# Quiz 6: Probability

Psychology

Q 1Q 1

According to the classical view of probability theory,the probability of event A equals .____.
A)the number of total observations/the number of events favoring A
B)The number of events favoring A/the total number of possible observations
C)the number of events favoring A
D)1 - the number of events favoring A/the total number of possible events

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

The outcome of a trial according to probability theory is a(n)_____.
A)conditional probability
B)marginal frequency
C)event
D)joint probability

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 3Q 3

In probability theory,when two outcomes cannot occur simultaneously they are ____.
A)conditional probabilities
B)mutually exclusive
C)mutually exhaustive
D)exhaustive

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 4Q 4

In the language of probability theory,the act of flipping a coin is called a(n)_____ and each unique outcome is called a(n)_____.
A)observation;trial
B)trial;event
C)event;observation
D)none of these

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

The probability of an event,A,is formally defined as the number of observations favoring event A divided by the:
A)total number of possible observations
B)total number of possible events
C)proportion of observations
D)proportion of events

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

In a population consisting of 60 males and 40 females,the probability of randomly selecting a male is:
A)6%
B).06
C).60
D)undefined

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

Each unique combination of variables in a contingency table is referred to as a:
A)marginal frequency
B)expected value
C)column
D)cell

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Two outcomes are said to be _____ if it is impossible for both outcomes to occur simultaneously for a given individual.
A)mutually exclusive
B)mutually conditional
C)mutually distributed
D)mutually impossible

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Given a set of outcomes that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive,the sum of the probabilities of the outcomes will always equal:
A)100
B).01
C).10
D)1.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
The marginal frequencies for eye color are
A)26 and 52
B)16,19,43
C)78
D)156

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
The values entered within the table (that is,1,6,19,15,13,24)are called ____.
A)cell frequencies
B)marginal frequencies
C)unit frequencies
D)cell probabilities

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
If a baby was randomly selected from those participating in the study,the likelihood of that baby having dark eyes is ____.
A)1/16
B)35/78
C)16/78
D)1/26 + 15/52

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
If a baby were randomly selected from the study,what is the probability of that baby having light eyes?
A).43
B).19
C).24
D).55

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
What is the probability that a baby has dark eyes given that the baby has the birth defect?
A).04
B).06
C).01
D).61

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
A ____ probability indicates the likelihood that an event will occur given that some other event occurs.
A)joint
B)conditional
C)simple
D)combination

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

A researcher wanted to compare eye color distributions of babies born with a birth defect with babies who did not have the birth defect.26 babies with the defect were matched on gender,race,and age with 52 babies without the defect.The frequency of different eye colors as a function of the presence or absence of the defects was as follows:
Eye Color
Group Dark Medium Light
Defect 1 6 19
No Defect 15 13 24
The probability of the number of observations favoring both events A and B,divided by the total number of observations,is called a ____ probability.
A)conditional
B)binomial
C)joint
D)simple

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

The probability of observing at least one of two events [for example,p(A or B)] is ____.
A)p(A,B)- p(A)
B)p(A,B)- p(B)
C)p(A)p(B)
D)p(A)+ p(B)- p(A,B)

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

If events A and B are independent,then ____.
A)p(A|B)= p(A)
B)p(B|A)= p(A|B)
C)p(A)= (B)
D)none of these

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

A _____ indicates the likelihood that an event will occur given that some other event occurs.
A)probability distribution
B)conditional probability
C)marginal probability
D)mutually exclusive probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

The statement "Given that a person is satisfied with his job,what is the probability that he is satisfied with his marriage?" is an example of a(n):
A)hypothesis
B)conditional probability
C)independent event
D)a and c

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

Even though two events are related (nonindependent),this does not necessarily mean that:
A)one is dependent on the other
B)one causes the other
C)the joint probability is 0
D)a and c

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

The likelihood of observing each of two events is referred to as a:
A)hypothesis
B)binomial probability
C)conditional probability
D)joint probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

The probability that an individual is satisfied with his marriage (event A)and satisfied with his job (event B)is an example of
A _____.
A)joint probability
B)conditional probability
C)marginal probability
D)mutually exclusive probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

In general notation,the probability of observing at least one of event A and event B is:
A).50
B)p(A or B)= p(A)+ p(B)
C)p(A or B)= p(A)+ p(B)+ p(A,B)
D)p(A or B)= p(A)+ p(B)- p(A,B)

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

Let event A be "satisfied with one's marriage" and event B be "satisfied with one's job.The probability that someone is satisfied with both his marriage and his job is equal to:
A)p(A|B)
B)p(A,B)
C)p(B)p(A|B)
D)b and c

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Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Sampling without replacement causes the probability of randomly selecting additional cases from that population to____.
A)stay the same
B)increase
C)decrease

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

The process of randomly selecting a case,taking some measurement of interest,and then returning the case to the population is called:
A)sampling without replacement
B)sampling with replacement
C)sampling without error
D)sampling with error

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

In the case of sampling _____,the outcome of the first random selection in no way affects the outcome of the second random selection.
A)without replacement
B)with replacement
C)with correction for continuity
D)without error

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

A(n)_____ of a set of objects or events is an ordered sequence.
A)enumeration
B)combination
C)permutation
D)manipulation

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

A combination of a set of objects or events is a sequence in which the internal ordering of elements is:
A)systematic
B)predetermined
C)important
D)irrelevant

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

A permutation of a set of objects or events ____.
A)is an ordered sequence
B)is a sequence in which order doesn't matter
C)is a random selection of events
D)has fewer events than a combination

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Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

A counting rule that involves a set of objects of events in an ordered sequence is called a ____.
A)combination
B)conditional rule
C)binomial
D)permutation

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

A set of objects that are arranged such that the internal order is irrelevant is called a ____.
A)combination
B)binomial root
C)permutation
D)simple event

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

There are 6 students running for president at state college.The top 2 candidates are always declared winners and a run-off election is held to determine which of the two is the president.How many ways could 2 students be selected from among the first 6?
A)30
B)6!/2!
C)15
D)6

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

In a horse race,people are allowed to bet on which horses will finish a race in positions 1,2,or 3.If the field contained 7 horses,how many ways can 3 horses finish in the three positions?
A)7!
B)210
C)35
D)3

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

Suppose you wanted a rat to learn a maze which included 3 choice points and each choice included 3 different directions.Assume only 1 choice can be correct at a time.What is the probability of a rat finding the goal without any errors?
A)3!
B)27
C)1/9
D).333

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

In a binomial probability calculation,there are ____ possible outcomes.
A)many
B)N!
C)two
D)N!/r!

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

Using the binomial expression to compute a probability requires ____.
A)a sequence of n independent trials
B)more than 2 outcomes
C)that the probability of success = .5
D)that the probability of failure = 0

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Suppose you are asked to toss 10 dimes and observe the number of heads.What is the likelihood of observing exactly 0 heads?
A).001
B).50
C)0
D)1.0

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

A therapist claims that a particular technique has been successful in the treatment of eating disorders.You find out that only 7 out of 10 clients were actually helped.What is the probability of observing 7 successes if the probability of success = .5?
A).7
B).5
C).117
D).77

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

If the probability of an experimental outcome that we observed was calculated to be less than .05 assuming the null hypothesis to be true,then we would ____.
A)accept the null hypothesis
B)reject the null hypothesis
C)fail to reject the null hypothesis
D)change the alpha level

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Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

In factorial notation,the expression 6! equals:
A)6 factorial
B)(6)(5)(4)(3)(2)(1)= 720
C)a and b
D)neither a nor b

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Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Assuming the null hypothesis is true,we can specify an _____ of an investigation.
A)expected result
B)alternative result
C)improbable result
D)all of these

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

If our observations are so discrepant from the expected result that the difference cannot be attributed to chance,we will _____ the null hypothesis.
A)accept
B)reject
C)revise
D)restate

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

If the observed result of a study is similar enough to the outcome stated in the null hypothesis such that it can reasonably be attributed to chance,we will _____ the null hypothesis.
A)accept
B)reject
C)fail to reject
D)revise

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

When the alpha level is .05,a result is defined as non-chance if the probability of obtaining that result,assuming the null hypothesis is true,is:
A)greater than .05
B)equal to .05
C)less than .05
D)none of these

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Determining what constitutes chance versus non-chance results under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true is done with reference to a probability value known as a(n):
A)conditional probability
B)beta level
C)binomial probability
D)alpha level

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The binomial and normal distributions are closely related,with the correspondence between them depending on the values of:
A)n and p
B)a and b
C)alpha and beta
D)the mean and standard deviation

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

The correspondence between the binomial and normal distributions:
A)improves as p becomes closer to .50
B)improves as p becomes closer to .05
C)improves as n increases
D)a and c

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Multiple Choice

Q 50Q 50

For small n,the correction for _____ yields even better correspondence between the binomial and normal distributions.
A)attenuation
B)continuity
C)small sample sizes
D)error

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Multiple Choice

Q 51Q 51

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
Which of the following is a marginal frequency in the above table?
A)63
B)128
C)245
D)500

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Multiple Choice

Q 52Q 52

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
What is the probability that an individual has changed jobs?
A).23
B).49
C).51
D).64

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Multiple Choice

Q 53Q 53

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
What is the probability that an individual has graduated from college?
A).36
B).49
C).51
D).64

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
What is the probability that an individual has not changed jobs,given that they have graduated from high school only?
A).13
B).25
C).35
D).65

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
What is the probability that an individual has changed jobs,given that they have graduated from high school only?
A).23
B).35
C).48
D).65

Free

Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.
What is the probability that an individual has changed jobs and they have graduated from college?
A).20
B).26
C).40
D).52

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Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

A sample of 500 people aged 30 - 40 years old were interviewed to study the relationship between whether a person graduated from college or only high school and whether s/he changed jobs in the last 5 years.The results are found in the contingency table below.
Answers below have been rounded to two decimal places.What is the probability that an individual has changed jobs or they have graduated from college?
A).49
B).64
C).87
D)1.13

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Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

If the probability of event A is .40 and the probability of event B is .35,what is the probability that event A or B will occur,if A and B are independent?
A).14
B).61
C).75
D)cannot be determined

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Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

If p (A | B)= 0,then it follows that A and B must be
A)mutually exclusive
B)independent
C)factorial
D)both a and b

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

A biopsychologist is interested in how quickly rats learn a complicated maze.He puts 5 rats,labeled A,B,C,D,and E,in a box.He wants to run two of the rats through a maze,one rat at a time.How many subsets of 2 rats could he choose to run through the maze if order does matter?
A)6
B)10
C)20
D)120

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

A biopsychologist is interested in how quickly rats learn a complicated maze.He puts 5 rats,labeled A,B,C,D,and E,in a box.He wants to run two of the rats through a maze,one rat at a time.How many subsets of 2 rats could he choose to run through the maze if order does NOT matter?
A)10
B)15
C)20
D)40

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Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

A biopsychologist is interested in how quickly rats learn a complicated maze.He puts 5 rats,labeled A,B,C,D,and E,in a box.He wants to run two of the rats through a maze,one rat at a time.What is the probability that the biopsychologist will run rat B through the maze first and then run rat E through the maze second?
A).0083
B).05
C).10
D).40

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Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

The probability of drawing a red card from a deck of normal playing cards is .5 (half red,half black).A magician draws 12 cards from the deck.What is the probability that the magician draws 10 red cards?
A).0002
B).004
C).016
D).064

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

The probability of drawing a red card from a deck of normal playing cards is .5 (half red,half black).A magician draws 12 cards from the deck.What is the probability that the magician draws 8 red cards?
A).0002
B).042
C).121
D).696

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Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

A new drug developed to fight depression has a .20 probability of causing dizziness.A person takes the drug 100 times.
What is the mean and standard deviation of the binomial distribution of this data?
A)mean = 20,standard deviation = 4
B)mean = 20,standard deviation = 16
C)mean = 80,standard deviation = 4
D)mean = 80,standard deviation = 16

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Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

A new drug developed to fight depression has a .20 probability of causing dizziness.A person takes the drug 100 times.
What is the probability of the person getting dizzy 10 times or fewer?
A).0062
B).0124
C).2643
D).5286

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Multiple Choice

Q 67Q 67

If the observations are so different from the expected result of a study that the difference cannot be due to chance,then you should reject the _____.
A)alpha level
B)conditional probability
C)alternative hypothesis
D)null hypothesis

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Multiple Choice

Q 68Q 68

Probability theory is important to understand because
A)understanding basic probability theory helps in understanding many statistical tests.
B)probability is the foundation of inferential statistics used in psychology.
C)probability is the foundation of many descriptive statistical techniques used in psychology.
D)all of these

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Multiple Choice

Q 69Q 69

According to classical probability theory,the act of selecting a card at random from a deck is called a(n)
A)trial
B)event
C)conditional probability
D)joint probability

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Multiple Choice

Q 70Q 70

Which of the following is NOT one of the three conceptualizations of probability discussed in the text?
A)classical probability theory
B)standard scores derived from probabilities
C)estimation of probabilities from data
D)events occurring in the long run

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Multiple Choice

Q 71Q 71

What type of data table is useful for calculating probabilities?
A)frequency distribution
B)means table
C)contingency table
D)marginal means table

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Multiple Choice

Q 72Q 72

Assume a researcher has grouped people into categories by age,as follows: 20-29,30-39,40-49,50-59.A person can only be placed into one of these categories,thus these categories are said to be
A)exhaustive
B)permutations
C)joint probabilities
D)mutually exclusive

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Multiple Choice

Q 73Q 73

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
Which of the following is an expression of the probability of a simple event?
A)The probability that a user is satisfied given use of either system 9 or 10.
B)The probability that a user is not satisfied with system 9.
C)The probability that a user is not satisfied with either system 9 or 10.
D)The probability that people use system 9,but not system 10.

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Multiple Choice

Q 74Q 74

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
Given that it is impossible for a user to be satisfied and not satisfied with system 10 at the same time,these two events are called ___________________________.
A)simple events
B)conditional probabilities
C)complex probabilities
D)mutually exclusive events

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Multiple Choice

Q 75Q 75

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
What is the probability that a person uses system 9?
A).813
B).187
C).740
D).260

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Multiple Choice

Q 76Q 76

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
What is the probability that a person uses system 10?
A).813
B).187
C).740
D).260

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Multiple Choice

Q 77Q 77

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
What is the probability that a user is satisfied with either system 9 or system 10?
A).813
B).187
C).740
D).260

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Multiple Choice

Q 78Q 78

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
What is the probability that a person is satisfied given that they use system 10?
A).295
B).893
C).705
D).107

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Multiple Choice

Q 79Q 79

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
What is the probability that a person is satisfied given that they use system 9?
A).295
B).893
C).705
D).107

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Multiple Choice

Q 80Q 80

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
Using sampling with replacement,what is the probability of randomly selecting someone who is satisfied with system 10,and then randomly selecting someone who is satisfied with system 9?
A).096
B).573
C).167
D).799

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Multiple Choice

Q 81Q 81

A marketing researcher at a computer company did a study examining user satisfaction with two operating systems.A total of 300 users were surveyed on the type of operating system used and their satisfaction with it.Use the following data set to answer questions 6-14:
Using sampling without replacement,what is the probability of randomly selecting someone who is not satisfied with system 9,and then randomly selecting someone who is not satisfied with system 10?
A).241
B).020
C).004
D).005

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Multiple Choice

Q 82Q 82

Imagine you have five questionnaires you want to hand out to a group of people.What is the counting rule used to determine how many sets of five you have when ordering of the questionnaires does not matter?
A)permutations
B)ordered sequencing
C)combinations
D)counting

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Multiple Choice

Q 83Q 83

If you have 5 questionnaires you want to hand out to a group of people,how many combinations of these 5 questionnaires,taking 3 at a time,are there?
A)5
B)20
C)9
D)10

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Multiple Choice

Q 84Q 84

In the use of the binomial expression for hypothesis testing,the initial assumption is that the frequency of the event will be equal to _____.
A)the likelihood that the event will occur by chance minus one.
B)the likelihood that the event will occur by chance
C)the likelihood that the event will occur by chance plus one factorial.
D)the binomial expression.

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Multiple Choice

Q 85Q 85

Assume that you wanted to test the effectiveness of a certain therapy technique in reducing depression among clients.According to statistical hypothesis testing the hypothesis that the technique's effectiveness will be equal to chance is called the _____.
A)null hypothesis
B)alternative hypothesis
C)binomial hypothesis
D)alpha hypothesis

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Multiple Choice

Q 86Q 86

An experiment is conducted with 200 trials and the probability of a success in each trial is .250.What is the mean of the binomial distribution?
A)800.00
B)50.00
C)100.00
D)175.00

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Multiple Choice

Q 87Q 87

You have conducted a study using a therapy technique to reduce depression.Out of 10 clients,you found a reduction for 6 of them.Can we conclude that the therapy technique works?
A)This cannot be determined until a z-score is calculated and compared with an alpha level criterion.
B)Yes,because 6 is more than chance.
C)The technique will only work if the calculated mean is at least 6 and the standard deviation is at least 5.
D)This cannot be determined until the correction for continuity is applied to the data.

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Multiple Choice

Q 88Q 88

The concept of probability forms the foundation of inferential statistics as well as several descriptive statistical methods.

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True False

Q 89Q 89

In the language of probability theory,the act of flipping a coin is called an event and each unique outcome is called a trial.

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True False

Q 90Q 90

If we randomly select an individual from a population consisting of 60 males and 40 females,the probability of selecting a male is 60/100 = .60.

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True False

Q 91Q 91

Each unique combination of variables in a contingency table is referred to as a contingent frequency.

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True False

Q 92Q 92

The sum of the frequencies in the corresponding row or column of a contingency table are referred to as marginal frequencies.

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True False

Q 93Q 93

Two outcomes are said to be mutually exclusive when it is possible for both outcomes to occur for a given individual.

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True False

Q 94Q 94

Given a set of outcomes that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive,the sum of the probabilities of the outcomes will always equal 1.00.

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True False

Q 95Q 95

A set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive outcomes and their associated probabilities is known as a probability distribution.

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True False

Q 96Q 96

A conditional probability indicates the likelihood that an event will occur given that some other event occurs.

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True False

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 100Q 100

A joint probability can be represented as p(A,B),where p(A,B)stands for the probability of both event A and event B occurring.

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True False

Q 101Q 101

In general,the probability of observing at least one of event A and event B is p(A or B)= p(A)+ p(B)- p(A,B).

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True False

Q 102Q 102

There are no mathematical relationships among probabilities of simple events,conditional probabilities,and joint probabilities.

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Q 103Q 103

Sampling with replacement involves the random selection of a given case and the replacement of that case with a different case from the same population.

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True False

Q 104Q 104

In the context of probability theory,there is no difference between sampling with replacement and sampling without replacement.

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Q 105Q 105

Sampling without replacement involves selecting a case at random and then,without replacing this case,selecting another case at random.

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True False

Q 106Q 106

The method of sampling--with versus without replacement--never has an effect on the probability of observing some event.

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True False

Q 107Q 107

If the size of the sample is small relative to the size of the population,sampling with versus without replacement will not affect probabilities appreciably.

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Q 108Q 108

A permutation of a set of objects or events is a sequence in which the internal ordering of elements is irrelevant.

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True False

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Q 113Q 113

If our observations are so discrepant from the expected result that the difference cannot be attributed to chance,we will reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

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True False

Q 114Q 114

If the observed result of an investigation is similar enough to the outcome stated in the null hypothesis such that it can reasonably be attributed to chance,we will reject the null hypothesis.

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True False

Q 115Q 115

Determining what constitutes chance versus non-chance findings under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true is made with reference to a probability value known as the alpha level.

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True False

Q 116Q 116

When the alpha level is .05,a result is defined as non-chance if the probability of obtaining that result,assuming the null hypothesis is true,is greater than .05.

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True False

Q 117Q 117

The correspondence between the binomial and normal distributions improves as n increases and as p becomes closer to .50.

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True False

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True False

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True False

Q 120Q 120

Adding probabilities refers to focusing on the likelihood that at least one of two events will occur and involves adding p(A)+ p(B),as long as the two events are mutually exclusive.

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True False

Q 121Q 121

If the size of a sample is approximately 5% or less of the population,sampling with versus without replacement will have a large affect on probabilities calculated.

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True False

Q 122Q 122

If one was testing the effectiveness of a therapy technique,the alternative hypothesis states that there is NO change due to the technique.

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True False

Q 123Q 123

In counting rules,permutations take into account the order of objects,while combinations do not.

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Q 124Q 124

The equation,p(A)= (number of observations favoring event A)/ (total number of observations)refers to the probability of a ____________________ event.

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Q 125Q 125

The probability of the likelihood of an event given some other event refers to a ____________________ probability.

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Q 126Q 126

The likelihood of each of two events occurring refers to a ____________________ probability.

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Q 127Q 127

When selecting cases,putting each selected case back into the population before selecting another one refers to ____________________.

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Q 128Q 128

If a researcher does the following calculation, (4)(3)(2)(1)= 24,this researcher is calculating the ____________________ of the number 4.

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Q 129Q 129

The ____________________ is the statistical hypothesis that states that any differences observed are merely due to chance.

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Q 131Q 131

In hypothesis testing,if observations are unlikely to be due to chance,we ____________________the null hypothesis.

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Q 132Q 132

In hypothesis testing,if observations are very similar to what would be expected from chance alone,we ____________________the null hypothesis.

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Q 133Q 133

The correspondence between the binomial and ____________________ distributions improves as n increases.

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Q 134Q 134

The correspondence between the ____________________ and normal distributions improves as p gets closer to .500.

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Q 142Q 142

Using the example of an experiment on extrasensory perception (ESP)where an individual's claim that she possesses psychic powers is tested by asking her to predict the outcome of each of 10 tosses of a coin,distinguish between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.

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Q 145Q 145

Researchers in health and advertising are interested in looking at how alternative forms of alcohol advertising are related to actual alcohol use among youth.Imagine you have conducted a study looking at the relationship between owning an item that advertises alcohol (such as a hat,t-shirt or cup with an alcohol logo on it)and having tried alcohol among a group of 12-year-olds.You observe 500 cases total.Of those 500 cases,100 have tried alcohol.For the 100 cases who have tried alcohol,32 own an item that advertises alcohol.You wish to address the following research question: Is the observation that 32 out of 100 youths who have tried alcohol own an advertising item sufficient evidence to say that these two factors are related? Calculate the mean of the binomial distribution.Assume that p = .25.

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Q 146Q 146

Researchers in health and advertising are interested in looking at how alternative forms of alcohol advertising are related to actual alcohol use among youth.Imagine you have conducted a study looking at the relationship between owning an item that advertises alcohol (such as a hat,t-shirt or cup with an alcohol logo on it)and having tried alcohol among a group of 12-year-olds.You observe 500 cases total.Of those 500 cases,100 have tried alcohol.For the 100 cases who have tried alcohol,32 own an item that advertises alcohol.You wish to address the following research question: Is the observation that 32 out of 100 youths who have tried alcohol own an advertising item sufficient evidence to say that these two factors are related? Calculate the standard deviation of the binomial distribution.Assume that q = 1p.

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Q 147Q 147

Researchers in health and advertising are interested in looking at how alternative forms of alcohol advertising are related to actual alcohol use among youth.Imagine you have conducted a study looking at the relationship between owning an item that advertises alcohol (such as a hat,t-shirt or cup with an alcohol logo on it)and having tried alcohol among a group of 12-year-olds.You observe 500 cases total.Of those 500 cases,100 have tried alcohol.For the 100 cases who have tried alcohol,32 own an item that advertises alcohol.You wish to address the following research question: Is the observation that 32 out of 100 youths who have tried alcohol own an advertising item sufficient evidence to say that these two factors are related? Convert the value of 68 to a z score.

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Q 148Q 148

Researchers in health and advertising are interested in looking at how alternative forms of alcohol advertising are related to actual alcohol use among youth.Imagine you have conducted a study looking at the relationship between owning an item that advertises alcohol (such as a hat,t-shirt or cup with an alcohol logo on it)and having tried alcohol among a group of 12-year-olds.You observe 500 cases total.Of those 500 cases,100 have tried alcohol.For the 100 cases who have tried alcohol,32 own an item that advertises alcohol.You wish to address the following research question: Is the observation that 32 out of 100 youths who have tried alcohol own an advertising item sufficient evidence to say that these two factors are related? What is the probability of obtaining a z score of 2.80?

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Q 149Q 149

Researchers in health and advertising are interested in looking at how alternative forms of alcohol advertising are related to actual alcohol use among youth.Imagine you have conducted a study looking at the relationship between owning an item that advertises alcohol (such as a hat,t-shirt or cup with an alcohol logo on it)and having tried alcohol among a group of 12-year-olds.You observe 500 cases total.Of those 500 cases,100 have tried alcohol.For the 100 cases who have tried alcohol,32 own an item that advertises alcohol.You wish to address the following research question: Is the observation that 32 out of 100 youths who have tried alcohol own an advertising item sufficient evidence to say that these two factors are related? Using an alpha level of .05 as the criterion,what should we conclude about the likelihood that trying alcohol and owning an alcohol advertising item are related?

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