# Quiz 12: Decision Making Under Uncertainty

Business

Q 1Q 1

When there is more than one possible outcome for a decision,it results in:
A)higher expected return.
B)greater losses.
C)uncertainty.
D)lower risks.
E)better profits.

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 2Q 2

The probability of an outcome:
A)ranges between zero and one.
B)is described as an intuitive guess on the part of the decision maker.
C)measures the expected return from an outcome.
D)is always negative.
E)measures the degree of variation around the mean value.

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Multiple Choice

A

Q 3Q 3

If a fair coin is tossed 1,000 times,the frequency of heads will be close to:
A)0.6.
B)0.5.
C)0.3.
D)0.2.
E)0.7.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

The term expected value is defined as:
A)the value of the outcome with the highest probability.
B)the mid-point of the extreme (high and low)possible values.
C)the value of the outcome with the lowest probability.
D)the sum of the products of the probabilities of all outcomes and their values.
E)the equally-weighted average of all outcomes.

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

An investment has the possibility of earning $10,000,$8,000 or $2,000 depending on the state of the economy that is prosperity,modern growth,and recession respectively.The probabilities of prosperity,moderate growth,and recession are 0.4,0.3,and 0.3 respectively.The expected value of the investment is:
A)$10,000.
B)$21,000.
C)$7,000.
D)$3,000.
E)$8,000.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

Which of the following is true of subjective probability?
A)It is a measure of the historical frequency of an uncertain event.
B)It is a measure of the frequency of a certain event.
C)It represents the decision maker's best assessment,based on current information,of the likelihood of an uncertain event.
D)It represents an arbitrary or ad hoc assessment.
E)It measures the degree of variation around the mean.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

An individual is uncertain whether to bet on a football game.He believes that the probability of his team winning is 40%.If his team wins,he will receive $180.If his team loses,he'll pay $130.If the decision is made based exclusively on the expected value criterion,then the individual will:
A)not take the bet if he is a risk-lover.
B)not take the bet if he is risk-neutral.
C)take the bet only if he is risk-neutral.
D)take the bet only if he is risk-averse.
E)not take the bet if he is risk-averse.

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

A firm might be liable for $10 million if a lawsuit is brought against it.The firm judges that the probability that the suit will be brought is 0.6.In addition,it believes that its chance of winning such a suit (in which case it owes $0)is 0.7.The firm's overall expected liability is:
A)$6 million.
B)$4.2 million.
C)$3 million.
D)$1.8 million.
E)$1.2 million.

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

A convenient way to represent decisions,chance events,and possible outcomes in choices under risk and uncertainty is known as the:
A)probability distribution.
B)decision table.
C)decision tree.
D)expected outcome tree.
E)risk table.

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Which of the following is true of a decision tree?
A)It is an ill-defined puzzle used to arrive at a decision amidst uncertainty.
B)It represents decisions,chance events,and possible outcomes in choices under risk and uncertainty.
C)It is based purely on logic and thus fails to provide a visual explanation for the recommended choice.
D)It calculates the risks associated with a decision in chronological order of occurrence.
E)It is typically represented in a simple way and can be solved without complex calculations.

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

The figure given below represents the decision tree of an operations head of a facility who considers a new production technique.ER represents his expected return (in thousand $)from the new technique.If he does not adopt the technique his expected return would be zero.The probabilities of the technique being a success or a failure are 0.7 and 0.3 respectively.Compute the expected return (in thousand $)from the adoption of the new production technique.
A)$10,000
B)$1,000
C)-$2,000
D)$7,200
E)$8,600

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

A firm must decide whether to launch a new product before knowing whether sales demand will be strong or weak.In addition,depending on how demand unfolds,the firm has the flexibility to set either a high price or a low price.The best order in which to draw the firm's decision tree is:
A)launch,set price,and observe demand.
B)observe demand,launch,and set price.
C)launch,observe demand,and set price.
D)set price,observe demand,and launch.
E)set price,launch,and observe demand.

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

A firm supplies aircraft engines to the government and to private firms.It must decide between two mutually exclusive contracts.If it contracts with a private firm,its profit will be $2 million,$0.7 million,or -$0.5 million with probabilities 0.25,0.41,and 0.34,respectively.If it contracts with the government,its profit will be $4 million or -$2.5 million with respective probabilities 0.45 and 0.55.Which contract offers the greater expected profit or loss?
A)The private contract offers the greater expected profit.
B)The government contract offers the greater expected profit.
C)Both contracts offer the same expected profit.
D)The private contract results in a greater expected loss.
E)The government contract results in a greater expected loss.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

The expected profit determined from a decision tree is the weighted average of all the possible outcomes.The weights represent the:
A)probability of the outcome.
B)total cost of production.
C)number of times the game is repeated.
D)total number of outcomes.
E)total number of decision makers involved in the process.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following is a feature of the expected-value standard?
A)The expected-value criterion helps the decision taker to choose the course of action that involves the maximum risk and return.
B)The expected-value criterion cannot be employed in situations involving multiple and related risks.
C)The expected-value criterion is employed for short-term and one-time decisions involving high risks.
D)The expected value of a risky prospect represents the average monetary outcome if it were repeated indefinitely.
E)The expected-value standard is appropriate for playing the short-run averages.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Consider a situation where Japanese yen has depreciated.This implies:
A)lower dollar profits to the U.S.firms from revenues earned in Japan.
B)higher dollar profits to the U.S.firms from revenues earned in Japan.
C)lower yen profits to the U.S.firms from revenues earned in the United States.
D)lower dollar profits to the Japanese firms from revenues earned in the United States.
E)same dollar profits to the Japanese firm from revenues earned in Japan.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

While taking risky decisions,the most common pitfalls that the managers face include:
A)seeing too many possibilities.
B)holding pessimistic beliefs.
C)not relying on verbal expressions of probability.
D)relying on verbal expressions of probability.
E)relying on the rules of thumb.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Risk aversion describes a person's tendency to:
A)avoid risk at all cost.
B)be conservative in assessing a certainty equivalent.
C)select the safest option.
D)attach lower marginal utility to higher monetary outcomes.
E)always pay for 100% insurance against risks.

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

An individual is said to risk averse if his/her certainty equivalent for a risky prospect is:
A)always negative.
B)exactly equal to the expected value.
C)equal to the average probability of the outcomes.
D)always zero.
E)less than its expected value.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Given the opportunity,a rational decision-maker should always select the alternative with the:
A)greatest expected return regardless of risk.
B)lowest expected return regardless of risk.
C)greatest expected utility.
D)lowest probability of occurrence.
E)greatest marginal utility.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

An investor estimates the expected return of option A to be $180,000 and its expected utility to be 400.The expected return of option B is $120,000,and its expected utility is 450.The investor should:
A)select option A because it has the higher expected return.
B)select option B because it has the higher expected utility.
C)select option A because 180,000/120,000 > 450/400.
D)be indifferent between option A and option B.
E)re-analyze the values of expected returns.

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Consider the following risky prospect: The expected utility is equal to:
A)$30,000.
B)18.
C)20.
D)24.
E)$34,000.

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

A manager who chooses among options by applying the expected value criterion is:
A)a risk neutral person.
B)a risk averse person.
C)a risk loving person.
D)a risk minimizer.
E)a risk maximizer.

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

A manager who sets U($20,0000)= 20,U($40,000)= 40,U($60,000)= 70 (where "U( )" stands for the utility at the particular outcome)has a utility function that:
A)exhibits increasing marginal utility
B)is convex.
C)is linear.
D)exhibits decreasing marginal utility.
E)is concave.

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

An individual is risk neutral if her utility curve for wealth is:
A)linear.
B)concave.
C)convex.
D)decreasing.
E)vertical.

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Multiple Choice

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Essay

Q 27Q 27

A manufacturer of air-conditioning systems expects to sell 10,000 units next year if the economy recovers from the present recession.If the economy remains at its present state,the firm expects to sell 7,000 units,and if the recession worsens,sales will fall to 3,000 units.A survey of 40 economists reveals that 30 of them are forecasting recovery,5 of them are expecting no change,and the rest expect a worse recession.Estimate the expected sales of air-conditioning systems for next year.

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Essay

Q 28Q 28

Apply the expected-value criterion to choose between these investments.
Investment A has possible outcomes: $100,000 (50% chance),$40,000 (30% chance),and $50,000 (20% chance).Investment B has possible outcomes: $150,000,$60,000,$20,000,and $80,000 with each outcome equally likely.

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Essay

Q 29Q 29

A firm is thinking about introducing a new product.Marketing experts have determined that the product has a 10% chance of high success,a 60% chance of moderate success,and a 30% chance of failure.The gross profit from high success is $2.2 million and from moderate success $1.2 million.The estimated gross loss from failure is $500,000.Finally,the cost of introducing the product is $700,000.Should the firm introduce the product?

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Essay

Q 30Q 30

The following is the distribution of outcomes from two alternative advertising strategies:
Which strategy is the riskier strategy? Explain.

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Essay

Q 31Q 31

Estimate the expected utility of two individuals,A and B,from the investment that has the following possible outcomes:

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Q 33Q 33

Consider a situation where an insurance contract has a negative expected value for the purchaser.Under this insurance policy,the premium paid exceeds the expected payout.Is it rational to buy this insurance? Give explanation with reason.

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Q 34Q 34

If a decision is made on the basis of expected utility,which of the two investments,investment R and investment C,should the decision-maker choose?

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Q 35Q 35

Based on the following utility schedule determine the decision maker's attitude toward risk.

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Q 36Q 36

A manager reveals that she has a utility function U = 100M - 2M2,for 0 ≤ M ≤ 25,where 'U' stands for Utility,'M' stands for Money.Is this person risk averse,risk neutral,or risk loving?

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Essay

Q 37Q 37

An individual has a utility of money function U = 20 + 0.5M and considers two options:
Option 1: Invest $100,000 in a building plot,which will be sold for $150,000 if interest rates decrease or for $80,000 the interest rates do not change.
Option 2: Invest the same $100,000 in bonds,which will be worth $135,000 if interest rates decrease,and $100,000 if the interest rates remain the same.
The consensus among economic forecasters is that interest rates have an 80% chance of decreasing and 20% chance of remaining constant.
Which investment option will this individual select?

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Q 39Q 39

Firm X is currently selling a consumer good and faces two related decisions,one with respect to pricing and the other with respect to marketing.With respect to pricing,it can maintain its "standard" price or it can adopt a lower "discount" price.With respect to marketing,it can keep with its current advertising campaign or it can expand its advertising.The main risk facing the firm concerns the course of the economy in the near-term: whether the economy will continue healthy growth or whether it will experience a recession.The table below shows the firm's possible profit results (in $ millions)depending on its price and advertising actions.Finally,the firm judges that there is an 80% chance of growth and a 20% chance of a recession.
(a)Firm X must make its decision now (before knowing the future course of the economy).Which of the four alternatives maximizes its expected profit?

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Q 40Q 40

Consumer surveys indicate that 40% of newspaper readers read automobile ads and 5% of those who read the ads actually purchase automobiles.On the other hand,50% of magazine readers read automobile ads but only 3% of those who read the ads actually buy a car.Among those who do not read either newspaper or magazine auto ads,1% buys cars anyway.Sixty percent of the population reads newspapers,while 20 percent primarily read magazines.Compute the overall percentage of the population that purchases automobiles in a given year.(To aid your analysis,you might wish to draw a decision tree listing appropriate probabilities for the three aforementioned reading segments. )

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Q 41Q 41

A financial analyst considers three funds.The funds' estimated returns depend on future economic conditions - summarized by outcomes A,B,C,or D.The table lists the probabilities of these outcomes and each fund's expected return for each outcome.
(a)Which fund has the greatest expected monetary return?

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Q 42Q 42

Suppose that Rick is fortunate enough to receive a gift from a family member of $5,000,which he may use as he does see fit.Rick is then offered a chance to receive an additional $2,000 with certainty,or a 50-50 chance of either $5,000 or $0.
(a)Which would Rick accept?

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Q 43Q 43

You are the chief appraiser for a large art dealer in a major American city.You are offered a chance to examine,and buy,a work of art.You have reason to believe that it is a piece from a famous artist of the 15th century that has been lost to the art world for hundreds of years.Such a painting would have an estimated market value of $1 million.However,you face two risks.First,the painting may be a forgery,a chance that you estimate to be 0.4.Second,even if the painting is authentic it may be stolen.Once you buy the painting,you bear all risk.If it is a fake,its value is $0.If it proves to be stolen (a 0.2 risk in your estimation),you must return the painting to its rightful owner and you cannot recover the purchase price.
(a)You have the chance to buy the painting for $500,000.As a risk-neutral decision maker,should you make the purchase?

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Q 44Q 44

A manager's utility of money schedule is (monetary amounts are in $,000s):
Two investment opportunities have the following net present values (again in $000s):
(a)Select the optimal investment based on the expected-value criterion.

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Q 45Q 45

A chemical company is in the process of studying two long-term plans.The first plan involves expansion of their industrial division.The second plan emphasizes expansion in the business of consumer pharmaceuticals.Market research reveals the following (preliminary)results (returns are in $ millions):
The planning committee has the (risk averse)utility function U = 10M - 0.05M2.Discuss the long-term planning decision based on the preliminary predictions and the given utility function:

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Q 46Q 46

(a)You are offered a choice between two lotteries,K and L:
Lottery K: You win $1,000 with complete certainty.
Lottery L: You win: $5,000 with probability .10
$1,000 with probability .75
$0 with probability .15
Compute the expected value of both lotteries,and indicate which you would choose.Explain your choice,using the concept of certainty equivalent.

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Q 47Q 47

Mary runs her own small business,and has a utility function for assets of:
U(A)= 22A - 0.07A2‚ for all 0≤ A ≤ 100,where 'A' denotes total assets in thousands of dollars.
(a)Describe Mary's attitude toward risk.

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