Regression is the return to an earlier developmental stage as a means of avoiding unpleasant or unacceptable thoughts.The adult patient recently lost a limb and reverted to bedwetting as a coping mechanism.Compensation refers to a strategy that uses a personal strength to counterbalance a weakness or a feeling of inadequacy.Refusing to accept a fact or reality as truth is termed denial.Rationalization is the act of suggesting a different explanation for one that is painful,negative,or unacceptable.
Suppression is the conscious decision to conceal unacceptable or painful thoughts.The patient refuses to talk about the rape possibly because of the emotional and physical pain associated with the act.Sublimation is the rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities.Displacement is an unconscious defense mechanism used to avoid conflict and anxiety by transferring emotions from one object to another object that produces less anxiety.Rationalization is the act of suggesting a different explanation for one that is painful,negative,or unacceptable.
The elements of the communication process include a referent (i.e. ,event or thought initiating the communication),a sender (i.e. ,person who initiates and encodes the communication),a receiver (i.e. ,person who receives and decodes,or interprets,the communication),the message (i.e. ,information that is communicated),the channel (i.e. ,method of communication),and feedback (i.e.response of the receiver).