# Quiz 2: Optimal Decisions Using Marginal Analysis

Business

Q 1Q 1

According to the model of the firm,the management's main goal is to:
A)increase revenue from sales.
B)maximize profit.
C)maximize its market share.
D)minimize its variable cost per unit.
E)maintain a steady and predictable growth in earnings.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

According to the law of demand,if a firm reduces the price of its good:
A)consumers in the market will demand more units of the good.
B)some consumers will exit the market.
C)consumers will demand fewer units than before the price cut.
D)the quantity of goods produced and sold by the firm will decline.
E)competing firms will increase prices.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

Which of the following is true of a firm that faces a downward sloping demand curve?
A)In order to sell more units,the firm needs to lower its price.
B)The total cost curve for the firm is also downward sloping.
C)The firm's total revenue and price are directly correlated.
D)The marginal revenue from each unit sold is constant.
E)The firm faces a constant marginal cost curve.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 4Q 4

The demand for a product is given by Q = 600 - 30P,where P = price and Q = quantity.At P = $15,the firm sells _____ units.
A)100
B)150
C)300
D)450
E)600

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

The demand for a product is given by P = 1,750 - 25Q,where P = price and Q = quantity.If the firm wishes to sell 50 units,each unit should be priced at _____.
A)$500
B)$400
C)$300
D)$200
E)$100

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

A firm's demand curve is given by Q = 800 - 2P,where P = price and Q = quantity.Therefore,its inverse demand equation is _____.
A)MR = 800 - 4P
B)P = 800 - 2Q
C)P = 400 - 0.5Q
D)P = 800 - 0.5Q
E)800 = Q + 2P

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

Suppose a firm's inverse demand function is P = 40 - 8Q.What is the firm's revenue function?
A)R = 40Q - 8Q

^{2}B)R = 40 - 16Q C)R = -8Q D)R = 40/Q - Q E)R = 5 - QFree

Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

The following table shows the total revenue (in dollars)and total cost (in dollars)from the production and sale of different units of a product.
Table 2-1
-Refer to Table 2-1.What is the firm's profit from the sale of the 3rd unit of the good?
A)$13
B)$11
C)$12
D)$39
E)$27

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

The following table shows the total revenue (in dollars)and total cost (in dollars)from the production and sale of different units of a product.
Table 2-1
-Refer to Table 2-1.What is the marginal profit of the firm from the sale of the 2nd unit of the good?
A)$9
B)$3
C)$1
D)$5
E)$21

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Suppose,at its current output level,a firm's marginal profit is positive.Therefore,to maximize profit,it should:
A)decrease output until marginal profit is zero.
B)increase output because marginal revenue [MR] is less than marginal cost [MC].
C)increase both its output and its price.
D)increase output because MR is greater than MC.
E)increase output until it is producing at full capacity.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Suppose a firm's profit is given by the equation = -200 + 80Q - 0.2Q2,where = profit and Q = quantity.Which of the following is true?
A)The firm's marginal profit [M] is given by the equation: M = 80 - 0.2Q.
B)The firm's profit-maximizing output is Q = 400.
C)The firm's profit-maximizing output is Q = 200.
D)The firm's marginal profit [M] is given by the equation: M = 80 - 2Q.
E)The firm's profit-maximizing output is Q = 800.

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

If a firm's profit is given by = 36Q2 - 360Q - 150,where = profit and Q = quantity produced,then its optimal output is _____ units.
A)12
B)5
C)2
D)20
E)36

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

What is the marginal revenue [MR] equation for a firm with the demand function P = a - bQ,where P = price and Q = quantity?
A)MR = b - Q
B)MR = a - 2bQ
C)MR = a + 2Q
D)MR = 2Q
E)MR = 2a + Q

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

A firm's total revenue function is given by R = 100 + 10Q + 2Q2,where R = revenue and Q = quantity.Which of the following is true if Q = 10?
A)The firm's total revenue is $400 and the marginal revenue is $10.
B)The firm's marginal revenue is constant at $40.
C)The average revenue of the firm is $50.
D)The total revenue of the firm is $500.
E)The marginal revenue of the firm is $50.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following correctly defines marginal revenue?
A)Marginal revenue is the price at which the firm sells the last unit of the good.
B)Marginal revenue is the change in revenue from a unit increase in the price of the good.
C)Marginal revenue is the additional revenue from a unit increase in output and sales.
D)Marginal revenue is the additional revenue earned from an increase in demand for the good.
E)Marginal revenue is the difference between price and marginal cost for the last unit sold.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

For a downward-sloping demand curve,the associated marginal revenue curve:
A)coincides with the demand curve.
B)lies below and is parallel to the demand curve.
C)has twice the slope as the demand curve.
D)is positive for all levels of sales.
E)is parallel to the quantity axis.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

The following table shows the total revenue (in dollars)and total cost (in dollars)from the production and sale of different units of a product.
Table 2-1
-Refer to Table 2-1.What is the marginal revenue of the firm associated with the sale of the 5th unit of the good?
A)$55
B)$8
C)$7
D)$48
E)$4

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

The following table shows the total revenue (in dollars)and total cost (in dollars)from the production and sale of different units of a product.
Table 2-1
-Refer to Table 2-1.What is the profit-maximizing level of output for the firm?
A)3 units
B)2 units
C)1 unit
D)5 units
E)4 units

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

Given that a firm's inverse demand function is P = 100 - 5Q and total cost is given by C = 550 + 10Q,what is the firm's profit-maximizing level of output?
A)10 units
B)15 units
C)9 units
D)8 units
E)5 units

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Which of the following correctly defines marginal cost?
A)Marginal cost is the addition made to fixed cost when an extra unit is produced.
B)Marginal cost is the additional cost of producing an extra unit of output.
C)Marginal cost is the additional cost of increasing the scale of production in the long run.
D)Marginal cost is the difference between price and marginal revenue for the last unit sold.
E)Marginal cost is the same as the firm's variable cost at all levels of output.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

Given the total cost equation for a firm,the marginal cost equation can be derived by:
A)dividing total cost by total output.
B)taking the first derivative of the cost function with respect to quantity.
C)dividing total variable cost by total output.
D)subtracting variable cost from the fixed cost at all levels of output.
E)multiplying the total cost equation by price.

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

To maximize profit,the firm should set output at the level where:
A)the average cost per unit is minimized.
B)average revenue just equals average cost.
C)marginal cost equals zero.
D)marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost.
E)marginal revenue equals zero.

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

Assume that a firm is producing at its profit-maximizing level of output.A decrease in the price of raw materials used in production is most likely to lead to:
A)an increase in quantity produced at an unchanged price.
B)a fall in the price of the good and an increase in the quantity produced.
C)a fall in both the price of the good and the quantity produced.
D)an increase in both the price of the good and the quantity produced.
E)a fall in the quantity produced of the good at an unchanged price.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A firm negotiates a new labor contract with a higher average hourly wage.What is the most likely effect of the higher wage on the firm's price and output?
A)Both price and output will not be affected.
B)Price will increase but output will not change.
C)Both price and output will increase.
D)Price will not change but output will decrease.
E)Price will increase but output will decrease.

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Assume that a firm is producing at its profit-maximizing level of output.A decrease in fixed cost implies that:
A)marginal revenue will increase but marginal cost will decrease.
B)marginal revenue will not change but marginal cost will decrease.
C)neither average total cost nor marginal cost will change.
D)neither marginal revenue nor marginal cost will change.
E)both marginal revenue and marginal cost will decrease.

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Due to an increase in the price of a competitor's product,the demand for a firm's product increases sharply.How is this most likely to affect the firm's marginal revenue and marginal cost?
A)Marginal revenue will increase but marginal cost will decrease.
B)Both marginal revenue and marginal cost will not be affected.
C)Both marginal revenue and marginal cost will increase.
D)Marginal revenue will not change but marginal cost will increase.
E)Marginal revenue will increase but marginal cost will not change.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Assume that Burger King,a fast food chain,enters into a franchise agreement.The royalty paid to Burger King by the franchisee is calculated as a percentage of the franchisee's revenue.Given that the franchisee faces a downward-sloping demand curve,which of the following is likely to be true?
A)The franchisee's revenue-maximizing output will be greater than its profit-maximizing output.
B)To maximize revenue,Burger King will want the franchisee to produce at the level where total revenue is positive but falling.
C)The franchisee will produce at the level where the slope of the total revenue curve is zero in order to maximize profits.
D)The profit-maximizing level of output for the franchisee will be at the level where marginal revenue is lesser than marginal cost.
E)To maximize revenue,Burger King will want the franchisee to produce at the level where marginal revenue equals marginal cost.

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Multiple Choice

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Q 31Q 31

Suppose that a firm operates in a competitive market where the commodity price is $15 per unit.The firm's cost equation is C = 25 + 0.25Q2,where C = total cost and Q = quantity.
(a)Find the profit-maximizing level of output for the firm.Determine its level of profit.

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Q 32Q 32

The demand for a firm's product is given by the equation: P = 36 - 0.2Q.The firm's cost equation is given by C = 200 + 20Q.
(a)Determine the firm's optimal quantity and price.

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Q 33Q 33

A firm faces the demand curve,P = 80 - 3Q,and has the cost equation: C = 200 + 20Q,where P = price,C = total cost,and Q = quantity.
(a)Find the optimal quantity and price for the firm.

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Q 34Q 34

Suppose the inverse demand curve of a firm is given by the equation: P = 2,500 - 10Q.Compute the firm's total revenue and marginal revenue,and determine the quantity that maximizes total revenue.

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Q 35Q 35

Suppose that a firm sells in a competitive market at a fixed price of $12 per unit.The firm's cost function is: C = 200 + 4Q,where C = total cost and Q = quantity.In this case,how can the firm use marginal revenue [MR] and marginal cost [MC] approach to maximize its profit?

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Q 36Q 36

In each case below,find the profit-maximizing level of output.Verify that each output level is a maximum by checking the second derivative.
(a) = -50 + 200Q - 10Q

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Q 37Q 37

Carefully explain the economic importance of the Lagrange multiplier.How might a manager use it in decision making?

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Q 38Q 38

How will an increase in price affect the quantity of output sold by a firm? What are the reasons for this change?

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Q 39Q 39

Assume that Turbo is a firm that produces two kinds of flash-memory drives.Its deluxe model has the inverse demand equation: PD = 70 - 0.05QD,where QD is the number of units sold per week.For its economy model,the price equation is: PE = 30 - 0.05QE.Turbo's marginal cost is $10 per unit for either drive,and it produces both on a single assembly line that has a maximum capacity of 875 drives per week.
(a)Determine the profit-maximizing outputs and prices of the drives.

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Q 40Q 40

War Game,Inc.produces games that simulate historical battles.The market is small but loyal,and War Game is the largest manufacturer.It is thinking about introducing a new game in honor of the sixtieth anniversary of the end of World War II.Based on historical data regarding sales,War Game management forecasts demand for this game to be P = 50 - 0.002Q,where Q denotes unit sales per year,and P denotes price in dollars.The cost of manufacturing (based on royalty payments to the designer of the game,and the costs of printing and distributing)is C = 140,000 + 10Q.
(a)If the goal of War Game is to maximize profit,calculate the optimal output and price.

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Q 41Q 41

A manufacturing company produces and sells small farm tractors.Its annual fixed costs are $15 million,and its marginal cost per tractor is $20,000.Demand for small tractors is given by: P = 30,000 - Q,where P denotes price in dollars and Q is annual sales.
(a)Find the firm's profit-maximizing output,price,and annual profit.

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Q 42Q 42

KopyKat is a firm that specializes in printing business cards and résumé's,using the latest laser technology.The manager has estimated that weekly demand can be approximated by P = 25 - 0.001Q,where P is price and Q is output per week.The firm's cost function is C = 25,000 + 13Q + 0.002Q2,where C is total cost.
(a)Determine the firm's profit maximizing price and output.

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Q 43Q 43

Max Whitley,manager of Whitley Construction,builds new homes in a booming community in the Midwest.Although sales have slowed because of a national recession,it now looks as if the recession is about to end.Max wants to be ready with material,labor,and foremen to meet the demand for housing.Last year,Max built and sold 40 starter homes which is the most popular model.Max thinks that his sales will increase to 50 units over the current year.The going market price for this model (which Max and his numerous competitors have charged)has been $175,000.In addition,Whitley Construction's marginal cost of building this model averages $155,000.
(a)Based on these facts,recommend a course of action for Max.

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Q 44Q 44

Night Timers is a small company manufacturing glow-in-the-dark products.One of the hottest items the engineering department has developed is adhesive tape that can be applied to walls and floors.Night Timers' chief engineer anticipates that the product will be sold in ten-foot rolls.At present,the company's maximum production capacity is 140,000 rolls per year.The engineer believes the cost function to be described by C = $50,000 + 0.25Q,where C is total cost and Q is number of rolls (The high fixed costs represent development cost and tooling to prepare coating equipment).Night Timers' president seeks to establish a price that maximizes profit (since she is the chief stockholder).She thinks that the firm should be able to sell at least 125,000 rolls of tape per year.
(a)If Night Timers plans to sell 125,000 rolls per year,what is the necessary price if the firm is to break even? What if it can only sell 100,000?

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Q 45Q 45

(a)How will an increase in the overhead cost affect the demand and supply curves for a firm? Will an increase in the price of a raw material used in production have the same effect?

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Q 46Q 46

The current manager of a small bicycle shop estimates the demand curve for a child's starter bike to be: P = 80 - 2Q.Costs are given by: C = 200 + 20Q.The former owner of the shop (now retired)urges the manager to keep prices low so as to increase sales and maximize revenue (The shop pays the former owner 5% of each dollar of earned revenue).If current management follows the former owner's goal,what sales output and price should it set? What strategy can be recommended for the management to maximize profits?

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