# Quiz 8: Cost Curves

Business

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All Questions

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Multiple Choice

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True False

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Essay

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Short Answer

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Q 1

A long-run total cost curve
A) always has a constant slope.
B) is always upward sloping.
C) never has a constant slope.
D) is always downward sloping.

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 2

The cost of producing a good in a single-product firm is
A) additional cost
B) stand-alone cost
C) variable cost
D) average cost

Free

Multiple Choice

B

Q 3

An indivisible input is
A) an input that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
B) an important input that the firm cannot identify.
C) an input that can only be obtained in a certain minimum size.
D) an input the firm cannot stop using.

Free

Multiple Choice

C

Q 4

A firm's long-run average cost curve is comprised of
A) the minimum points of each of the firm's short-run average cost curves.
B) the lower envelope of the firm's short-run average cost curves.
C) the minimum points of each of the firm's short-run marginal cost curves.
D) the series of points where the short-run marginal cost curves intersect the short-run average cost curves.

Multiple Choice

Q 5

When average cost is "u-shaped" (neither always rising or always falling),the marginal cost curve will
A) cross through (bisect) the average cost curve at its maximum.
B) not intersect with the average cost curve at all.
C) be a fixed distance above the average cost curve.
D) cross through (bisect) the average cost curve at its minimum.

Multiple Choice

Q 6

The long-run total cost curve shows
A) the various combinations of capital and labor that will produce different levels of output at the same cost.
B) the various combinations of capital and labor that will produce the same level of output.
C) the minimum total cost to produce any level of output, holding input prices fixed, and choosing all inputs to minimize cost.
D) for a fixed level of capital, the minimum cost to produce a given level of output.

Multiple Choice

Q 7

A long-run total cost curve
A) must be equal to zero when the level of output is zero.
B) may be greater than or equal to zero when the level of output is zero.
C) must be decreasing when the level of output is zero.
D) will be equal to fixed cost, which is greater than zero, when the level of output is zero.

Multiple Choice

Q 8

Suppose for a particular production function,the cost-minimizing level of labor is and the cost-minimizing level of capital is .If and ,the long-run total cost curve is
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 9

Suppose for a particular production function,the cost-minimizing levels of labor and capital are If and ,what is the equation for long-run total cost?
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 10

Which of the following is not an accurate specification of a firm's long-run total cost curve? FC stands for fixed cost,VC stands for variable cost,and AC stands for average cost,below.
A) , where FC = 0
B) TC=FC + VC, where FC > 0
C) , where L and K are chosen to minimize cost, and w and r are input prices.
D) TC = AC x Q

Multiple Choice

Q 11

Suppose that a firm's production function can be specified as .Which of the following accurately describes this firm's long run total cost function?
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 12

Assume that capital is measured along the vertical axis,and labor is measured along the horizontal axis.The firm has an initial isocost line called .Now suppose that the price of labor doubles,and the price of capital falls by one-half.Which statement accurately describes the movement of the isocost line from to ?
A) The slope of the isocost line becomes flatter.
B) The slope of the isocost line becomes steeper.
C) The slope of the isocost line is unchanged.
D) We cannot determine whether the slope becomes flatter or steeper.

Multiple Choice

Q 13

The long-run total cost curve tends to
A) rotate upward when input prices fall.
B) rotate upward when input prices rise.
C) shift vertically upward by a fixed amount.
D) shift vertically downward by a fixed amount.

Multiple Choice

Q 14

Assume that capital is measured along the vertical axis,and labor is measured along the horizontal axis.The firm has an initial isocost line called .Now suppose that the price of labor trebles and the price of capital also trebles.Which statement accurately describes the movement of the isocost line from to ?
A) The slope of the isocost line becomes flatter.
B) The slope of the isocost line becomes steeper.
C) The slope of the isocost line is unchanged.
D) We cannot determine whether the slope becomes flatter or steeper.

Multiple Choice

Q 15

When the price of all inputs increase by the same percentage,
A) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by a higher percentage if the firm's production technology exhibits decreasing returns to scale.
B) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by the same percentage.
C) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by a higher percentage if the firm's production technology exhibits increasing returns to scale.
D) the firm's total cost curve will remain unchanged since the cost-minimizing combination of inputs is unchanged.

Multiple Choice

Q 16

The output elasticity of total cost is defined as
A) the percentage change in output per one percent change in total cost.
B) the percentage change in total cost per one percent change in output.
C) output divided by total cost.
D) total cost divided by output.

Multiple Choice

Q 17

An increase in the price of one input
A) will always rotate the long-run total cost curve upward.
B) may rotate the long-run total cost curve upward or may leave the long-run total cost unchanged.
C) could actually rotate the long-run total cost downward.
D) will have no effect on the long-run total cost curve as long as long as the firm is using positive amounts of both inputs.

Multiple Choice

Q 18

Cost driver is
A) a mathematical relationship that shows how total costs vary with the factors that influence total costs
B) a factor that influences or "drives" total or average costs
C) a factor that influences quality of output and prices of inputs
D) a cost level.

Multiple Choice

Q 19

When the prices of all inputs increase by a proportionate amount,
A) the firm's total cost curve will remain unchanged since the cost-minimizing combination of inputs is unchanged.
B) the firm's total cost curve may rotate upward or may leave the long-run total cost curve unchanged.
C) will always rotate the long-run total cost curve upward.
D) could actually rotate the long-run total cost downward if the firm chooses to produce a lower level of output.

Multiple Choice

Q 20

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.Marginal cost can be measured as the slope of the total cost curve.
II)Average total cost can be measured as the slope of the ray from the origin to the total cost curve.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

Multiple Choice

Q 21

The relationship between the long-run total cost curve and the marginal and average cost curves is best described by which of the following statements?
A) The slope of the total cost curve from the origin to a point on the total cost curve is how you derive the marginal cost curve while the average cost is given by TC/Q.
B) Marginal cost is MC/Q while average cost is TC/Q.
C) Marginal cost is derived by dividing total cost by a constant as is average cost.
D) The slope of the total cost curve at each point is how you derive the marginal cost curve while the slope from the origin to a point on the total cost curve is how you derive the average cost curve.

Multiple Choice

Q 22

Suppose that a firm's long-run total cost curve can be expressed as .This firm's long-run average total cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) .
D) .

Multiple Choice

Q 23

For a firm,let total cost be TC(Q) = 160+10Q

^{2}and marginal cost be MC(Q) = 20Q.What is the minimum efficient scale for this firm? A) 0 B) 2 C) 4 D) indeterminate Multiple Choice

Q 24

Suppose that a firm's total costs of production are 0 at an output of zero,10 at an output of 1,20 at an output of 2 units,30 at an output of three units,35 at an output of four units and 37 at an output of five units.At which number of units are marginal and average costs equal?
A) The first unit.
B) The fifth unit.
C) The third unit.
D) At the first, second and third units.

Multiple Choice

Q 25

For a firm,let total cost be TC(Q) = 10Q

^{2}and marginal cost be MC(Q) = 20Q.Which of the following is an expression for the output elasticity of total cost? A) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 10Q. B) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 2Q. C) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 2. D) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 20Q. Multiple Choice

Q 26

Suppose that a firm's total costs of production are 0 at an output of zero,10 at an output of 1,20 at an output of 2 units,30 at an output of three units,35 at an output of four units and 37 at an output of five units.At which number of units is average cost minimized?
A) The first unit.
B) The fifth unit.
C) The third unit.
D) At the first, second and third units.

Multiple Choice

Q 27

Suppose that a firm's long-run total cost curve can be expressed as .This firm's long-run marginal cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) .
D) .

Multiple Choice

Q 28

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.When marginal cost is rising,average total cost is rising.
II)When marginal cost is below average total cost,average total cost is falling.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

Multiple Choice

Q 29

If average cost is constant for all levels of output,
A) the marginal cost curve will intersect the average cost at a single point, the minimum of average cost.
B) marginal cost will be equal to average cost for all levels of output.
C) marginal cost will be above average cost when average cost is increasing and marginal cost will be below average cost when average cost is decreasing.
D) marginal cost will have a region of diminishing marginal cost.

Multiple Choice

Q 30

Marginal cost
A) is equal to average cost at the minimum point of the marginal cost curve.
B) is equal to average cost at the maximum point of the average cost curve.
C) is decreasing whenever average cost is decreasing.
D) is equal to average cost at the minimum point of the average cost curve.

Multiple Choice

Q 31

When the production function is given by Q = L,which of the following statements is true?
A) TC = wQ

^{2}, L = Q^{2}and AC = w B) TC = w - Q, L = Q and AC = w C) TC = wQ, L = Q and AC = w D) TC = wQ, L = Q and AC = L Multiple Choice

Q 32

Suppose a firm's total cost curve is given by the equation .The firm's marginal cost is .At what level of does the firm's average cost curve reach a minimum?
A) 100
B) 2
C) 10
D) 20

Multiple Choice

Q 33

Suppose a firm produces 50,000 units of output,and determines that its marginal cost is $0.72 and its average total cost is $0.72.At this quantity of output,what is the slope of this firm's long run average total cost curve?
A) Upward-sloping.
B) Downward-sloping.
C) Horizontal.
D) Vertical.

Multiple Choice

Q 34

Marginal cost is
A) the cost per unit of output.
B) the increase in total cost from producing an additional unit of output.
C) the same thing as total variable cost.
D) is only relevant in the long-run.

Multiple Choice

Q 35

A firm notices that when it increases output beyond an initial level ,average total cost decreases.For this firm,the region of output beyond is characterized by
A) economies of scale.
B) diseconomies of scale.
C) constant economies of scale.
D) the minimum efficient scale.

Multiple Choice

Q 36

Which of the following factors may explain diseconomies of scale?
A) Increasing returns to scale of inputs.
B) Specialization of labor.
C) Indivisible inputs.
D) Managerial diseconomies.

Multiple Choice

Q 37

The output elasticity of total cost is equal to
A) the slope of the isocost line.
B) the ratio of marginal cost to average cost.
C) the ratio of average cost to marginal cost.
D) the ratio of average cost to total cost.

Multiple Choice

Q 38

When the output elasticity of total cost is less than one,
A) Marginal cost is less than average cost and average cost decreases as Q increases.
B) Marginal cost is less than average cost and average cost increases as Q increases.
C) Marginal cost is greater than average cost and average cost decreases as Q increases.
D) Marginal cost is greater than average cost and average cost increases as Q increases.

Multiple Choice

Q 39

Minimum efficient scale is
A) the lowest level of efficiency the firm can achieve.
B) the highest level of output the firm can achieve.
C) the lowest level of long-run average cost.
D) the smallest quantity at which the long-run average cost achieves a minimum.

Multiple Choice

Q 40

Economies of scale exist when firms have
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) constant returns to scale.
C) decreasing returns to scale.
D) constant marginal cost.

Multiple Choice

Q 41

Suppose a firm's production function can be specified as Q = 10KL.This firm's cost function exhibits
A) economies of scale
B) diseconomies of scale
C) neither diseconomies nor economies of scale.
D) economies of scale for output levels less than some level, Q

_{1}= 1/4, and diseconomies of scale thereafter. Multiple Choice

Q 42

Suppose a firm's total cost curve can be written TC(Q) = Q - .5Q

^{2}+ Q^{3},with marginal cost MC(Q) = 1 - Q + 3Q^{2}.This cost function exhibits: A) economies of scale B) diseconomies of scale C) neither diseconomies nor economies of scale. D) economies of scale for output levels less than some level, Q_{1}= 1/4, and diseconomies of scale thereafter. Multiple Choice

Q 43

Suppose the output elasticity of total cost is 1.5.This implies the average cost curve exhibits
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) economies of scale.
C) neither economies nor diseconomies of scale.
D) diseconomies of scale.

Multiple Choice

Q 44

If the output elasticity of total cost is less than one,then the long-run average cost curve experiences
A) economies of scale.
B) diseconomies of scale.
C) decreasing returns to scale.
D) the minimum efficient scale.

Multiple Choice

Q 45

Diseconomies of scale exist when
A) the firm's total cost falls as the level of output increases.
B) the firm's total cost increases as the level of output increases.
C) the firm's average cost decreases as the level of output decreases.
D) the firm's average cost decreases as the level of output increases.

Multiple Choice

Q 46

Which of the following factors would not explain economies of scale?
A) Increasing returns to scale of inputs.
B) Specialization of labor.
C) Indivisible inputs.
D) Managerial diseconomies

Multiple Choice

Q 47

Suppose a firm's production technology exhibits constant returns to scale.The firm's long-run average cost curve will
A) be U-shaped
B) exhibit economies of scale.
C) exhibit diseconomies of scale.
D) be a horizontal straight line.

Multiple Choice

Q 48

The short-run total cost curve is the sum of two components
A) Short-run and long-run
B) Total variable cost curve and total fixed cost curve
C) Average cost curve and marginal cost curve
D) Economies of scale and economies of scope

Multiple Choice

Q 49

The short-run total cost curve
A) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output.
B) shows the outputs that correspond to minimized total cost when at least one input is fixed.
C) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output when at least one input is fixed.
D) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output when all inputs are fixed.

Multiple Choice

Q 50

Suppose in the short-run.The firm's short-run fixed cost curve is
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 51

Suppose in the short-run.The firm's short-run total cost curve is
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 52

Suppose a firm's short run total cost curve can be expressed as S .This firm's short-run average total cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) 50.
D) 10.

Multiple Choice

Q 53

Suppose in the short-run.The firm's short-run variable cost curve is
A)
B)
C)
D)

Multiple Choice

Q 54

Suppose a firm's short run total cost curve can be expressed as S .This firm's short-run marginal cost can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) 50.
D) 10.

Multiple Choice

Q 55

Suppose STC(Q) = 2Q + 20.Short run marginal cost is
A) indeterminate, since we don't know the level of .
B) 22
C) 20
D) 2

Multiple Choice

Q 56

Economies of ______ occur when a single firm can produce two products together for a lower total cost than two firms could produce those same products separately,one at each firm.
A) scale.
B) scope.
C) efficiency.
D) output.

Multiple Choice

Q 57

Economies of scope
A) are related to the average cost of producing a good when you double the scale of output.
B) are higher the more specialized a firm is in production.
C) means the rotation of the long-run total cost curve in a downward direction.
D) are a production characteristic in which the total cost of producing given quantities of two goods in the same firm is less than the total cost of producing those quantities in two single-product firm.

Multiple Choice

Q 58

The experience curve (also called the learning curve) shows the relationship between
A) average total cost and output.
B) average variable cost and returns to scale.
C) output and marginal cost.
D) average variable cost and cumulative production volume.

Multiple Choice

Q 59

The percentage change in average variable cost for every 1 percent increase in cumulative volume is referred to as
A) experience elasticity
B) experience curve
C) experience output
D) experience slope

Multiple Choice

Q 60

Economies of experience are exhibited when
A) it takes a professor a smaller quantity of time to prepare a lesson for a new class than for the first class he taught.
B) an older professor is more intelligent than a younger professor.
C) a professor goes into business as a consultant.
D) a professor reaches age 65 and begins to get a senior citizen discount.

Multiple Choice

Q 61

Let the average variable cost of production be $20 when 10 units are produced in the first year.In the second year,after the second 10 units have been produced,the average variable cost of production is $12.The slope of the experience curve for this firm is:
A) 85%
B) 60%
C) 175%
D) 12%

Multiple Choice

Q 62

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.Economies of Experience imply that Economies of Scale must exist.
II)Economies of Scale imply that Economies of Experience must exist.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

Multiple Choice

Q 63

A production process that involves two inputs,capital and labor,the constant elasticity long-run total cost function defined in linear relationship using logarithms is
A) log TC = log a + b log Q + c log w + d log r
B) log T = log t + c log Q + a log w + b log r
C) T = log t + c log Q + a log w + b log r
D) T = t + cQ + aw + br

Multiple Choice

Q 64

Let a firm's long run total cost be described by the constant elasticity total cost function.The coefficient of the log of output in this function is interpreted as the
A) average cost.
B) marginal cost.
C) output elasticity of total cost.
D) cost driver.

Multiple Choice

Q 65

Let a firm's long run total cost be described by the constant elasticity total cost function.The coefficients of the log of the wage and the log of capital in this function should
A) add up to one.
B) be negative.
C) be of opposite sign.
D) of indeterminate sign.

Multiple Choice

Q 66

The following is not a property of the translog cost function:
A) The constant elasticity cost function is a special case of it.
B) The average cost may be U-shaped.
C) It is a good approximation for almost any production function.
D) It only applies to long run total costs.

Multiple Choice

Q 67

The equation of translog cost function is
A)
B)
C)
D) T = t + cQ + aw + br

Multiple Choice

Q 68

A constant elasticity cost function
A) takes a form such as TC = a Q

^{b}w^{c}r^{d}and is useful in empirical work because it can be converted into a linear form using logarithms. B) takes a form such as , where L and K are chosen to minimize cost, and w and r are input prices. C) takes a form such as TC = a Q^{2}+ KL. D) is given by TC = AC x Q. Multiple Choice