only delays, the overall effect of these delays is to delay the minimum project completion time by:
A)0 hours.
B)2 hours.
C)6 hours.
D)The overall delay cannot be determined with only this information.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A project contains activities D and K.Activity D has 5 hours of slack, and activity K has 7 hours of slack.If activity D is delayed 4 hours, activity K is delayed 6 hours, and these are the only delays, then the overall effect of these delays is to delay the minimum project completion time by:
A)0 hours.
B)2 hours.
C)11 hours.
D)The overall delay cannot be determined with only this information.

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

Which of the following is true?
A)PERT gives a better solution than the expected value criterion.
B)To use the expected value criterion, we must know every possible outcome.
C)The expected value criterion determines the optimal decision by choosing the best expected payoff.
D)Adding resources will decrease the project time to completion.

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Which of the following is false?
A)Crashing an activity on the critical path can cause another path to become the critical path.
B)The maximum crash time reduction for each and every activity is limited.
C)CPM assumes that adding resources to crash an activity from its normal time to its crash time will reach a point of diminishing returns.
D)Crashing non-critical activities will not reduce the project time.

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

Let T

_{i}= normal completion time for task iR_{i}= crash completion time for task i C_{i}= normal cost for task i H_{i}= crash cost for task i X_{i}= start time for task i Y_{i}= amount of time by which task i is to be crashed. What is the objective function of a linear programming model for project crashing? A)_{all i}Y_{i}(H_{i}- C_{i})/(T_{i}- R_{i}) B)_{all i on critical path}Y_{i}(H_{i}- C_{i})/(T_{i}- R_{i}) C)_{all i}X_{i}Y_{i}D)_{all i}Y_{i}H_{i}Free

Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

Which statement does not represent a set of constraints for a linear programming approach to project crashing?
A)There is a limit to the time reduction for each activity.
B)No activity can be reduced more than its slack time.
C)Activity start time must be greater than the finish time of all immediate predecessors.
D)The project must be completed by the deadline (or within budget).

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

Let B = budgeted total cost for a work package T = estimated completion time for a work package
P = percent complete
A = actual expenses to date
M = time used to date
What is the definition of cost overrun, C?
A)C = A - PB
B)C = A - (1 - P)TB
C)C = A - PTB
D)C = A - MB/T

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

When attempting to use PERT methodology, how do you estimate the mean completion time and standard deviation when, for a given activity, the time estimates a, b, and m (pessimistic, optimistic, and most likely) are all identical? What implications does this have if several activities have this property?

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Essay

Q 37Q 37

Ajax is about to embark on a project involving the design, manufacture, and introduction of a new microwave oven.The first three activities and the immediate predecessors are:

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Essay

Q 38Q 38

Activity T has a single immediate predecessor, activity S.However, T may actually be initiated anytime after S is 50% complete.Can this situation be accommodated using standard project scheduling techniques? Explain.

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Q 39Q 39

In using PERT/CPM, why does management need to pay any attention at all to non-critical path activities?

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Q 40Q 40

Discuss the assumptions required for determining the probability that a project will be completed within a certain time period by using a normal distribution of the activity time along the critical path determined by mean completion times of the critical activities.Do you think they are realistic for most projects?

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Q 42Q 42

Using PERT, we have determined the mean completion time for each activity (

_{j}) and the standard deviation for each activity completion time (_{j}).How do we use these data to determine the overall project completion time?Free

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Q 45Q 45

Activity A is critical.Activity B has a slack time of 5 days.What is the impact of a 7 day delay in either A or B?

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Q 47Q 47

Suppose the estimated completion times for activities A through G in problem 1 were 5, 4, 3, 6, 2, 5, 2 respectively.Draw an earliest completion Gantt chart for the data.

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Q 49Q 49

Consider the following information for the activities comprising a small construction project which is scheduled to complete in 26 days.(Costs are in $1000's.)

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