# Quiz 24: Credit Risk

Business

Q 1Q 1

Suppose that the cumulative probability of a company defaulting by years one,two,three and four are 3%,6.5%,10%,and 14.5%,respectively.What is the probability of default in the fourth year conditional on no earlier default?
A) 4.5%
B) 5.0%
C) 5.5%
D) 6.0%

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Multiple Choice

B The unconditional PD for the fourth year is 14.5% minus 10% or 4.5%.The probability of no earlier default is 90%.The PD conditional on no earlier default is therefore 0.045/0.9=0.05 or 5%

Q 2Q 2

Which of the following is usually used to define the recovery rate of a bond?
A) The value of the bond immediately after default as a percent of its face value
B) The value of the bond immediately after default as a percent of the sum of the bond's face value and accrued interest
C) The amount finally realized by a bondholder as a percent of face value
D) The amount finally realized by a bondholder as a percent of the sum of the bond's face value and accrued interest

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Multiple Choice

A The recovery rate for a bond is usually defined as the value of the bond immediately after a default as a percent of its face value.This is in spite of the fact that the bond holder's claim in the event of a default in many jurisdictions is the face value plus accrued interest.

Q 3Q 3

Which of the following is true?
A) Risk neutral default probabilities are usually much lower than real world default probabilities
B) Risk neutral default probabilities are usually much higher than real world default probabilities
C) Risk neutral and real world probabilities must be close to each other if there are to be no arbitrage opportunities
D) Risk-neutral default probabilities cannot be calculated from CDS spreads

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Multiple Choice

B Risk neutral default probabilities are usually greater than real world default probabilities.

Q 4Q 4

A hazard rate is 1% per annum.What is the probability of a default during the first two years?
A) 2.00%
B) 2.02%
C) 1.98%
D) 1.96%

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Multiple Choice

Q 5Q 5

Which of the following is true
A) The default probability per year for a company always increases as we look further ahead
B) The default probability per year for a company always decreases as we look further ahead
C) Sometimes A is true and sometimes B is true
D) The default probability per year is roughly constant for most companies

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Multiple Choice

Q 6Q 6

Which of the following is true
A) Conditional default probabilities are at least as high as unconditional default probabilities
B) Conditional default probabilities are at least as low as unconditional default probabilities
C) Conditional default probabilities are sometimes lower and sometimes higher than unconditional default probabilities.
D) There is no difference between conditional and unconditional default probabilities because a company can only default once.

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Multiple Choice

Q 7Q 7

If a company's five year credit spread is 200 basis points and the recovery rate in the event of a default is estimated to be 20% what is the average hazard rate per year over the five years
A) 0.4%
B) 1.2%
C) 1.8%
D) 2.5%

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Multiple Choice

Q 8Q 8

Which of the following is true
A) Recovery rates are lower for investment grade companies
B) Recovery rates are higher for non-investment grade companies
C) Recovery rates are negatively correlated with default rates
D) Recovery rates are positively correlated with default rates

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Multiple Choice

Q 9Q 9

Which of the following is true
A) The asset swap spread is a measure of excess of the bond yield over the OIS rate
B) The asset swap spread is a measure of excess of the bond yield over the LIBOR/swap rate
C) An asset swap exchanges the actual return on the asset for LIBOR plus a spread
D) None of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 10Q 10

To be investment grade,a company has to have a credit rating of
A) AA or better
B) A or better
C) BBB or better
D) BB or better

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Multiple Choice

Q 11Q 11

In the Gaussian copula model which of the following is true
A) The time to default for a company is assumed to be normally distributed.
B) The time to default for a company is assumed to be lognormally distributed
C) The time to default for a company is transformed to a normal distribution
D) The time to default for a company is transformed to a lognormal distribution

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Multiple Choice

Q 12Q 12

Which of the following is true
A) Netting always leads to a reduction in a company's exposure to a counterparty
B) Netting always leads to a company's exposure to a counterparty either staying the same or going down
C) Netting always increases a company's exposure to a counterparty
D) Netting can increase or reduce the exposure

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Multiple Choice

Q 13Q 13

Which of the following is true
A) Downgrade triggers are particularly valuable if they are widely used by a company's counterparties
B) Downgrade triggers become less valuable if they are widely used by a company's counterparties
C) Downgrade triggers are useless because their impact is always anticipated by the market
D) Downgrade triggers are a two-edged sword. If company A has a downgrade trigger for company B then company B has a downgrade trigger for company A

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Multiple Choice

Q 14Q 14

Which of the following is true of Merton's model:
A) The equity is a call option on the assets
B) The assets are a call option on the debt
C) The debt is a call option on the equity
D) The equity is a call option on the debt

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Multiple Choice

Q 15Q 15

Which of the following is true of Merton's model:
A) The strike price is the market value of the debt
B) The strike price is the market value of the equity
C) The strike price is the book value of the equity
D) The strike price is the face value of the debt

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Multiple Choice

Q 16Q 16

Which of the following is true
A) The Gaussian copula model assumes that the defaults of different companies are independent.
B) The Gaussian copula model assumes that defaults, conditional on the value of a factor , are independent.
C) The Gaussian copula model assumes that the number of defaults is normally distributed.
D) None of the above.

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Multiple Choice

Q 17Q 17

A derivatives dealer has a single transaction with a company which is a long position in a five-year option.The Black-Scholes-Merton value of the option is $6.Suppose that the credit spread on five-year bonds issued by the company is 100 basis points.What is the dealer's CVA per option purchased from the counterparty?
A) $0.19
B) $1.19
C) $0.29
D) $1.29

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Multiple Choice

Q 18Q 18

Which of the following is true
A) A derivative dealer's CVA is the counterparty's DVA and vice versa
B) Collateral posted by the counterparty reduces CVA
C) Collateral posted by the dealer reduces DVA
D) All of the above

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Multiple Choice

Q 19Q 19

The credit spreads for a counterparty for 5 and 6 years are 2% and 2.2% respectively.The recovery rate is 60%.What is closest to the unconditional default probability for the sixth year?
A) 0.04
B) 0.05
C) 0.06
D) 0.07

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Multiple Choice

Q 20Q 20

Which of the following is true of Creditmetrics when it is used to calculate credit VaR
A) Creditmetrics takes defaults but not downgrades into account
B) Creditmetrics takes downgrades but not defaults into account
C) Creditmetrics considers neither defaults nor downgrades
D) Creditmetrics considers both defaults and downgrades

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Multiple Choice