Explanation: In the shock and disbelief phase, a newly bereaved person may feel alienated or detached from normal. Seeing or hearing the lost person, or sensing his or her presence, is a normal, temporary altered sensory experience related to the loss, which should not be confused with psychotic hallucinations. While the other options may be appropriate in some situations, what the patient is experiencing now is likely grief-related.
Explanation: Eric Lindemann pioneered the concepts of grief work based on interviews with bereaved persons suffering a sudden tragic loss. He described patterns of grief and identified the physical and emotional changes associated with significant loss. Lindemann observed that grief can occur immediately after a loss, or it can be delayed in this case 3 years. When symptoms of grief are exaggerated over a period of time or absent, it is considered pathologic or complicated grief. People experiencing complicated grief may require psychologic treatment to resolve their grief and move into life again. The pilot is talking about the death; there is no evidence symptoms of grief are absent. Anniversaries will often trigger memories. Children often show regressive behavior, anger, or fear in response to the loss of a parent.
Explanation: Denial is a coping mechanism being used by this patient. Personal reflections are critical sources of assessment data. Once rapport is established, the nurse should ask the patient how he learned of his diagnosis. The nurse must accept the patient's way of dealing with the stress and readiness to talk. Feelings are blocked during denial.