# Quiz 8: Cost Curves

Business

Q 1Q 1

A long-run total cost curve
A) always has a constant slope.
B) is always upward sloping.
C) never has a constant slope.
D) is always downward sloping.

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Multiple Choice

B

Q 2Q 2

The cost of producing a good in a single-product firm is
A) additional cost
B) stand-alone cost
C) variable cost
D) average cost

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B

Q 3Q 3

An indivisible input is
A) an input that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
B) an important input that the firm cannot identify.
C) an input that can only be obtained in a certain minimum size.
D) an input the firm cannot stop using.

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Multiple Choice

C

Q 4Q 4

A firm's long-run average cost curve is comprised of
A) the minimum points of each of the firm's short-run average cost curves.
B) the lower envelope of the firm's short-run average cost curves.
C) the minimum points of each of the firm's short-run marginal cost curves.
D) the series of points where the short-run marginal cost curves intersect the short-run average cost curves.

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

When average cost is "u-shaped" (neither always rising or always falling),the marginal cost curve will
A) cross through (bisect) the average cost curve at its maximum.
B) not intersect with the average cost curve at all.
C) be a fixed distance above the average cost curve.
D) cross through (bisect) the average cost curve at its minimum.

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

The long-run total cost curve shows
A) the various combinations of capital and labor that will produce different levels of output at the same cost.
B) the various combinations of capital and labor that will produce the same level of output.
C) the minimum total cost to produce any level of output, holding input prices fixed, and choosing all inputs to minimize cost.
D) for a fixed level of capital, the minimum cost to produce a given level of output.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

A long-run total cost curve
A) must be equal to zero when the level of output is zero.
B) may be greater than or equal to zero when the level of output is zero.
C) must be decreasing when the level of output is zero.
D) will be equal to fixed cost, which is greater than zero, when the level of output is zero.

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Suppose for a particular production function,the cost-minimizing level of labor is and the cost-minimizing level of capital is .If and ,the long-run total cost curve is
A)
B)
C)
D)

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Suppose for a particular production function,the cost-minimizing levels of labor and capital are If and ,what is the equation for long-run total cost?
A)
B)
C)
D)

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

Which of the following is not an accurate specification of a firm's long-run total cost curve? FC stands for fixed cost,VC stands for variable cost,and AC stands for average cost,below.
A) , where FC = 0
B) TC=FC + VC, where FC > 0
C) , where L and K are chosen to minimize cost, and w and r are input prices.
D) TC = AC x Q

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

Suppose that a firm's production function can be specified as .Which of the following accurately describes this firm's long run total cost function?
A)
B)
C)
D)

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Assume that capital is measured along the vertical axis,and labor is measured along the horizontal axis.The firm has an initial isocost line called .Now suppose that the price of labor doubles,and the price of capital falls by one-half.Which statement accurately describes the movement of the isocost line from to ?
A) The slope of the isocost line becomes flatter.
B) The slope of the isocost line becomes steeper.
C) The slope of the isocost line is unchanged.
D) We cannot determine whether the slope becomes flatter or steeper.

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

The long-run total cost curve tends to
A) rotate upward when input prices fall.
B) rotate upward when input prices rise.
C) shift vertically upward by a fixed amount.
D) shift vertically downward by a fixed amount.

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Assume that capital is measured along the vertical axis,and labor is measured along the horizontal axis.The firm has an initial isocost line called .Now suppose that the price of labor trebles and the price of capital also trebles.Which statement accurately describes the movement of the isocost line from to ?
A) The slope of the isocost line becomes flatter.
B) The slope of the isocost line becomes steeper.
C) The slope of the isocost line is unchanged.
D) We cannot determine whether the slope becomes flatter or steeper.

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

When the price of all inputs increase by the same percentage,
A) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by a higher percentage if the firm's production technology exhibits decreasing returns to scale.
B) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by the same percentage.
C) the firm's total cost curve will rotate upward by a higher percentage if the firm's production technology exhibits increasing returns to scale.
D) the firm's total cost curve will remain unchanged since the cost-minimizing combination of inputs is unchanged.

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

The output elasticity of total cost is defined as
A) the percentage change in output per one percent change in total cost.
B) the percentage change in total cost per one percent change in output.
C) output divided by total cost.
D) total cost divided by output.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

An increase in the price of one input
A) will always rotate the long-run total cost curve upward.
B) may rotate the long-run total cost curve upward or may leave the long-run total cost unchanged.
C) could actually rotate the long-run total cost downward.
D) will have no effect on the long-run total cost curve as long as long as the firm is using positive amounts of both inputs.

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Cost driver is
A) a mathematical relationship that shows how total costs vary with the factors that influence total costs
B) a factor that influences or "drives" total or average costs
C) a factor that influences quality of output and prices of inputs
D) a cost level.

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

When the prices of all inputs increase by a proportionate amount,
A) the firm's total cost curve will remain unchanged since the cost-minimizing combination of inputs is unchanged.
B) the firm's total cost curve may rotate upward or may leave the long-run total cost curve unchanged.
C) will always rotate the long-run total cost curve upward.
D) could actually rotate the long-run total cost downward if the firm chooses to produce a lower level of output.

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.Marginal cost can be measured as the slope of the total cost curve.
II)Average total cost can be measured as the slope of the ray from the origin to the total cost curve.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 21Q 21

The relationship between the long-run total cost curve and the marginal and average cost curves is best described by which of the following statements?
A) The slope of the total cost curve from the origin to a point on the total cost curve is how you derive the marginal cost curve while the average cost is given by TC/Q.
B) Marginal cost is MC/Q while average cost is TC/Q.
C) Marginal cost is derived by dividing total cost by a constant as is average cost.
D) The slope of the total cost curve at each point is how you derive the marginal cost curve while the slope from the origin to a point on the total cost curve is how you derive the average cost curve.

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Multiple Choice

Q 22Q 22

Suppose that a firm's long-run total cost curve can be expressed as .This firm's long-run average total cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) .
D) .

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Multiple Choice

Q 23Q 23

For a firm,let total cost be TC(Q) = 160+10Q

^{2}and marginal cost be MC(Q) = 20Q.What is the minimum efficient scale for this firm? A) 0 B) 2 C) 4 D) indeterminateFree

Multiple Choice

Q 24Q 24

Suppose that a firm's total costs of production are 0 at an output of zero,10 at an output of 1,20 at an output of 2 units,30 at an output of three units,35 at an output of four units and 37 at an output of five units.At which number of units are marginal and average costs equal?
A) The first unit.
B) The fifth unit.
C) The third unit.
D) At the first, second and third units.

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Multiple Choice

Q 25Q 25

For a firm,let total cost be TC(Q) = 10Q

^{2}and marginal cost be MC(Q) = 20Q.Which of the following is an expression for the output elasticity of total cost? A) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 10Q. B) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 2Q. C) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 2. D) ϵ_{TC,Q}= 20Q.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 26Q 26

Suppose that a firm's total costs of production are 0 at an output of zero,10 at an output of 1,20 at an output of 2 units,30 at an output of three units,35 at an output of four units and 37 at an output of five units.At which number of units is average cost minimized?
A) The first unit.
B) The fifth unit.
C) The third unit.
D) At the first, second and third units.

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Multiple Choice

Q 27Q 27

Suppose that a firm's long-run total cost curve can be expressed as .This firm's long-run marginal cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) .
D) .

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Multiple Choice

Q 28Q 28

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.When marginal cost is rising,average total cost is rising.
II)When marginal cost is below average total cost,average total cost is falling.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 29Q 29

If average cost is constant for all levels of output,
A) the marginal cost curve will intersect the average cost at a single point, the minimum of average cost.
B) marginal cost will be equal to average cost for all levels of output.
C) marginal cost will be above average cost when average cost is increasing and marginal cost will be below average cost when average cost is decreasing.
D) marginal cost will have a region of diminishing marginal cost.

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Multiple Choice

Q 30Q 30

Marginal cost
A) is equal to average cost at the minimum point of the marginal cost curve.
B) is equal to average cost at the maximum point of the average cost curve.
C) is decreasing whenever average cost is decreasing.
D) is equal to average cost at the minimum point of the average cost curve.

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Multiple Choice

Q 31Q 31

When the production function is given by Q = L,which of the following statements is true?
A) TC = wQ

^{2}, L = Q^{2}and AC = w B) TC = w - Q, L = Q and AC = w C) TC = wQ, L = Q and AC = w D) TC = wQ, L = Q and AC = LFree

Multiple Choice

Q 32Q 32

Suppose a firm's total cost curve is given by the equation .The firm's marginal cost is .At what level of does the firm's average cost curve reach a minimum?
A) 100
B) 2
C) 10
D) 20

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Multiple Choice

Q 33Q 33

Suppose a firm produces 50,000 units of output,and determines that its marginal cost is $0.72 and its average total cost is $0.72.At this quantity of output,what is the slope of this firm's long run average total cost curve?
A) Upward-sloping.
B) Downward-sloping.
C) Horizontal.
D) Vertical.

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Multiple Choice

Q 34Q 34

Marginal cost is
A) the cost per unit of output.
B) the increase in total cost from producing an additional unit of output.
C) the same thing as total variable cost.
D) is only relevant in the long-run.

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Multiple Choice

Q 35Q 35

A firm notices that when it increases output beyond an initial level ,average total cost decreases.For this firm,the region of output beyond is characterized by
A) economies of scale.
B) diseconomies of scale.
C) constant economies of scale.
D) the minimum efficient scale.

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Multiple Choice

Q 36Q 36

Which of the following factors may explain diseconomies of scale?
A) Increasing returns to scale of inputs.
B) Specialization of labor.
C) Indivisible inputs.
D) Managerial diseconomies.

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Multiple Choice

Q 37Q 37

The output elasticity of total cost is equal to
A) the slope of the isocost line.
B) the ratio of marginal cost to average cost.
C) the ratio of average cost to marginal cost.
D) the ratio of average cost to total cost.

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Multiple Choice

Q 38Q 38

When the output elasticity of total cost is less than one,
A) Marginal cost is less than average cost and average cost decreases as Q increases.
B) Marginal cost is less than average cost and average cost increases as Q increases.
C) Marginal cost is greater than average cost and average cost decreases as Q increases.
D) Marginal cost is greater than average cost and average cost increases as Q increases.

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Multiple Choice

Q 39Q 39

Minimum efficient scale is
A) the lowest level of efficiency the firm can achieve.
B) the highest level of output the firm can achieve.
C) the lowest level of long-run average cost.
D) the smallest quantity at which the long-run average cost achieves a minimum.

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Multiple Choice

Q 40Q 40

Economies of scale exist when firms have
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) constant returns to scale.
C) decreasing returns to scale.
D) constant marginal cost.

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Multiple Choice

Q 41Q 41

Suppose a firm's production function can be specified as Q = 10KL.This firm's cost function exhibits
A) economies of scale
B) diseconomies of scale
C) neither diseconomies nor economies of scale.
D) economies of scale for output levels less than some level, Q

_{1}= 1/4, and diseconomies of scale thereafter.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 42Q 42

Suppose a firm's total cost curve can be written TC(Q) = Q - .5Q

^{2}+ Q^{3},with marginal cost MC(Q) = 1 - Q + 3Q^{2}.This cost function exhibits: A) economies of scale B) diseconomies of scale C) neither diseconomies nor economies of scale. D) economies of scale for output levels less than some level, Q_{1}= 1/4, and diseconomies of scale thereafter.Free

Multiple Choice

Q 43Q 43

Suppose the output elasticity of total cost is 1.5.This implies the average cost curve exhibits
A) increasing returns to scale.
B) economies of scale.
C) neither economies nor diseconomies of scale.
D) diseconomies of scale.

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Multiple Choice

Q 44Q 44

If the output elasticity of total cost is less than one,then the long-run average cost curve experiences
A) economies of scale.
B) diseconomies of scale.
C) decreasing returns to scale.
D) the minimum efficient scale.

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Multiple Choice

Q 45Q 45

Diseconomies of scale exist when
A) the firm's total cost falls as the level of output increases.
B) the firm's total cost increases as the level of output increases.
C) the firm's average cost decreases as the level of output decreases.
D) the firm's average cost decreases as the level of output increases.

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Multiple Choice

Q 46Q 46

Which of the following factors would not explain economies of scale?
A) Increasing returns to scale of inputs.
B) Specialization of labor.
C) Indivisible inputs.
D) Managerial diseconomies

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Multiple Choice

Q 47Q 47

Suppose a firm's production technology exhibits constant returns to scale.The firm's long-run average cost curve will
A) be U-shaped
B) exhibit economies of scale.
C) exhibit diseconomies of scale.
D) be a horizontal straight line.

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Multiple Choice

Q 48Q 48

The short-run total cost curve is the sum of two components
A) Short-run and long-run
B) Total variable cost curve and total fixed cost curve
C) Average cost curve and marginal cost curve
D) Economies of scale and economies of scope

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Multiple Choice

Q 49Q 49

The short-run total cost curve
A) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output.
B) shows the outputs that correspond to minimized total cost when at least one input is fixed.
C) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output when at least one input is fixed.
D) shows the minimized total cost of producing a given quantity of output when all inputs are fixed.

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Q 52Q 52

Suppose a firm's short run total cost curve can be expressed as S .This firm's short-run average total cost curve can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) 50.
D) 10.

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Multiple Choice

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Multiple Choice

Q 54Q 54

Suppose a firm's short run total cost curve can be expressed as S .This firm's short-run marginal cost can be expressed as
A) .
B) .
C) 50.
D) 10.

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Multiple Choice

Q 55Q 55

Suppose STC(Q) = 2Q + 20.Short run marginal cost is
A) indeterminate, since we don't know the level of .
B) 22
C) 20
D) 2

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Multiple Choice

Q 56Q 56

Economies of ______ occur when a single firm can produce two products together for a lower total cost than two firms could produce those same products separately,one at each firm.
A) scale.
B) scope.
C) efficiency.
D) output.

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Multiple Choice

Q 57Q 57

Economies of scope
A) are related to the average cost of producing a good when you double the scale of output.
B) are higher the more specialized a firm is in production.
C) means the rotation of the long-run total cost curve in a downward direction.
D) are a production characteristic in which the total cost of producing given quantities of two goods in the same firm is less than the total cost of producing those quantities in two single-product firm.

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Multiple Choice

Q 58Q 58

The experience curve (also called the learning curve) shows the relationship between
A) average total cost and output.
B) average variable cost and returns to scale.
C) output and marginal cost.
D) average variable cost and cumulative production volume.

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Multiple Choice

Q 59Q 59

The percentage change in average variable cost for every 1 percent increase in cumulative volume is referred to as
A) experience elasticity
B) experience curve
C) experience output
D) experience slope

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Multiple Choice

Q 60Q 60

Economies of experience are exhibited when
A) it takes a professor a smaller quantity of time to prepare a lesson for a new class than for the first class he taught.
B) an older professor is more intelligent than a younger professor.
C) a professor goes into business as a consultant.
D) a professor reaches age 65 and begins to get a senior citizen discount.

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Multiple Choice

Q 61Q 61

Let the average variable cost of production be $20 when 10 units are produced in the first year.In the second year,after the second 10 units have been produced,the average variable cost of production is $12.The slope of the experience curve for this firm is:
A) 85%
B) 60%
C) 175%
D) 12%

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Multiple Choice

Q 62Q 62

Identify the truthfulness of the following statements. I.Economies of Experience imply that Economies of Scale must exist.
II)Economies of Scale imply that Economies of Experience must exist.
A) Both I and II are true.
B) Both I and II are false.
C) I is true; II is false.
D) I is false; II is true.

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Multiple Choice

Q 63Q 63

A production process that involves two inputs,capital and labor,the constant elasticity long-run total cost function defined in linear relationship using logarithms is
A) log TC = log a + b log Q + c log w + d log r
B) log T = log t + c log Q + a log w + b log r
C) T = log t + c log Q + a log w + b log r
D) T = t + cQ + aw + br

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Multiple Choice

Q 64Q 64

Let a firm's long run total cost be described by the constant elasticity total cost function.The coefficient of the log of output in this function is interpreted as the
A) average cost.
B) marginal cost.
C) output elasticity of total cost.
D) cost driver.

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Multiple Choice

Q 65Q 65

Let a firm's long run total cost be described by the constant elasticity total cost function.The coefficients of the log of the wage and the log of capital in this function should
A) add up to one.
B) be negative.
C) be of opposite sign.
D) of indeterminate sign.

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Multiple Choice

Q 66Q 66

The following is not a property of the translog cost function:
A) The constant elasticity cost function is a special case of it.
B) The average cost may be U-shaped.
C) It is a good approximation for almost any production function.
D) It only applies to long run total costs.

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Multiple Choice

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Q 68Q 68

A constant elasticity cost function
A) takes a form such as TC = a Q

^{b}w^{c}r^{d}and is useful in empirical work because it can be converted into a linear form using logarithms. B) takes a form such as , where L and K are chosen to minimize cost, and w and r are input prices. C) takes a form such as TC = a Q^{2}+ KL. D) is given by TC = AC x Q.Free

Multiple Choice