Quiz 11: May: Existential Psychology
A.The basic assumption of existentialism is that existence precedes essence; that is,existence takes precedence over essence.Existence is associated with growth and change; essence signifies stagnation and a final product. B.Second,existentialism assumes the unity of subject and object.A person is neither completely subjective nor completely objective.A human relationship is an I-thou relationship rather than an I-you or me-you relationship.The I-thou relationship means that both people are both subject and object. C.Third,people search for meaning to their lives.They ask such questions as "Who am I"? and "What does life mean"? D.A fourth assumption of existentialism is that each person is ultimately responsible for who he or she is.With this responsibility comes the freedom to choose and to make of ourselves whatever we can. E.Existentialism is basically antitheoretical.Theories tend to dehumanize people and render them as objects.Authentic experience takes precedence over artificial and theoretical explanations.
A.The basic unity of person and environment is expressed by the term Dasein,meaning "to exist there" or,as it is usually expressed,"being-in-the-world".Modern civilization has led to people feeling isolated and alienated from both self and the world.As a result,people feel (1) separation from nature; (2) a lack of meaningful interpersonal relations; and (3) alienation from their own authentic self.Thus,three modes of the world characterize people in their being-in-the-world: Umwelt,Mitwelt,and Eigenwelt. B.Umwelt refers to the world around us; it is the world of objects and things,of nature and natural law.We cannot escape Umwelt and must learn to live in the world around us. C.Mitwelt refers to our world shared with another person.To become authentic,we must live in Mitwelt; that is,we must relate to other people as people and not as things.To live in Mitwelt means to accept and respect all people,not just those who are close to us. D.Eigenwelt refers to our relationship with our self.It means to be aware of our self as a human being and to accept who we are.Psychologically healthy people live in all three worlds simultaneously. E.Nonbeing or nothingness refers to the dread of losing our existence.Death is but one way of losing one's existence.Nonbeing is also seen in addiction to drugs,promiscuous sexual activity,and other compulsive behaviors.
A.May identified four kinds of love in Western tradition: (1) sex, (2) eros, (3) philia,and (4) agape. B.Sex is a biological function that can be satisfied through release of sexual tension.May believed that sex has become cheapened in modern Western societies and is the source of much anxiety. C.Eros should not be confused with sex.Whereas sex is a physiological need that seeks gratification through the release of tension,eros is a psychological desire that seeks procreation or creation through an enduring union with a loved one. D.Philia provides a foundation for eros.It is an intimate nonsexual friendship between two people.Philia takes time to grow.The slowly evolving love between siblings or lifelong friends is an example of philia. E.Agape is the unconditional esteem or concern for another person.It is an altruistic love that demands nothing in return.It is a kind of spiritual love,as the love of God for humanity.