Cornerstones of Cost Management Study Set 4

Business

Quiz 1 :

Introduction to Cost Management

Quiz 1 :

Introduction to Cost Management

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Customer Orientation, Quality, Time-Based Competition Hepworth Communications produces cell phones. One of the four major electronic components is produced internally. The other three components are purchased from external suppliers. The electronic components and other parts are assembled (by the Assembly Department) and then tested (by the Testing Department). Any units that fail the test are sent to the Rework Department where the unit is taken apart and the failed component is replaced. Data from the Testing Department reveal that the internally produced component (made by the Component Department) is the most frequent cause of product failure. One out of every 50 phones fails because of a faulty internally produced component. Barry Norton is the manager of the Component Department. In a recent performance evaluation, the plant manager told Barry that he needed to be more sensitive to the needs of the department's customers. This charge puzzled Barry somewhat-after all, the component is not sold to anyone but is used in producing the plant's cell phones. Required: 1. Who are Barry's customers? 2. Explain the plant manager's charge to Barry to be more sensitive to his customers. Explain also how this increased sensitivity could improve the company's time-based competitive ability. 3. What role would cost management play in helping Barry be more sensitive to his customers?
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1.Barry's customers are the people who belong to the departments where the internal electronic component is produced.
2.The plant manager's charge to Barry to be more sensitive to his customers means that it is necessary to take care of all the needs of the department's customers. Once the needs of all the customers are satisfied soon there will be a very good impact on the production.
The increased sensitivity could improve the company's time-based competitive ability by producing the electronic components with in time.
3.The cost management plays a vital role in helping Barry to be more sensitive to his customers:
• Making the correct decisions from the financial information
• Forecasting the future demand
• Cost management helps Barry in Global competition
• Cost management is an essential instrument in the growth of service sector

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Ethical Issues John Biggs and Patty Jorgenson are both cost accounting managers for a manufacturing division. During lunch yesterday, Patty told John that she was planning on quitting her job in three months because she had accepted a position as controller of a small company in a neighboring state. The starting date was timed to coincide with the retirement of the current controller. Patty was excited because it allowed her to live near her family. Today, the divisional controller took John to lunch and informed him that he was taking a position at headquarters and that he had recommended that Patty be promoted to his position. He indicated to John that it was a close call between him and Patty and that he wanted to let John know personally about the decision before it was announced officially. Required: What should John do? Describe how you would deal with his ethical dilemma (considering the IMA code of ethics in your response).
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Prepare a letter:
September 27, 2013
Dear Miss Lily,
It is an absolute pleasure to know that you are considering a course in either financial accounting or cost management as part of your interest in working for a hotel industry, here are some inputs with respect to the cost management and financial management role in an organization.
Cost management provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future and financial accounting is used to prepare accounting information for people outside the organization and not involved in the day-to-day running of the company.
Financial accounting:
The role of financial accounting at hotel is mainly to provide information of financial results mainly to external users.
The function of financial accountant does not involve in providing information for day to day activities. The financial accountant outputs are used by shareholders, investors, suppliers and creditors.
As a financial accountant, one has to represent the company to the outsiders and record financial success during the period and financial results at the end. The frequency of information is needed at annual level when it comes to financial accounting.
Cost management:
The role of cost manager is providing necessary information on a day to day basis and supporting in planning, controlling and decision making activities. The reports generated by cost manager is used internally i.e. manager, customer, auditors and suppliers.
Compared to financial accountant, cost manager role is wider as he is the one who involves in each and every cost related aspects internally which forms as a basis for planning and decision making.
Thanks,
Shilpa.

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Ethical Issues Emily Henson, controller of an oil exploration division, has just been approached by Tim Wilson, the divisional manager. Tim told Emily that the projected quarterly profits were unacceptable and that expenses need to be reduced. He suggested that a clean and easy way to reduce expenses is to assign the exploration and drilling costs of four dry holes to those of two successful holes. By doing so, the costs could be capitalized and not expensed, reducing the costs that need to be recognized for the quarter. He further argued that the treatment is reasonable because the exploration and drilling all occurred in the same field; thus, the unsuccessful efforts really were the costs of identifying the successful holes. "Besides," he argued, "even if the treatment is wrong, it can be corrected in the annual financial statements. Next quarter's revenues will be more and can absorb any reversal without causing any severe damage to that quarter's profits. It's this quarter's profits that need some help." Emily was uncomfortable with the request because generally accepted accounting principles do not sanction the type of accounting measures proposed by Tim. Required: 1. Using the code of ethics for management accountants, recommend the approach that Emily should take. 2. Suppose Tim insists that his suggested accounting treatment be implemented. What should Emily do?
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RID: 2980 | 01/10/2013 Discuss ethical dilemma:
John and patty are both cost accounting managers and both are at the same position, John was informed by divisional controller that he had recommended patty to be promoted to controller position and John as well know what exist in patty's mind that patty has accepted a position as controller in another organization.
John now ended up in ethical dilemma; he should follow the ethics and maintain confidentiality. John should not inform patty's plan to the divisional manager though disclosing this information is beneficial to John, as John could have the chances of getting promoted instead of patty.
Considering IMA code of ethics John should leave the response to patty itself and allow her to take her own decision, if she still go for changing her job then John will be promoted.

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Ethical Issues Silverado, Inc., is a closely held brokerage firm that has been very successful over the past five years, consistently providing most members of the top management group with 50 percent bonuses. In addition, both the chief financial officer and the chief executive officer have received 100 percent bonuses. Silverado expects this trend to continue. Recently, the top management group of Silverado, which holds 40 percent of the outstanding shares of common stock, has learned that a major corporation is interested in acquiring Silverado. Silverado's management is concerned that this corporation may make an attractive offer to the other shareholders and that management would be unable to prevent the takeover. If the acquisition occurs, this executive group is uncertain about continued employment in the new corporate structure. As a consequence, the management group is considering changes to several accounting policies and practices that, although not in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, would make the company a less attractive acquisition. Management has told Larry Stewart, Silverado's controller, to implement some of these changes. Stewart has also been informed that Silverado's management does not intend to disclose these changes at once to anyone outside the immediate top management group. Required: Using the code of ethics for management accountants, evaluate the changes that Silverado's management is considering, and discuss the specific steps that Larry Stewart should take to resolve the situation. ( CMA adapted )
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What is the role of cost management with respect to the objective of continuous improvement?
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The controller should be a member of the top management staff. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain.
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What is cost management, and how does it differ from management accounting and cost accounting?
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Behavioral Impact of Cost Information Bill Christensen, the production manager, was grumbling about the new quality cost system the plant controller wanted to put into place. "If we start trying to track every bit of spoiled material, we'll never get any work done. Everybody knows when they ruin something. Why bother to keep track? This is a waste of time. Besides, this isn't the first time scrap reduction has been emphasized. You tell my workers to reduce scrap, and I'll guarantee it will go away, but not in the way you would like." Required: 1. Why do you suppose that the controller wants a written record of spoiled material? If "everybody knows" what the spoilage rate is, what benefits can come from keeping a written record? 2. Now consider Bill Christensen's position. In what way(s) could he be correct? What did he mean by his remark concerning scrap reduction? Can this be avoided? Explain.
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Financial Accounting versus Cost Management Lily Shultz is a junior majoring in hotel and restaurant management. She wants to work for a large hotel chain with the goal of eventually managing a hotel. She is considering the possibility of taking a course in either financial accounting or cost management. Before choosing, however, she has asked you to provide her with some information about the advantages that each course offers. Required: Prepare a letter advising Lily about the differences and similarities between financial accounting and cost management. Describe the advantages each might offer the manager of a hotel.
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What is the difference between a line position and a staff position?
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Identifying Cost Management Information System Objectives Consider the following actions associated with a cost management information system: a. Eliminating a non-value-added activity b. Determining how much it costs to perform a heart transplant c. Calculating the cost of inspecting components from an outside supplier d. Developing and using a budgeted income statement for a division e. Eliminating the need to inspect by improving the quality of products and processes f. Determining whether selling a product at split-off is more profitable than processing it further before selling it g. Calculating the cost of producing an e-book h. Using a trend report on quality costs to assess the effectiveness of a quality improvement program i. Determining the units that must be sold to break even j. Calculating the cost to perform a tooth extraction k. Determining the total cost of moving goods l. Using JIT purchasing and manufacturing to significantly reduce inventories m. Using unit product cost to help develop a bid price Required: Classify the above actions as being associated with one of the following objectives of a cost management information system: 1. Costing of products, services, and other objects of interest 2. Planning and control 3. Decision making
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Managerial Uses of Accounting Information Each of the following scenarios requires the use of accounting information to carry out one or more of the following managerial activities: (1) planning, (2) control and evaluation, (3) continuous improvement, or (4) decision making. a. MANAGER : At the last board meeting, we established an objective of earning an after-tax profit equal to 20 percent of sales. I need to know the revenue that we need to earn in order to meet this objective, given that we have $250,000 to spend on the promotional campaign. Once I have estimated sales in units, we then need to outline a promotional campaign that conforms to our budget and that will take us where we want to be. However, to compute the targeted sales revenue, I need to know the unit sales price, the unit variable cost, and the associated fixed production and support costs. I also need to know the tax rate. b. MANAGER : We have problems with our procurement process. Our accounts payable depart-ment is spending 80 percent of its time resolving discrepancies between the purchase order, receiving order, and supplier's invoice. Incorrect part numbers on the purchase orders, incorrect quantities ordered, and wrong parts sent (or the incorrect quantity) are just a few examples of sources of discrepancies. A complete redesign of the process has been suggested, which will allow us to eliminate virtually all of the errors and, at the same time, significantly reduce the number of clerks needed in purchasing, receiving, and accounts payable. This redesign promises to significantly reduce costs, decrease lead time, and increase customer satisfaction. c. MANAGER : This overhead cost report indicates that we have spent significantly more on inspection, purchasing, and production than was budgeted. An investigation has revealed that the source of the problem is faulty components from suppliers. A supplier evaluation has revealed that by selecting five suppliers with the best quality records (out of 15 currently used), the number of defective components will be dramatically reduced, thus producing significant overhead savings by reducing the demand for inspections, reordering, and rework. d. MANAGER : A large local firm has approached me and has offered to sell us one of the components used in our small engines-a component that we are currently producing internally. I need to know costs that we would avoid if this component is purchased so that I can assess the economic merits of this offer. e. MANAGER : Currently, our deluxe lawn mower is losing money. We need to increase profits. I would like to know how much our profits would be if we reduce our variable costs by $50 per mower while maintaining our current sales volume. Also, marketing claims that if we increase advertising expenditures by $1,000,000 and cut prices by 15 percent, we can increase the number of mowers sold by 25 percent. I would like to know which approach offers the most profit, or if a combination of the approaches may be best. f. MANAGER : We are implementing a major quality improvement program. We will be increasing the investment in prevention and detection activities with the expectation of driving down both internal and external failure costs. I expect to see trend reports for all categories of quality costs. I want to see if improving quality really does reduce costs and improve profitability. g. MANAGER : Our engineering design department has proposed a new design for our product. The new design promises to reduce post-purchase costs and, as a consequence, increase market share. I need to know the cost of producing this new design because it uses some new components and requires some different manufacturing processes. I would then like to have a projected income statement based on the new market share and new production costs. The planned selling price will be the same, or maybe even 10 percent lower. Projec-tions based on the two price scenarios would be needed. h. MANAGER : My engineers have said that by redesigning our two main production proc-esses, we can reduce move time by 90 percent and wait time by 85 percent. This would decrease cycle time and virtually eliminate the need to carry finished goods inventories. On- time deliveries would also increase dramatically. This would produce cost savings of nearly $20,000,000 per year. Market share and revenues would also increase. Required: 1. Describe each of the four managerial responsibilities. 2. Identify the managerial activity or activities applicable for each scenario, and indicate the role of accounting information in the activity.
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Describe the connection among planning, controlling, and feedback.
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What is the role of the controller in an organization? Describe some of the activities over which he or she has control.
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What is a flexible manufacturing system?
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What role do performance reports play with respect to the control function?
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Financial Accounting and Cost Management Classify each of the following actions as either being associated with the financial accounting information system (FS) or the cost management information system (CMS): a. Determining the total compensation of the CEO of a public company b. Issuing a quarterly earnings report c. Determining the unit product cost using TDABC d. Calculating the number of units that must be sold to break even e. Preparing a required report for the SEC f. Preparing a sales budget g. Using cost and revenue information to decide whether to keep, or drop, a product line h. Preparing an annual statement of financial position that conforms to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) i. Using cost and revenue information to decide whether to invest in a new production system or not j. Reducing costs by improving the overall quality of a product k. Using a debt-equity ratio and liquidity ratios from a balance sheet to assess the likelihood of bankruptcy l. Using a public company's financial statements to decide whether or not to buy its stock
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Managerial Uses of Accounting Information Each of the following scenarios requires the use of accounting information to carry out one or more of the following managerial activities: (1) planning, (2) control and evaluation, (3) continuous improvement, or (4) decision making. a. MANAGER : At the last board meeting, we established an objective of earning an after-tax profit equal to 20 percent of sales. I need to know the revenue that we need to earn in order to meet this objective, given that we have $250,000 to spend on the promotional campaign. Once I have estimated sales in units, we then need to outline a promotional campaign that conforms to our budget and that will take us where we want to be. However, to compute the targeted sales revenue, I need to know the unit sales price, the unit variable cost, and the associated fixed production and support costs. I also need to know the tax rate. b. MANAGER : We have problems with our procurement process. Our accounts payable department is spending 80 percent of its time resolving discrepancies between the purchase order, receiving order, and supplier's invoice. Incorrect part numbers on the purchase orders, incorrect quantities ordered, and wrong parts sent (or the incorrect quantity) are just a few examples of sources of discrepancies. A complete redesign of the process has been suggested, which will allow us to eliminate virtually all of the errors and, at the same time, significantly reduce the number of clerks needed in purchasing, receiving, and accounts payable. This redesign promises to significantly reduce costs, decrease lead time, and increase customer satisfaction. c. MANAGER : This overhead cost report indicates that we have spent significantly more on inspection, purchasing, and production than was budgeted. An investigation has revealed that the source of the problem is faulty components from suppliers. A supplier evaluation has revealed that by selecting five suppliers with the best quality records (out of 15 currently used), the number of defective components will be dramatically reduced, thus producing significant overhead savings by reducing the demand for inspections, reordering, and rework. d. MANAGER : A large local firm has approached me and has offered to sell us one of the components used in our small engines-a component that we are currently producing internally. I need to know costs that we would avoid if this component is purchased so that I can assess the economic merits of this offer. e. MANAGER : Currently, our deluxe lawn mower is losing money. We need to increase profits. I would like to know how much our profits would be if we reduce our variable costs by $50 per mower while maintaining our current sales volume. Also, marketing claims that if we increase advertising expenditures by $1,000,000 and cut prices by 15 percent, we can increase the number of mowers sold by 25 percent. I would like to know which approach offers the most profit, or if a combination of the approaches may be best. f. MANAGER : We are implementing a major quality improvement program. We will be increasing the investment in prevention and detection activities with the expectation of driving down both internal and external failure costs. I expect to see trend reports for all categories of quality costs. I want to see if improving quality really does reduce costs and improve profitability. g. MANAGER : Our engineering design department has proposed a new design for our product. The new design promises to reduce post-purchase costs and, as a consequence, increase market share. I need to know the cost of producing this new design because it uses some new components and requires some different manufacturing processes. I would then like to have a projected income statement based on the new market share and new production costs. The planned selling price will be the same, or maybe even 10 percent lower. Projections based on the two price scenarios would be needed. h. MANAGER : My engineers have said that by redesigning our two main production processes, we can reduce move time by 90 percent and wait time by 85 percent. This would decrease cycle time and virtually eliminate the need to carry finished goods inventories. On time deliveries would also increase dramatically. This would produce cost savings of nearly $20,000,000 per year. Market share and revenues would also increase. Required: 1. Describe each of the four managerial responsibilities. 2. Identify the managerial activity or activities applicable for each scenario, and indicate the role of accounting information in the activity.
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Identify and discuss the factors that are affecting the focus and practice of cost management.
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How do cost management and financial accounting differ?
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