# Quiz 13: Data Analysis: a Users Guide to Statistics

Criminal Justice

Q 1Q 1

Which of the following is intended to summarize or describe data or show relationships between variables?
A)Descriptive statistics
B)Inferential statistics
C)Absolute statistics
D)Cluster statistics

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 2Q 2

Which of the following enables generalization or inference of sample findings to larger populations or assessment of the probability of certain findings?
A)Descriptive statistics
B)Inferential statistics
C)Absolute statistics
D)Cluster statistics

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 3Q 3

Which of the following are summary statistics that describe the typical,middle,or average score?
A)Statistical tendencies
B)Descriptive tendencies
C)Inferential tendencies
D)Measures of central tendency

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Multiple Choice

D

Q 4Q 4

Which of the following refers to the simplest measure of central tendency and is simply the most frequently occurring score?
A)Mean
B)Median
C)Mode
D)Range

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Which of the following is a measure of central tendency that is applicable to ordinal ranked)data?
A)Mean
B)Median
C)Mode
D)Range

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

Which of the following is the most familiar measure of central tendency and simply involves dividing the total score by the total number of cases N?
A)Mean
B)Median
C)Mode
D)Range

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

Which of the following is the simplest measure of dispersion and represents either the highest and lowest scores or the distance between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution?
A)Mean
B)Median
C)Mode
D)Range

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Which of the following is a highly useful statistic in which plus or minus one standard deviation always equals 68 percent of a normal curve?
A)Variance
B)Standard deviation
C)Mode
D)Range

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Which of the following refers to a bell-shaped curve that describes a variety of phenomena?
A)Normal variance
B)Statistical variance
C)Normal distribution
D)Statistical distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Which of the following is a test of the independence of the relationship between nominal or categorical variables?
A)Standard deviation units
B)Z scores
C)Normal distribution
D)Chi-square

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Which of the following refers to the number of cells that are free to vary;that is,once the value of certain cells is fixed,the others are no longer free to vary?
A)Degrees of variance
B)Degrees of distribution
C)Degrees of freedom
D)None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Which of the following refers to a chi-square-based measure of relationship in which a zero equals no relationship,but the upper limit is less than one?
A)Phi coefficient
B)Chi coefficient
C)Contingency coefficient
D)Cramer's V

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

Which of the following refers to a useful chi-square-based measure of relationship appropriate for a 2 X 2 table?
A)Phi coefficient
B)Chi coefficient
C)Contingency coefficient
D)Cramer's V

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Which of the following assumes some interval level of measurement and a normal population?
A)Phi coefficient
B)Parametric statistics
C)Nonparametric statistics
D)Cramer's V

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following refers to the distribution free statistics in which few assumptions are made regarding the normality of the population?
A)Phi coefficient
B)Parametric statistics
C)Nonparametric statistics
D)Null hypothesis

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Which of the following assumes that there is no difference between the groups being compared or no relationship in the population?
A)Phi coefficient
B)Parametric statistics
C)Nonparametric statistics
D)Null hypothesis

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

Which of the following assesses whether the differences between observed and expected values could be due to chance or are statistically significant?
A)Null hypothesis
B)Tests of significance
C)t Test
D)x Test

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Which of the following is used to compare the sample means of two groups?
A)s Test
B)Tests of significance
C)t Test
D)x Test

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Which of the following is used in comparing three or more sample means?
A)Analysis of variance
B)Tests of significance
C)t Test
D)x Test

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Which of the following occurs when one variable enables the prediction of the value of the second variable?
A)Positive relationship
B)Negative relationship
C)Statistical relationship
D)Progressive relationship

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

Which of the following takes place when as the value of one variable increases the value of the other decreases?
A)Positive relationship
B)Negative relationship
C)Statistical relationship
D)Progressive relationship

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Which of the following refers to an equation that enables the prediction of one variable on the basis of the value of others?
A)Positive equation
B)Negative equation
C)Regression equation
D)Progressive equation

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Which of the following refers to an error of assuming that relationships proven true of groups are true of individuals?
A)Ecological fallacy
B)Statistical fallacy
C)Cluster fallacy
D)None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

The mean is the simplest measure of central tendency and is simply the most frequently occurring score.

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True False

Q 25Q 25

The median or midpoint)is a measure of central tendency that is applicable to ordinal ranked)data.

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True False

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True False

Q 27Q 27

The standard deviation is the simplest measure of dispersion and represents either the highest and lowest scores or the distance between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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True False

Q 28Q 28

The standard deviation and the related statistic variance are far less useful than the range.

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True False

Q 29Q 29

Standard deviation units,or Z scores,measure the deviation from the mean relative to the standard deviation.

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True False

Q 30Q 30

Chi-square is a test of the independence of the relationship between nominal or categorical variables.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 33Q 33

Parametric statistics are distribution free statistics in which few assumptions are made regarding the normality of the population.

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True False

Q 34Q 34

The null hypothesis generally states that there is no difference between the groups being compared,or that there is no relationship in the general population,or that any observed differences are due to random error.

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True False

Q 35Q 35

Tests of significance assess whether the differences between observed and expected values could be due to chance or are statistically significant.

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True False

Q 36Q 36

The level of statistical significance is set by the investigator in terms of the amount of risk or willingness to be in error in rejecting the null hypothesis assuming a significant relationship).

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True False

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True False

Q 38Q 38

__________ are intended to summarize or describe data or show relationships between variables.

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Q 39Q 39

__________ enable generalization or inference of sample findings to larger populations or assessment of the probability of certain findings.

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Q 40Q 40

The __________ is the simplest measure of central tendency and is simply the most frequently occurring score.

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Q 42Q 42

The __________ average)is the most familiar measure of central tendency and simply involves dividing the total score by the total number of cases N.

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Q 43Q 43

The __________ is the simplest measure of dispersion and represents either the highest and lowest scores or the distance between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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Q 45Q 45

__________ or standard deviation units measures the deviation from the mean relative to the standard deviation.

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Q 46Q 46

__________ is a test of the independence of the relationship between nominal or categorical variables.

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Q 47Q 47

__________refer to the number of cells that are free to vary;that is,once the value of certain cells is fixed,the others are no longer free to vary.

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Q 49Q 49

__________ are distribution free statistics in which few assumptions are made regarding the normality of the population.

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Q 50Q 50

__________ assumes that there is no difference between the groups being compared or no relationship in the population.

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Q 51Q 51

__________ assesses whether the differences between observed and expected values could be due to chance or are statistically significant.

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Q 52Q 52

The __________ is the error of assuming that relationships based on groups aggregate,ecological,or a real data)can be validly assumed to be true of individual correlations.

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Q 55Q 55

Define regression equation discuss its significance in enabling one to predict outcome scores.

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