In the context of motivation, initiation of effort is concerned with the choices that people make in deciding where to put forth effort in their jobs.
Which of the following steps is a manager most likely to take if he or she is using goal-setting theory as a motivational tool for his or her employees?
A) Making sure workers truly accept organizational goals
B) Refraining from reinforcing wrong behaviors
C) Refraining from providing frequent, performance-specific feedback
D) Reducing employees' inputs
McClelland's Learned Needs Theory suggests that people are motivated by physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Alderfer suggests that people are just as likely to move down Maslow's needs hierarchy as up.